Gastric & Duodenal Disorders Prep U

question

A nurse is caring for a client who is undergoing a diagnostic workup for a suspected GI problem. The client reports gnawing epigastric pain following meals and heartburn. The nurse suspects the client has:
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peptic ulcer disease. Peptic ulcer disease is characterized by dull, gnawing pain in the midepigastrium or the back that worsens with eating. Ulcerative colitis is characterized by exacerbations and remissions of severe bloody diarrhea. Appendicitis is characterized by epigastric or umbilical pain along with nausea, vomiting, and low-grade fever. Pain caused by diverticulitis is in the left lower quadrant and has a moderate onset. It’s accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fever, and chills.
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A client is admitted to the health care facility with a diagnosis of a bleeding gastric ulcer. The nurse expects this client’s stools to be:
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black and tarry. Black, tarry stools are a sign of bleeding high in the GI tract, as from a gastric ulcer, and result from the action of digestive enzymes on the blood. Vomitus associated with upper GI tract bleeding commonly is described as coffee-ground-like. Clay-colored stools are associated with biliary obstruction. Bright red stools indicate lower GI tract bleeding.
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A nurse is teaching a group of middle-aged men about peptic ulcers. When discussing risk factors for peptic ulcers, the nurse should mention:
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alcohol abuse and smoking. The nurse should mention that risk factors for peptic (gastric and duodenal) ulcers include alcohol abuse, smoking, and stress. A sedentary lifestyle and a history of hemorrhoids aren’t risk factors for peptic ulcers. Chronic renal failure, not acute renal failure, is associated with duodenal ulcers.
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Which medication classification represents a proton (gastric acid) pump inhibitor?
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Omeprazole Omeprazole decreases gastric acid by slowing the hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphatase pump on the surface of the parietal cells. Sucralfate is a cytoprotective drug. Famotidine is a histamine-2 receptor antagonist. Metronidazole is an antibiotic, specifically an amebicide.
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Which is a true statement regarding gastric cancer?
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Most clients are asymptomatic during the early stage of the disease. Most clients are asymptomatic during the early stage of the disease. Men have a higher incidence of gastric cancer. The prognosis is poor because the diagnosis is usually made late because most clients are asymptomatic during the early stage. Most cases of gastric cancer are discovered only after local invasion has advanced or metastases are present.
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A nurse is providing care for a client recovering from gastric bypass surgery. During assessment, the client exhibits pallor, perspiration, palpitations, headache, and feelings of warmth, dizziness, and drowsiness. The client reports eating 90 minutes ago. The nurse suspects:
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Vasomotor symptoms associated with dumping syndrome Early manifestations of dumping syndrome occur 15 to 30 minutes after eating. Signs and symptoms include vertigo, tachycardia, syncope, sweating, pallor, palpitations, diarrhea, nausea, and the desire to lie down. Dehiscence of the surgical wound is characterized by pain and a pulling or popping feeling at the surgical site. Peritonitis presents with a rigid, boardlike abdomen, tenderness, and fever. The client’s signs and symptoms aren’t a normal reaction to surgery.
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The nurse determines that teaching for the client with peptic ulcer disease has been effective when the client states:
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“I have learned some relaxation strategies that decrease my stress.” The nurse assists the client to identify stressful or exhausting situations. A hectic lifestyle and an irregular schedule may aggravate symptoms and interfere with regular meals taken in relaxed settings along with the regular administration of medications. The client may benefit from regular rest periods during the day, at least during the acute phase of the disease. Biofeedback, hypnosis, behavior modification, massage, or acupuncture may be helpful.
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When caring for a client with an acute exacerbation of a peptic ulcer, the nurse finds the client doubled up in bed with severe pain to his right shoulder. The intial appropriate action by the nurse is to
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Assess the client’s abdomen and vital signs. Signs and symptoms of perforation includes sudden, severe upper abdominal pain (persisting and increasing in intensity); pain may be referred to the shoulders, especially the right shoulder, because of irritation of the phrenic nerve in the diaphragm. The nurse should assess the vital signs and abdomen prior to notifying the physician. Irrigation of the NG tube should not be performed because the additional fluid may be spilled into the peritoneal cavity, and the client should be placed in a position of comfort, usually on the side with the head slightly elevated.
question

