FTCE Elementary Education k-6 Science and Technology

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Physical Properties of Matter
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mass, volume, density, chemical change
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Volume
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Another property of matter together with mass. The amount of cubic space that an object occupies
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Density
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mass per unit of volume p=m/v – defines how closely molecules are packed together. High density = less volume.
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Chemical properties
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indicate the ability of a substance to be altered into new ones; involve changes in molecular structure of substance. (Burning, rusting, digestion, combining, decomposing)
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Classification
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elements, compounds, mixtures, solutions
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Element
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substance that consists of one type of atom. 1-2 letters
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Atom
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smallest particle of element
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Atomic reaction
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In sun, nuclear power reactors, nuclear bombs, radioactive decay
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3 subatomic particles
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protons, neutrons, elections
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Molecule
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smallest particle of substance that may exist independently and maintains all properties of substance
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Gas
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low density and viscosity. No definite volume or shape
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Liquid
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Definite volume
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Solid
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firm compact substance. Definite shape
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Compound
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matter that combines atoms chemically in definite weight proportions. H2O
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Mixture
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Any combination of 2 or more substances, not chemically combined and without any definite weight proportions.
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Homogeneous Mixture
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called a solution. Uniform throughout. Ex: Seawater (Salt and water)
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Heterogeneous Mixture
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contain dissimilar elements or parts
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Transformations
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processes that take place over time
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Phase change
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matter can undergo _____________ through heating and cooling, shifting from one form to another. (melting, freezing, evaporating, boiling, condensing -(gas to liquid).
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Deposition
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gas to solid
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Condensation
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gas to liquid
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Sublimation
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solid to gas
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Temperature
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measure related to average kinetic energy of molecules of a substance
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Celsius
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Freezing = 0; Boiling =100
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Kelvin
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Freezing = 273.15; Boiling = 373.15
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Fahrenheit
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Freezing 32; Boiling = 212
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Heat
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measure of the total energy in a substance.
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Total Energy
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made up of the kinetic, and potential energies of molecules
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Dynamics
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the branch of mechanics that studies the relationship between motion and the forces affecting motion of bodies.
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Force
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pull or push upon an object that results from the object’s interaction with another object.
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Kinetic friction
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when a force is unbalanced, the object accelerates (airplanes engine moves plane forward)
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Static force
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when force is a balanced net force on the object
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Contact Forces
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require physical contact and interaction between objects
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Friction
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Force involved when surfaces touch each other have a certain resistance to motion.
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Mechanical force
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the application for force to bend, dent, scratch, compress, or break something.
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Applied force
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a force that is applied to an object. Push desk
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At-a-distance force
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result when the interacting objects are not in physical contact, but exert a push or pull (gravity)
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Gravitational forces
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involved when sun and planets exert a gravitational pull on each other despite large separation.
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Centripetal force
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when object moves in a circular path, and force is directed toward center to keep motion going. Satellites circling Earth
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Electrical forces
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action-at-a-distance forces. When protons and electrons exert an electrical pull towards each other.
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Magnetic forces
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action-at-a-distance force. Two magnets
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Nuclear force
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present in nucleus of atoms
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fission
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breaking of a heavy nucleus into 2 lighter nuclei
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Fusion
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2 atomic nuclei fuse together to form heavier nucleus
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Radioactive decay
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a neutron of proton in radioactive nucleus decays spontaneously by emitting particles, electromagnetic radiation or gamma rays.
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Light
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type of energy that has a comparatively low level of physical weight or density. Considered electromagnetic radiation with wavelength; travels in straight line but can change direction
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Electromagnetic waves
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radiant waves, X-rays, radio waves, ultraviolet rays. Sun provides radiant energy.
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Speed of light
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299,792,458 meters per second (186,00 miles)
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Refraction
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when light passes through transparent material like water at slant angle. Light bends or changes speed.
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Diffraction
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when light bends around edges of object.
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Optics
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Branch of physics that studies physical properties of light and its interaction with matter.
