FSHN 120 FINAL EXAM

Which class of nutrients comprises 60% of body weight?
Water
When the cells of the ______ are stimulated, the desire to eat subsides.
satiety center of the brain
The health status of “baby boomers” appears lower than that of the previous generation.
True
The local food system is ________ than the global food system
complimentary to
Water would be adequate for replenishing lost fluids for which of the following athletes? Select all that apply.
A runner who completes a 5-kilometer race in 28 minutes, A swimmer who trains in the pool for 45 minutes.
A kilocalorie is a measure of
heat energy
Which of the following is not a class of essential nutrients?
Alcohol
The distance a typical food travels from farm to table is
1500-2500 miles
Recent studies clearly indicate an association between TV advertising of foods and drinks and ______________________, especially in the United States.
the prevalence of childhood obesity
One cup of chocolate milk contains 15 grams of carbohydrates, 8 grams of fat, and 8 grams of protein. This cup of chocolate milk supplies ______ kilocalories.
164
Which of the following is not a characteristic of protein?
Most significant energy source for humans
A ______ is generally a fake medicine used to disguise the treatments of participants in an experiment.
placebo
Shelby weighs 70 kilograms, which is _____ pounds.
154
Fibers belong to the class of nutrients known as
carbohydrates
When in Europe, you are told that you are eating a steak weighing 140 grams. This is equivalent to how many ounces?
5
A local food system can always be described by each of the following concepts EXCEPT
better nutrition
On average, Americans consume approximately ______% of total kilocalories as fat.
33
Healthy People 2020 was designed to
eliminate health disparities, improve access to health education and quality health care, and strengthen public health services.
Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology?
A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
Which of the following measures does NOT assess nutritional status?
Psychoanalysis
A food label states that a serving of a particular product provides 20 percent of the Daily Value for fat. This means that
a serving of this product provides about 13 grams of fat
Which meal contains foods from all food groups represented in MyPlate?
Refried beans, onions, tomatoes, and cheddar cheese wrapped in a tortilla; orange; and water
Which statement best describes the healthful diet principle of moderation?
Pay attention to portion size and plan your entire day’s diet so that you don’t overconsume nutrient sources.
The acronym RDA stands for
Recommended Dietary Allowance.
Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called
anthropometry
One serving of Raisin Bran cereal contains 50 percent of the 18 mg Daily Value for iron. How much iron will one serving of your cereal provide?
9 mg
According to MyPlate, consumption of foods from the Grains group should include
at least half of the grain servings as whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day.
Two tablespoons (tbsp) of salad dressing, peanut butter, or margarine is about the size of a
golf ball
The RDAs for nutrients generally are
designed to be adequate for almost all healthy people
Which of the following is NOT a wise application of MyPlate?
Eliminating foods from the Fruits group to lose weight
Which term describes failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that is inadequate to meet nutritional needs?
Undernutrition
According to MyPlate, an adult age 18 or older should consume how many cups of milk or milk equivalents per day on a 2,000-calorie diet?
3
Which government agency is responsible for regulating most U.S. food labeling?
Food and Drug Administration
Kate consumes 1,900 kilocalories each day. She requires 1,750 kilocalories to meet daily energy needs. Over time, Kate’s kilocalorie consumption could lead to
overnutrition
Which of the following statements is consistent with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
Balance the calories you eat with physical activity
The villi of the small intestine
provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption
Which of the following body organs produces bile?
Liver
The study of the ways nutrients and food influence gene expression is called
nutrigenomics.
Peristalsis refers to
muscular movement of materials through the GI tract
Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms EXCEPT
sustained absorption.
Which absorptive process in the small intestine requires a carrier and energy to transport nutrients into absorptive cells?
Active absorption
Which of the following is NOT a short-term storage site for carbohydrates in the body?
brain
When a nutrient moves freely from an area of higher solute concentration into an absorptive cell where the concentration is lower, this is called
Passive diffusion
The ring-like muscles that retard or prevent backflow of partially digested food in the gastrointestinal tract are called
sphincters
Which of the following is NOT considered part of the GI tract?