A nurse is caring for a client who has had extensive abdominal surgery and is in critical condition. The nurse notes that the complete blood count shows an 8 G/dL hemoglobin and a 30% hematocrit. Dextrose 5% in half-normal saline solution is infusing through a triple lumen central catheter at 125 mL/hr. The physician orders include the following: Gentamicin 80 mg IV piggyback in 50 mL D5W over 30 minutes Zantac 50 mg IV piggyback in 50 mL D5W over 30 minutes One unit of 250 mL of PRBCs (packed red blood cells) over 3 hours Flush the nasogastric tube with 30 mL normal saline every 2 hours.
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1470 Regular IV at 125 mL x 8 hours = 1000 mL. Gentanicin = 50 mL. Zantac = 50 mL. PRBCs = 250 mL. NG flushes 30 mL x 4 = 120 mL. TOTAL = 1470 mL.
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A client is prescribed tetracycline to treat peptic ulcer disease. Which of the following instructions would the nurse give the client?
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“Be sure to wear sunscreen while taking this medicine.” Tetracycline may cause a photosensitivity reaction in clients. The nurse should caution the client to use sunscreen when taking this drug. Dairy products can reduce the effectiveness of tetracycline, so the nurse should not advise him or her to take the medication with milk. A metallic taste accompanies administration of metronidazole (Flagyl). Administration of tetracycline does not necessitate driving restrictions.
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Which of the following clients is at highest risk for peptic ulcer disease?
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Client with blood type O Clients with blood type O are more susceptible to peptic ulcers than those with blood types A, B, and AB.
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A nurse is teaching a client with gastritis about the need to avoid the intake of caffeinated beverages. The client asks why this is so important. Which of the following explanations from the nurse would be most accurate?
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“Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system and thus gastric activity and secretions, which need to be minimized to promote recovery.” Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that increases gastric activity and pepsin secretion. Caffeine is a diuretic that causes decreased fluid volume and potential dehydration. It does not lead to hemorrhage and does not interfere with absorption of vitamin B12.
question

A client with severe peptic ulcer disease has undergone surgery and is several hours postoperative. During assessment, the nurse notes that the client has developed cool skin, tachycardia, and labored breathing; the client also appears to be confused. Which of the following complications has the client most likely developed?
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Hemorrhage Signs of hemorrhage following surgery include cool skin, confusion, increased heart rate, labored breathing, and blood in the stool. Signs of penetration and perforation are severe abdominal pain, rigid and tender abdomen, vomiting, elevated temperature, and increased heart rate. Indicators of pyloric obstruction are nausea, vomiting, distended abdomen, and abdominal pain.
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A nursing student is caring for a client with gastritis. Which of the following would the student recognize as a common cause of gastritis? Choose all that apply.
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Ingestion of strong acids Irritating foods Overuse of aspirin Acute gastritis is often caused by dietary indiscretion—a person eats food that is irritating, too highly seasoned, or contaminated with disease-causing microorganisms. Other causes of acute gastritis include overuse of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol intake, bile reflux, and radiation therapy. A more severe form of acute gastritis is caused by the ingestion of strong acid or alkali, which may cause the mucosa to become gangrenous or to perforate. A DASH diet is an accronym for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, which would not cause gastritis. Participation in competitive sports also would not cause gastritis.
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Which of the following is the most common complication associated with peptic ulcer?
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Hemorrhage Hemorrhage, the most common complication, occurs in 28% to 59% of patients with peptic ulcers. Vomiting, elevated temperature, and abdominal pain are not the most common complications of a peptic ulcer.
question

Morbid obesity is defined as being how many pounds over the person’s ideal body weight?
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100 Morbid obesity is a term applied to people who are more than two times their ideal body weight or whose body weight index (BMI) exceeds 30 kg/m2. Another definition of morbid obesity is body weight that is more than 100 pounds greater than the ideal body weight.
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Which of the following appears to be a significant factor in the development of gastric cancer?
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Diet Diet seems to be a significant factor: a diet high in smoked, salted, or pickled foods and low in fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of gastric cancer. The typical patient with gastric cancer is between 50 and 70 years of age. Men have a higher incidence than women. Native Americans, Hispanic Americans, and African Americans are twice as likely as Caucasian Americans to develop gastric cancer.
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The nurse is conducting a community education class on gastritis. The nurse includes that chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori is implicated in which disease/condition?
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Peptic ulcers Chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori is implicated in the development of peptic ulcers. Chronic gastritis is sometimes associated with autoimmune disease, such as pernicious anemia, but not as a cause of the anemia. Chronic gastritis is not implicated in system infections and/or colostomies.
question