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Convex lens
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thicker in the middle and used as magnifying glasses.
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Electricity
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physical occurrence related to stationary and moving electrons and protons.
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Conductor
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allows electricity to flow freely through it (chopper
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Insulator
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does not allow electrons to flow freely (rubber, glass) Can be used transform chemical make up of a substance. Pass electricity through water to break down into hydrogen and oxygen
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Electric current
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flow of electricity through a conductor
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Electrical circuit
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path that allow flow of electrical current from one place to another. Must have continuous flow through complete loop: battery, light bulb; connecting wire
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Series circuits
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1 electrical path
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Parallel circuits
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use several electrical paths; used in houses
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Static electricity
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the accumulation of excess electric charge in a region that has poor electrical conductivity.
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Energy transformation
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energy transformed from one form of energy to another; mechanical clap to sound energy
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Chemical energy
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stored in chemical bonds of molecules; food, gas, oil, wood, coal. Combustion powers cars
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Electrical energy
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– made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor; moving electrons produce it.
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Magnetic energy
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the force of a magnet; energy stored in magnetic fields that is produced by moving electric charges.
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Mechanical energy
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Energy of the moving parts of machines or humans. Sum of potential and kinetic of mechanical system. Book resting
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Nuclear energy
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present in the nucleus of atoms. Dividing, combining, colliding of nuclei can result on nuclear energy.
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Radiant or light energy
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energy transmitted in the form of electromagnetic waves or radiation. Visible light brain interprets as color…
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Solar energy
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Energy from sun that may be converted into thermal or electrical energy.
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Sound or acoustic energy
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energy in the form of mechanical waves transmitted through materials (plastic or air)
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Thermal energy
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Created by vibration and movement. A form of kinetic energy
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Forces
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occur in pairs and are either balanced or unbalanced.
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Balanced forces
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do not cause a change in motion. Opposite directions/equal in size: 2 people arm wrestling. Same strength, 0 force
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Unbalanced forces
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always cause change in motion. Force equals stronger force minus lesser force. Forces in same direction are added together.
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Earth Science
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encompasses all aspects of knowledge of geology. Geologic formations: rocks and minerals; interactions of land, air, water, heat transfer
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Earth layers
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the core, the mantle, the crust
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Core
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innermost part of earth, 1800 miles below surface. Iron and nickel
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Inner core
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solid; does not rotate;780 miles thick
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Outer core
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always molten or melted. 1300 miles
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Mantle
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layer above the core. Begins 6 miles under oceans crust; makes up most of Earth’s volume
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Crust
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hard outside shell; thinnest layer
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Oceanic crust
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part of crust under oceans; 4-7 miles thick; younger and consists of basalt.
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Continental crust
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part that contains continents
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Convection current
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Heat develops a current which radiates to Earth’s crust through convection currents
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Plate tectonics
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Currents cause crust to move; move continents around surface of Earth and cause geological formations
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Magma chamber
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magma gathers in reservoir
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Lava
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when magma reaches the surface of the earth; lava cools creates cone of rock – volcano
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Canyon
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as plates shift earth, uplift occurs which causes plateau to rise, causing river to be lower relative to surface of plateau.
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Mountains
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when two continental plates collide and force each other upward.
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Epicenter
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the point on the Earth’s surface where the earthquake begins
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Seismometer
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measures the amount of energy released during earthquake and uses Richter Scale
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Igneous Rock
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formed from cooling of magma; make up majority of crust; granite and basalt
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Sedimentary Rock
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cover igneous rocks with loose sediment. Created when layers of debris, are compacted then fuse together
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Clastic
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basic; accumulations of broken pieces of rocks
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Chemical
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rocks form when standing water evaporates and leaves dissolved minerals behind
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Organic
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formed by organic material such as calcium from shells, bones, teeth
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Metamorphic Rock
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formed when a preexisting rock is moved into an environment in which the minerals that make up the rock become unstable; slate, gneiss, marble
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Soil
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weathering of rocks and minerals; decaying matter added.