Kidneys
A serving of bleu cheese dressing containing 23 grams of fat would yield _____ kilocalories from fat.
23 grams of fat x 9 kcal/g = 207 kcal from fat.
Prairie Fruits Farm produces all except:
Corn and soybeans
Which of the following nutrition-related diseases is not one of the three leading causes of death in the United States?
Cancer
Cardiovascular Disease
Pneumonia
Diabetes
Diabetes
Certain nutrients provide us with energy. Some are important for growth and development. Others act to keep body functions running smoothly. Which of the following nutrients does not promote growth and development as its primary function?
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Minerals
Carbohydrates
The essential nutrients:
Cannot be made by the body and therefore must be consumed to maintain health
The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences advocates that 10% to 35% of calories come from protein and ________________ from carbohydrate.
20% to 35%
45% to 65%
50% to 70%
55% to 75%
45% to 65%
Fibers belong to the class of nutrients known as
Carbohydrates
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamins?
-Enable chemical processes in the body
-Provide energy
-Made in sufficient quantities by the body
-Become structural components of the body
Enable chemical processes in the body
Minerals can
provide energy.
be destroyed during cooking.
be degraded by the body.
become part of the body structural systems.
Become a part of the body structural systems
Which of the following is not a characteristic of carbohydrates?
Contain more kilocalories than protein
The RDAs for nutrients are set
to cover the needs of 97% – 98% of the population.
According to MyPlate, how much do you need from the Protein Foods group when consuming a 2,000-calorie diet?
5 1/2 ounces every day
Gram for gram, which provides the most energy?
Alcohol
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Fats
Fats
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of protein
Most significant energy source for humans
Adequate Intakes (AI)
are established for nutrients for which there is not enough
information to set RDAs.
Which of the following is not true about water?
Provides a way to transport nutrients and wastes
Provides energy
By-product of cell chemical reactions
Dietary need of approximately 9-13 cups per day
Provides energy
Which of the following is true about the energy content of nutrients?
Alcohol supplies 9 kilocalories per gram.
Lipids and alcohol supply 9 kilocalories per gram.
Carbohydrates and proteins supply 4 kilocalories per gram.
Lipids supply 7 kilocalories per gram.
Carbohydrates and proteins supply 4 kilocalories per gram.
A large hamburger (e.g., Whopper) sandwich contains 628 kilocalories and 36 grams of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?
52%
Which of the following does not regulate body processes?
Carbohydrates
Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not digested in the stomach or small intestine?
Dextrose
Disaccharides
Dietary fiber
Simple sugars
Dietary fiber (large intestine)
The “Freshman 15” is the term used to describe the
typical waist circumference of college students after freshman year.
amount of weight (in pounds) typically gained during freshman year of college.
typical BMI of college students after freshman year.
typical body fat percentage of college students after freshman year.
amount of weight (in pounds) typically gained during freshman year of college.
Which of the following contain no calories?
Vitamins
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Alcohol
Vitamins
Which of the following is NOT a simple carbohydrate
– Starch
-Disaccharide
-Table sugar
-Monosaccharide
Starch (Complex)
Which of the following is NOT a nutrition and weight status objective from Healthy People 2020?
Increase the consumption of protein
Which of the following terms describes psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food?
Appetite
Hunger
Satiety
Obsession
Appetite
Current factors that can influence American food habits negatively are:
Social changes that are leading to a general time shortage for many of us
Which of the following is NOT one of the six categories of Healthy People 2020: Nutrition and Weight Status Objectives?
Food Insecurity
Healthier Food Access
Iron Deficiency
Calcium Deficiency
Calcium Deficiency
The 2012 Food and Health Survey indicated that after taste, __________ is now the number two reason why people choose the food they do.