The nurse is assessing a client with an ulcer for signs and symptoms of hemorrhage. The nurse interprets which condition as a sign/symptom of possible hemorrhage?
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Hematemesis The nurse interprets hematemesis as a sign/symptom of possible hemorrhage from the ulcer. Other signs that can indicate hemorrhage include tachycardia, hypotension, and oliguria/anuria.
question

A patient taking metronidazole (Flagyl) for the treatment of H. pylori states that the medication is causing nausea. What suggestion can the nurse provide to the patient to alleviate this problem?
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Take the medication with meals to decrease the nausea. Metronidazole (Flagyl) should be administered with meals to decrease GI upset.
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Which is a true statement regarding the nursing considerations in administration of metronidazole?
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It leaves a metallic taste in the mouth. Metronidazole leaves a metallic taste in the mouth. It may cause anorexia and should be given with meals to decrease gastrointestinal upset. Metronidazole increases the blood-thinning effects of warfarin.
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A client weighs 215 lbs and is 5′ 8″ tall. The nurse would calculate this client’s body mass index (BMI) as which of the following?
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32.7 Using the formula for BMI, the client’s weight in pounds (215) is divided by the height in inches squared (68 inches squared) and then multiplied by 703. The result would be 32.7.
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The Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) consists of severe peptic ulcers, extreme gastric hyperacidity, and gastrin-secreting benign or malignant tumors of the pancreas. The nurse recognizes that an agent that is used to decrease bleeding and decrease gastric acid secretions is
answer

octreotide (Sandostatin) For patients with ZES, hypersecretion of acid may be controlled with high doses of H2 receptor antagonists. These clients may require twice the normal dose, and dosages usually need to be increased with prolonged use. Octreotide (Sandostatin), a medication that suppresses gastrin levels, also may be prescribed.
question

A client returns from the operating room after receiving extensive abdominal surgery. He has 1,000 mL of lactated Ringer’s solution infusing via a central line. The physician orders the IV fluid to be infused at 125 mL/hr plus the total output of the previous hour. The drip factor of the tubing is 15 gtt/min, and the output for the previous hour was 75 mL via Foley catheter, 50 mL via nasogastric tube, and 10 mL via Jackson Pratt tube. For how many drops per mintue should the nurse set the IV flow rate to deliver the correct amount of fluid? Enter the correct number ONLY.
answer

65 First, calculate the volume to be infused (in milliliters): 75 mL + 50 mL + 10 mL = 135 mL total output for the previous hour; 135 mL + 125 mL ordered as a constant flow = 260 mL to be infused over the next hour Next use the formula Volume to be infused/Total minutes to be infused x Drip factor = Drops per min In this case, 260 mL divided by 60 min x 15 gtt/min = 65 gtt/min
question