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Water Cycle
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evaporation, condensation, precipitation, collection
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Evaporation
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heats up water, turns to steam
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Condensation
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occurs when water vapor cools and changes back into liquid, forming clouds
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Precipitation
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occurs when amount of water condensed in air is too much for air to hold. Falls back to earth: rain, hail, sleet, snow
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Collection
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when water returns to earth and falls back into oceans, lakes, rivers.
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air masses
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Continental Arctic Continental Polar Maritime Polar Maritime tropical Continental Tropical
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Continental Arctic
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Bring extremely cold temperatures. Originate in Arctic Circle. Move S. across Canada and U.S. during winter
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Continental Polar
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Bring cold and dry weather. Form S. of Arctic Circle. Affects N. U.S. in summer.
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Maritime Polar
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cool and moist. Cloudy damp weather. Form over N. Atlantic and pacific oceans any time of year.
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Maritime tropical
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bring warm temps and moisture. Common in East U.S. created over. S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mex. Common in summer
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Continental Tropical
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form over Desert S.W. and N. Mexico in summer. Begin over equator
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Doldrums
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regions of little steady air movement; low pressure region
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Trade winds
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warm, steady breezes that blow continuously.
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Prevailing Westerlies
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Winds that come out of the west; join with Polar Easterlies that originate from poles. Wind and air interact = clouds.
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Stratus Clouds
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horizontal layered clouds; warm/moist air passes over cool air
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Cumulus Clouds
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Puffy look like cotton balls; warm/moist air forced upward. Larger force = larger clouds; heavy rain in summer
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Cirrus Clouds
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wispy and feathery; form at high altitudes. Composed of ice crystals
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Nimbus clouds
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produce precipitation
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Runoff
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when rain falls to land and moves into rivers, streams. When quantity of rainfall exceeds the rate at which soil can absorb water
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Percolation
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downward movement of water through soil and rock in ground
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Leaching
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materials in soil are transferred into water.
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Sinkholes
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When cavities form under Earth surface. Formed when water filing space evaporates or is absorbed.
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Aquifer
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formation that transmits water under Earth surface. In wells
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Reservoir
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lake-like area where water is kept until needed
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Radiation
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When heat is transferred through electromagnetic waves; heating of skin by sun, bonfire.
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Conduction
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When heat transfers through molecular movement; hold something first cold then becomes hot.
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Convection
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Through the movement of masses, air or water; When hot air rises, cools, then falls
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The Milky Way
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Our solar system; 100,000 million stars
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Mars
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2 moons; Phobos, Diemos
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Comets
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rocks, frozen water, frozen gases, dust; Halley’s
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Asteroids
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rock, metal, or ice; belt of asteroids between mars and Jupiter
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Meters
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objects that rotate around sun, but too small to be called asteroids.
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Stars
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made entirely of gases; mostly hydrogen.
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Moon phases
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occur when sunlight hitting moon’s surface is reflected toward Earth
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Full moon
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moon and sun are opposite; 29 days between
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New moon
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moon and sun are on the same side
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1st Quarter Moon
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right 50%.
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Six Criteria to be considered living
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made up of cells, obtain and use energy, grow and develop, reproduce, respond to stimuli in environment, adapt to environment.
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Taxonomy
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classification of living things into categories based on physical characteristics
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Taxonomical Classification
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Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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Domain
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Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaroyta
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Kingdom
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Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals
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Cell membranes
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surrounds cell; provides protective layer that covers surface of cell. Controls what goes in and out
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Cytoplasm
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Fluid inside cell
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Organelles
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carry out life processes in cell
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Nucleus
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Brain of cell; contains DNA
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Eukaryotic Cells
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(Has Nucleus): Include protists, fungi, plants, animals
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Protist heterotrophs
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eat small living organisms like bacteria, yeast, or other protists
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Parasites
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organisms that invade other organisms called hosts to obtain nutrients
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Asexual reproduction
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one parent; identical copy
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Sexual reproduction
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2 parents; conjugation – 2 individuals join together and exchange genetic material; divide to produce 4 protists
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3 protists
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Plant-like (unicellular and Algae), animal-like (protozoans-amoebas), fungus-like.