Cost
The cruciferous vegetables include broccoli, cabbagge, and kale.
True
False
True
Which of the following adults is engaging in binge drinking? Select all that apply.
A man who drinks a six pack of 12-fl oz bottles of beer at a cookout.; A woman who drinks six 5-fl oz glasses of wine at a cocktail party.
Which of the following are among the six classes of essential nutrients? Select all that apply.
water
phytochemicals
protein
alcohol
Water, protein
Which of the following are examples of phytochemicals?
-carotenoids
-flavonoids
-resveratrol
-cholesterol
Carotenoids, flavonoids, resveratrol
When you’re in Europe, you are told that you are eating a steak weighing 140 grams. This is equivalent to how many ounces?
5
Pat purchases a two liter bottle of root beer. This would be approximately
2 quarts
On average, Americans consume approximately ___% of total kilocalories as fat.
33%
Which of the following nutrients can be broken down to provide energy? Select all that apply.
Carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins
Carbohydrate, protein, fat
Which of the following are functions of the essential nutrients? Select all that apply.
Provide energy
Promote growth, development, and maintenance
Regulate body processes
Treat or cure diseases
Promote growth, development, maintenance, regulate body processes, provide energy
One cup of chocolate milk contains 15 grams of carbohydrates, 8 grams of fat, and 8 grams of protein. This cup of chocolate milk supplies ______ kilocalories.
164
A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kilocalories and 30 grams of fat. Approximately ___% of the total energy is provided by fat.
19
Which of the following are potential health consequences of eating disorders?
-Loss of menstrual period, bone loss, heart abnormalities
Which of the following accurately describes the term hypothesis?
An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon
In the _________________ experimental design, neither the participants nor the researchers are aware of each participant’s assignment (test or placebo) or the outcome of the study until it is completed.
animal model
case control
double-blinded
clinical trial
double-blinded
Of the following, which is NOT an element of a community (local) food system?
Organic vegetables at County Market
Hospital cafeterias using local produce
CSA programs
Farmers Markets
Organic vegetables at County Market
Organic food
Is grown on farmland that meets very specific USDA rules
After FSHN 120 scores (exams, quizzes, NAP, etc) have been posted on Compass, you have ___ to challenge the score
one week
Of the following, which is NOT an assumed benefit of a local food system?
The food is grown on an organic farm
What term is commonly used to describe foods that are grown without the use of synthetic pesticides?
Organic
The local food system is ________ than the global food system
complimentary to
To gain credit, the FSHN 120, Journal entries must have _____ full days IN BETWEEN entries
5
Becky’s office hours are
1-2PM MW
Becky was a Peace Corps Volunteer in ____
the Philippines
There are _____ exams in FSHN 120 and everyone will use their top ______ scores for final grade calculations
5 and 4
The RDAs for nutrients are set
to cover the needs of 97% – 98% of the population
Which of the following is true about the way we should eat to achieve good nutritional status?
Eat a wide variety of foods because no single natural food meets all human nutrient needs.
Which meal contains foods from all food groups represented in MyPlate?
Refried beans, onions, tomatoes, and cheddar cheese wrapped in a tortilla; orange; and water
Ann Miles, a triathlete, wants to eat a health-promoting diet and achieve dietary adequacy. Which principles should she follow to achieve dietary proportionally?
Consume a variety of foods from MyPlate’s five major food groups every day.
Which statement best describes nutrient density?
Consume foods that have the most nutrients compared to their kilocalories
The RDAs are considered to be adequate to meet the known nutritional needs of
Nearly all healthy persons
Tina is consuming 15 mg of iron per day. Her RDA is 18 mg. She has no condition warranting a greater-than-normal need for iron. Which of the following statements is true about her consumption of this nutrient?
Only if her intake is consistently less than 70% of the RDA would she be at great risk of nutritional deficiency.