A client reports to the clinic, stating that she rapidly developed headache, abdominal pain, nausea, hiccuping, and fatigue about 2 hours ago. For dinner, she ate buffalo chicken wings and beer. Which of the following medical conditions is most consistent with the client’s presenting problems?
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Acute gastritis The client with acute gastritis may have a rapid onset of symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, headache, lassitude, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, and hiccuping, which can last from a few hours to a few days. Acute gastritis is often caused by dietary indiscretion—a person eats food that is irritating, too highly seasoned, or contaminated with disease-causing microorganisms.
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A client experienced extensive burns and 72 hours later has developed an ulcer. Which of the following types of ulcer is most likely in this client?
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Curling’s ulcer Curling’s ulcer is frequently observed about 72 hours after extensive burns and involves the antrum of the stomach or duodenum.
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A client is recovering from gastric surgery. Toward what goal should the nurse progress the client’s enteral intake?
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Six small meals daily with 120 mL fluid between meals After the return of bowel sounds and removal of the nasogastric tube, the nurse may give fluids, followed by food in small portions. Foods are gradually added until the client can eat six small meals a day and drink 120 mL of fluid between meals.
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Symptoms associated with pyloric obstruction include all of the following except:
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Diarrhea Pyloric obstruction, also called gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), occurs when the area distal to the pyloric sphincter becomes scarred and stenosed from spasm or edema or from scar tissue that forms when an ulcer alternately heals and breaks down. The client may have nausea and vomiting, constipation, epigastric fullness, anorexia, and, later, weight loss.
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Which of the following medications used for obesity improves cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese patients with metabolic syndrome?
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Rimonabant (Acomplia) Acomplia is the newest medication used to treat obesity. It stimulates weight reduction and improves cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Meridia was recently pulled from the market because of the increased risk of heart attack and stroke associated with this medication. Orlistat, available by prescription and over the counter as Alli, reduces caloric intake by binding to gastric and pancreatic lipase to prevent digestion of fats.
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Which of the following is considered an early symptom of gastric cancer?
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Pain relieved by antacids Symptoms of early disease, such as pain relieved by antacids, resemble those of benign ulcers and are seldom definitive. Symptoms of progressive disease include weight loss, bloating after meals, and dyspepsia.
question

Which of the following is the most successful treatment for gastric cancer?
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Removal of the tumor There is no successful treatment for gastric carcinoma except removal of the tumor. If the tumor can be removed while it is still localized to the stomach, the patient may be cured. If the tumor has spread beyond the area that can be excised, cure is less likely.
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A patient has been diagnosed with acute gastritis and asks the nurse what could have caused it. What is the best response by the nurse? (Select all that apply.)
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“It can be caused by ingestion of strong acids.” “You may have ingested some irritating foods.” “Is it possible that you are overusing aspirin.” Acute gastritis is often caused by dietary indiscretion—the person eats food that is irritating, too highly seasoned, or contaminated with disease-causing microorganisms. Other causes of acute gastritis include overuse of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol intake, bile reflux, and radiation therapy. A more severe form of acute gastritis is caused by the ingestion of strong acid or alkali, which may cause the mucosa to become gangrenous or to perforate.
question

A patient who had a Roux-en-Y bypass procedure for morbid obesity ate a chocolate chip cookie after a meal. After ingestion of the cookie, the patient complained of cramping pains, dizziness, and palpitation. After having a bowel movement, the symptoms resolved. What should the patient be educated about regarding this event?
answer

Dumping syndrome Dumping syndrome is an unpleasant set of vasomotor and GI symptoms that occur in up to 76% of patients who have had bariatric surgery. Early symptoms include a sensation of fullness, weakness, faintness, dizziness, palpitations, diaphoresis, cramping pains, and diarrhea. These symptoms resolve once the intestine has been evacuated (i.e., with defecation).
question

A patient is in the hospital for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. The nurse finds the patient vomiting and complaining of a sudden severe pain in the abdomen. The nurse then assesses a board-like abdomen. What does the nurse suspect these symptoms indicate?
answer

Perforation of the peptic ulcer Signs and symptoms of perforation include the following: Sudden, severe upper abdominal pain (persisting and increasing in intensity), which may be referred to the shoulders, especially the right shoulder, because of irritation of the phrenic nerve in the diaphragm; vomiting; collapse (fainting); extremely tender and rigid (boardlike) abdomen; and hypotension and tachycardia, indicating shock.
question

The nurse reviews dietary guidelines with a patient who had a gastric banding. Which of the following teaching points are included? Select all that apply.
answer

Do not eat and drink at the same time. Drink plenty of water, from 90 minutes after each meal to 15 minutes before each meal. Avoid fruit drinks and soda. Explanation: Total meal size should be restricted to less than 8 oz or 240 mL. Three meals a day are recommended. Refer to Box 23-2 in the text.
question

A morbidly obese client asks the nurse if medications are available to assist with weight loss. The nurse knows that the client would not be a candidate for phentermine if the following is part of the client’s health history:
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Coronary artery disease Phentermine, which requires a prescription, stimulates central noradrenergic receptors, causing appetite suppression. It may increase blood pressure and should not be taken by people with a history of heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, hyperthyroidism, or glaucoma.

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