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Phytoplankton
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free-floating single-celled protists near water’s surface and produce much of world’s oxygen
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Pseudopodia
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false feet
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Zooflagellate
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protozoan that moves with flagella; long leg strands to move
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Ciliates
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complex protists and have hundreds of tiny hairlike structures called cilia. (paramecium).
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Fungi
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eukaryotic heterotrophs; no chlorphyll; find food in environment; Asexual (break apart/produce spores) and sexual reproduction
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Hyphae
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multi-cellular fungi made up of chains of cells
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Mycelium
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a twisted mass of hyphae
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4 groups of fungi
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threadlike, sac, club, imperfect
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Threadlike fungi
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live in soil and are decomposers. Produce asexually using sporangia and sexually
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Sac fungi
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include yeasts, mildews, truffles, morels; asexually through sac called ascus and sexually through spores.
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Club fungi
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mushrooms; produce sexually
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Imperfect fungi
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produce asexually; mostly parasites; athlete’s foot; make penicillin
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Autotroph
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create own food, 2 stage life cycle (sporophyte – make spores which can grow; gametophyte – male and female make gametes), have cell walls
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Nonvascular plants
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do not have specialized tissues to move water and nutrients through plant (moss, liverworts, hornworts); rely on diffusion
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Vascular plants
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2 types: xylem and phloem • Seedless plants, nonflowering seed plants (gymnosperms), flowering seed plants (angiosperms) – monocots, dicots
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Cuticle
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waxy layer that coats surfaces of plants exposed to air
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Stomata
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openings in leaf’s surface; absorb carbon dioxide
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Transpiration
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loss of water through leaves
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Reproduction
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Sexual – male – stamen: made of anther that makes pollen and filament that holds anther; female – pistil: made of stigma, style, and ovary; pollination occurs when pollen moves from anthers to stigmas.
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Germination
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seed sprouts and forms new plant
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plantlets
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occur when tiny plants grow along edges of plant’s leaves then fall of and grow new plants; asexual reproduction
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Tubers
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underground stems that reproduce; asexual reproduction
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Runners
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above ground stems that form new plants; asexual reproduction
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Cellular respiration
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the process by which plants convert energy that is stored in glucose molecules into energy that cells use
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Evergreen trees
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lose leaves year round; deciduous trees – lose all leaves at specific times in year
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Animals
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can be microscopic and no cell wall
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Vertebrates
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have a backbone (fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, mammals) less than 5% are vertebrates
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Endotherms
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warm blooded animals
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Ectotherms
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cold blooded; unable to regulate body temp (amphibian, reptiles, fish)
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Fish
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jawless fish (eel), cartilaginous fish (sharks, rays), bony fish (gold fish)
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Amphibian
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animals that live in water or land during different stages in life (frog – metamorphosis – tadpole to adult)
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Caecilians
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live in tropical areas; look like earthworms or snakes; Amphibian
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Salamander
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woods of N. America; 4 legs and tail; Amphibian
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Frogs and Toads
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90% of Amphibian
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Reptiles
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live on land; amniotic eggs
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Tuataras
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live on island near New Zealand; look like lizards
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Perching birds
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adaptations for resting on branches. (songbirds like robins and sparrows) feet wrap around tree
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Birds of prey
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hunt and eat mammals…(owls, eagles, ospreys)
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Mammary glands
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structures that make milk
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Placental mammals
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embryos develop inside moms body
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Monotremes
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– lay eggs (echidnas, platypus)
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Marsupials
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carry young in pouch (koalas, opossums, kangaroos)
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Invertebrates
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no backbone (insects, snails, jellyfish, worms, sponges)
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Bilateral Symmetry
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two sides mirror each other
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Radial Symmetry
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body organized around a center
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Asymmetry
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no symmetry
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Sponges
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asymmetrical; no tissue; marine
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cnidarians
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stinging cells; jellyfish, sea anemone, coral
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Worms
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flatworms (planarians, marine, flukes, tapeworms); Roundworms; segmented worms
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Mollusks
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gastropods (slug, snail), bivalves (clams, shellfish), cephalopods (squid, octopus)
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Echinoderms
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spiny-skinned (sea stars, sea urchins, sea dollars)
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Arthropods
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75%; segmented body with specialized parts, exoskeleton. Head, thorax, abdomen
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Cell Walls
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rigid structure that gives support to the cell. In plans/algae made of cellulose
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Cellulose
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complex sugar. Allows plants to stand
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Cell Membrane
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contains proteins, lipids, phospholipids
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Proteins and lipids
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control movement of larger materials into and out of cell.