You pick up a box of Cheerios cereal in the supermarket. The Nutrition Facts panel tells you that a 1-cup serving provides 25 percent of the ______ for iron.
Daily value
A food label states that a serving of a particular product provides 20% of the Daily Value for fat. This means that
A serving of this product provides about 13 grams of fat
The term “Daily Values” on a food label refers to
a generic standard set at or close to the highest RDA value or related nutrient standard.
The label on a package of Kool Aid indicates that it contains vitamin C. The amount listed is a percentage of the
Daily Value
EER refers to
estimated calorie needs for the average person of a specific height, weight, age, gender, and physical activity pattern.
Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the MyPlate Fruit group?
Include plenty of fruit juices for your fruit servings.
Which of the following is true about the use of MyPlate?
Variety is the key to the plan.
Margaret, an elderly woman, needs to limit her kilocalorie intake without sacrificing needed nutrients. Keeping in mind MyPlate, which of the following could she do?
Carefully select foods rich in nutrients but low in kilocalories.
Nutrient density can be defined as the amount of
A particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by the number of kilocalories in that serving
One cup of apple juice has 111 kilocalories and 1.4 mg of vitamin C. The same serving size of orange juice has 112 kilocalories and 124 mg of vitamin C. Which of the following is true regarding their nutrient density?
Orange juice is more nutrient dense for vitamin C than apple juice.
The acronym DRI stands for
Dietary Reference Intake
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend which of the following?
Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains.
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines emphasize
reduction of total calories, sugar-sweetened beverages, saturated fat, and sodium
Which of the following is NOT a limitation of nutritional assessments?
Most nutrition assessments are time-consuming, costly, and do not provide valuable information.
Jeff, a world-class triathlete, visits a dietitian to obtain sports nutrition advice. During his visit, Jeff is asked to recall what he ate for the past 24 hours. Which part of a nutritional assessment is this?
Dietary assessment
Missy visits a doctor because she feels tired most of the time, is easily distracted, and feels chilled. As part of her examination, Missy has blood drawn to be tested for concentrations of nutrients and their by-products. This part of the examination is the
biochemical evaluation
Mrs. Mitchell was hospitalized after being found unconscious in her home. A dietitian conducted a nutritional assessment, noting the general appearance of Mrs. Mitchell’s skin, eyes, and tongue. Which part of the assessment is this?
Clinical examination
Kate consumes 1,900 calories each day. She requires 1,750 calories to meet daily energy needs. Over time, Kate’s calorie consumption could lead to
Overnutrition
When looking at the ingredient label of a bottled spaghetti sauce, you see that olive oil is the second ingredient. This means that olive oil is
The second most abundant ingredient by weight
By law, which of the following food items must display a nutrition facts label?
Box of granola bars
Which of the following is NOT required on a nutrition label?
The amount per serving of all vitamins and minerals for which there is an RDA
According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, the food and nutrients to increase are
Fruits, veggies, low-fat milk, whole grains
The number of servings to consume from each MyPlate food group depends on a person’s
age, gender, height, and weight.
The food grouping guidelines most recently released from the United States government are called
MyPlate
Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, released in 2008, advise a minimum of ___ minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity for adults.
150
RDAs are NOT used in food labeling because
they are age- and gender-specific.
In order to make healthful and logical nutrition decisions, beware of
testimonials about personal experience.
The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid patterns dietary data from parts of the Mediterranean region that enjoy
the lowest recorded rates of chronic diseases.
Alan has been hospitalized and you are concerned about his nutritional status. Which of the following are ways to assess his nutritional status? Select all that apply.
Compare his current body weight to his usual body weight; Take a blood sample to test for protein levels in the blood; Ask him to recall all the foods and beverages he has consumed over the past 24 hours
According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, adults should _______________ intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products
increase
According to MyPlate, eggs belong in the ____ group.
protein
When using MyPlate to choose fruits and vegetables, one should include a vitamin C source such as citrus fruit and a dark green vegetable each day, as a source of
Vitamin A
A comparison of the kilocalorie content of a food to the weight of that food is
Energy density
Which of the following are major contributors of empty calories in American diets? Select all that apply.