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Cytoskeleton
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keeps membrane from collapsing and helps cells move.
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Nucleolus
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dark area in which the cell begins to make ribosomes.
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Ribosomes
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smallest of all organelles. Build proteins made of amino acids. All cells have them.
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
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a system of folded membranes in which proteins, lipids, and other materials are made.
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Rough ER
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covered in ribosomes. Found near nucleus
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Smooth ER
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no ribosomes; makes lipids, breaks down toxic material
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Mitochondrion
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power source of cell; sugar broken down to produce energy; inner/outer membrane; make ATP energy
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Golgi Complex
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organelle that packages and distributes proteins
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Vesicle
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small bubble that transports lipids and proteins elsewhere
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Lysosomes
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organelles that contain digestive enzymes that destroy worn out or damaged organelles; protect from invaders; rid waste
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Vacuoles
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large vesicles. In plans, act as lysosomes
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Chloroplasts
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(green) organelles present in plant and algae cells allow plant to harness energy from sun. Not in animals
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Photosynthesis
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takes place in chloroplasts. Allows plans and algae to use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make sugar and oxygen
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Chlorophyll
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– green pigment found inside inner membrane of chloroplasts. Traps sun energy makes glucose mitochondria make ATP
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Prokaryotes Cells
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(No nucleus); 2 domains – Archaea and Bacteria; smaller than eukaryotes
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Archaeabacteria
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single-celled microorganisms; no nucleus or complex organelles; have DNA and ribosomes
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Eubacteria
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large groups of single-celled organisms; grow in almost all environments.
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Shapes of Bacteria
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spheres (cocci), rods (bacilli), spirals (spirilla)
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Eubacteria
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Act as decomposers to return raw materials/nutrients to soil
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Eubacteria
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Turn nitrogen in atmosphere into nitrogen in form useful for life
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Pathogens
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bacteria that causes disease
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Viruses
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cannot live outside host; do not have cells, but use the cells they infect; made of protein that surrounds DNA
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Integumentary
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hair, nails, skin (epidermis- top, Dermis – bottom)
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Muscular
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skeletal muscles: attach to bones; smooth muscles – food; cardiac muscle – heart
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Skeletal
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bones, cartilage, ligaments
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Cardiovascular and Circulatory
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Arteries, capillaries, veins
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Respiratory
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Air moves down trachea to lungs
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Urinary
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Kidneys filter waste. Bladder
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Reproductive
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create new life
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Nervous
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senses environment and controls body: Central nervous system: brain, spinal cord; Peripheral Nervous System: nerves
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Digestive
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mouth, stomach, intestines
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Lymphatic
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remove excess fluid from around cells; eliminates bacteria and viruses; lymph nodes
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Endocrine
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glands that send out hormones
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Heredity
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the passing of traits from parents to offspring
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Gregor Mendel
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studies pea plants: dominant/recessive traits; father of genetics
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Allele
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form of gene can take
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Mitosis
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structures of cell are copied identically
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Gamete
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male/female germ cell
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Meiosis
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cells are produced that contain half the genetic material
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Adaptation
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advantageous traits that help species survive and reproduce in environment
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Evolution
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when species turn into new species over time
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Fossil Record
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timeline of life gathered from examining fossils
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Charles Darwin
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famous scientists who created theory of evolution; father of evolution
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Natural Selection
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nature selects those species best fit to survive and reproduce
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Scientific Method
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ways which scientists answer questions and solve problems systematically. 1. Ask a question; 2. Make observations; 3. Hypothesize; 4. Predict; 5. Test; 6. Conclude
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Controlled Experiments
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experimental group and control group: identical except for variable used in experimental group
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Hazardous chemicals
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in locked cabinets low to the ground
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Method of Inquiry
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must be based on gathering observable, empirical, and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of ethics and reasoning
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Validity
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the degree to which a measure accurately assesses the specific concept it’s designed to measure; accuracy of instrument
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Reliability
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consistency of a set of measurements; precision of instrument
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Inter-rater reliability
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2 independent investigators give consistently similar scores
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Technology
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combination of science and engineering.