Sugar-sweetened beverages, butter, whole milk
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend consuming less than 10% of calories from
Saturated fatty acids
Which government agency is responsible for most U.S. food labeling?
FDA
Transmission of nerve impulses relies on the concentrations of ______ in the neuron.
sodium and potassium
Which of the following is stored within the nucleus of the cell and acts as a code book for synthesizing specific proteins?
DNA
The constant turnover of body tissues requires the ______ supplied by carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
Chemical energy
All of the following must be supplied by the diet to support the chemical processes of human physiology EXCEPT
phytochemicals
The ___________________________ system is made up of several glands that act in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and many other functions
endocrine
Bone, cartilage, muscle, and nerves are types of
tissues
The ________________________ system shelters humans from threats such as diseases and toxins.
immune
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
Epiglottis
Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?
Hepatic portal vein
Which of the following is NOT a function of the urinary system?
Excretion of fat-soluble vitamins
Nutrient-rich blood leaving the intestine goes by way of a vein to the
liver
After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins?
Lymphatic
Which of the following is a feature of the lymphatic system?
it picks up and transports dietary lipids
Where does digestion begin?
The mouth
All of the following are features of the epiglottis EXCEPT which one?
It is the first GI tract sphincter.
The stomach empties into the small intestine through the
pyloric sphincter
What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?
Prevents intestinal contents from backing up into the stomach
What sphincter separates the small intestine from the large intestine?
Ileocecal
The ring-like muscles that regard or prevent backflow of partially digested food in the gastrointestinal tract are called
sphincters
Which of the following is a description of chyme?
A watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestines
Which of the following is NOT a sphincter?
Duodenal
Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles?
Controls passage of food through the GI tract
What substance helps suspend fat in a watery digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes?
Bile
Which of the following, upon digestion, is NOT normally absorbed directly into the bloodstream?
Fats
Which of the following organs serves as a storage depot for many vitamins and minerals?
Liver
Which of the following body organs produce bile?
Liver
The muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract are called
peristalsis
The study of how genes determine our nutritional requirements is called
Nutrigenetics
What percentage of a meal has been absorbed by the time it leaves the small intestine?
95%
Which of the following is true about digestive enzymes?
Enzymes that work in the acidic environment of the stomach cannot work in the basic or alkaline environment of the small intestine and vice versa.
When food enters the small intestine, a hormone simulates the release of _______ from the pancreas
bicarbonate
Partially digested food that enters the small intestine from the stomach is called
chyme
Which of the following substances is primarily involved in the emulsification of fat to facilitate its digestion?
Bile
Which of the following true regarding bile?
It is produced by the liver.
The most active area for the absorption of nutrients into the body is the
small intestine
In passive absorption, nutrients enter the cell
From an area of higher solute concentration, to one of lower concentration
A function of the large intestine is to absorb:
Water and minerals
Which of the following therapies is appropriate treatment for occasional heartburn?
Antacids
All of the following are characteristics of heartburn EXCEPT which one?
It subsides when a person relaxes and lies down after a meal.
Constipation can best be prevented by
Eating dietary fiber
Which of the following is an important dietary recommendation for avoiding heartburn?
Eat smaller meals that are lower in fat
Most stomach ulcers are caused by ____ infection.
Helicobacter pylori
When a nutrient moves, with the help of a carrier, from an area of higher solute concentration into an absorptive cell where the concentration is lower, this is called
Facilitated diffusion
A compound that allows for communication between one cell and the next is a
neurotransmitter
The organelles that are known as the “power plants” or the “powerhouses” of the cell are the
Mitochondria
The component of feces include which of the following? Select all that apply.
Water; bacterial cells; fiber; worn-out intestinal cells