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Nanosecond
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1 billionth of a second
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Spectometer
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instrument used to measure absorbance spectrum of a liquid, absorbance studies, equilibrium, measure gas emissions
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accelerometers
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small devices mounted on moving objects to study 1-dimensional motions; sensor
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Barometers
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weather studies; sensor
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Temperature probes
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temperature related experiments; sesor
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NSES
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National Science Education Standards
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Inquiry-based
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observation, measurement, experimentation, communication, mental processes. Must involve research questions and discussions of findings
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5 Step Experiential Learning Cycle
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exploration, sharing, processing, generalizing, application
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Exploration (Do it)
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Perform activity with limited or no help from teacher; make model, role play
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Sharing (what happened)
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talk about results
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Processing (What’s important)
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Discuss, analyze, reflect, how experience was carried out
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Generalizing (So What?)
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Connect the experience with real world problems
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Application (Now What)
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Apply what was learned to a similar or different situation
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5 E’s Learning Cycle
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method of structuring science lessons that is based on cognitive psychology and constructivist learning theory.; engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration, evaluation
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Engagement
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pre-assessment of students’ understanding
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Exploration
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collect and find data
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Explanation
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answer research questions
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Elaboration
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given new questions to answer
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Evaluation
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should focus on overall performance
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Diagnostic assessment
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pretests used to help determine what students know
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Comparative assessment
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how an individual or group’s outcome compares to another
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Student assessment
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help determine the effect of a program, curriculum innovation, strategy, professional development
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Traditional assessment
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Involves students selecting responses from multiple choice, t/f, matching list
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Standardized testing
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administered tests from controlled conditions
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Performance assessment
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direct, systematic observation of actual student’s performance and rating of it. Rubric
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Alternative Assessment
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students’ derived responses to a task or question: demonstrations, portfolios, oral presentations, essays
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Authentic Assessment
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presenting tasks that reflect the kind of mastery demonstrated by experts
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Manipulative
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blocks, rods, sticks
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Virtual Manipulative
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interactive, web-based visual representation of objects that provide opportunities for constructing math or science knowledge
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Static Virtual Models
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Not considered true virtual manipulatives, but pictorial representations of physical concrete manipulatives
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National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Illuminations
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NCTM
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National Library
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of Virtual Manipulatives
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Computer Simulations
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Lions and Antelopes; Plants-in-motion; Science simulations
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Math Cognitive Levels
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concrete, representational (pictorial), abstract (symbolic)
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Concrete
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Use of toys, cubes, other objects to represent numerical
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Representational (Pictorial)
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involves pictorial representations of the manipulative materials or objects used for learning: Number lines, graphs, charts
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Abstract (Symbolic)
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– involves use of symbols to represent ideas; involved when you say words and read/write symbols
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Numerals
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symbolic form of numbers

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