Freshman Speech Test 1

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Most successful speakers are nervous before taking the floor
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True
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When you give a speech to your classmates, you are engaged in one-way communication
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False
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Listeners usually realize how tense a speaker is.
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False
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It has been estimated that being fully prepared for a speech can reduce stage fright by up to 75 percent.
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True
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Egocentrism means that audiences typically approach speeches by asking “Why is this important for me?”
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True
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Being audience-centered means a speaker must sacrifice what she or he really believes to get a favorable response from the audience.
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False
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The need for audience analysis and adaptation is one of the major differences between public speaking and everyday conversation.
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False
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Audience analysis and adaptation affect all aspects of speechmaking except for the delivery of the speech itself.
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False
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Kristen is listening to a political candidate’s speech for purposes of deciding whether to accept or reject the speaker’s message. According to your textbook, Kristen is engaged in __________ listening.
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critical
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Suspending judgment means that you need to accept uncritically whatever a speaker says.
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False
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Critical listening involves engaging in a mental argument with everything a speaker says.
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False
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According to your textbook, listening to understand a classroom lecture is an example of comprehensive listening.
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True
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For your first speech, your textbook recommends trying to end on a clever or thought-provoking note.
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True
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One of the advantages of the extemporaneous method of delivery is that it enables you to maintain eye contact with your audience.
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True
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According to your textbook, a common mistake students make when developing their first speech is
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trying to cover too much material.
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According to your textbook, the best way to practice a speech is to look silently over your notes until you think you know the speech well enough to deliver it in class.
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False
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A faster rate of speech is usually called for when a speaker is explaining complex information
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False
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Communication based on a person’s voice and body, rather than on the use of words, is called _______________ communication.
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nonverbal
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You can articulate a word crisply and still mispronounce it.
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True
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Speaking from memory is most effective when a speaker wants to be very responsive to feedback from the audience.
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False
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Benefits of studying speech?
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1) To better communicate 2) Take advantage of job situations 3) Communication is essential in about everything
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Differences between conversation and public speaking?
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1) PS is more highly structured 2) PS requires more formal language 3) PS requires a different method of delivery
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Methods of Delivery
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1 reading from a manuscript 2 reciting from memory 3 speaking impromptu 4 speaking extemporaneously
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Manuscript speech
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a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience
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impromptu speech
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a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation
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extemporaneous speech
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a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
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The speaker’s voice
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1 Value 2 pitch 3 inflections 4 monotone 5 rate 6 pause 7 vocalized pause 8 Vocal variety 9 pronunciation
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Value
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the loudness or softness of the speaker’s voice
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pitch
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the highness or lowness of the speaker’s voice
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inflections
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changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker’s voice
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monotone
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a constant pitch or tone of voice
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rate
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the speed at which a person speaks.
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pause
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a momentary break in the vocal delivery
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vocalization pause
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a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as “uh,” “er” and “um”
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Vocal variety
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change in a speaker’s rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness
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pronunciation
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the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language
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articulation
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the physical production of particular speech sounds
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Dialect
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a variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary
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The Speaker’s body
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1 posture 2 personal appearance 3 facial expression 4 gesture 5 eye contact
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kinesics
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the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication
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gesture
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motions of a speaker’s hands or arms during speech
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eye contact
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direct visual contact with the eyes of another person
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demographic audience analysis
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audience analysis that focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, group membership, and racial, ethnic, or cultural background
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situational analysis
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audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion
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Adapting to the Audience
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1 assessing how your audience is likely to respond to what you say in your speech. 2 adjusting what you say to make it as clear, appropriate, and convincing
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Surveying the audience/ getting information
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1 Plan the questionnaire carefully to elicit precisely the information you need 2 Use all three types of questions- fixed-alternative, scale, and open-ended 3 make sure the questions are clear and unambiguous 4 Keep the questionnaire relatively brief
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fixed alternative questions
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questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternatives
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scale questions
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questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers
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open-ended questions
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questions that allow respondents to answer however they want
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Organizing the Speech
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1 Introduction 2 Body 3 Conclusion
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Introduction
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the opening sector of a speech
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Body
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the main section of speech
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Conclusion
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the final section of speech
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Rehearsing for your first speech
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1 Concentrate and gain control rather than try to memorize 2 practice 3 rehears out loud
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Presenting your first speech
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1 Starting your speech 2 gesture 3 eye contact 4 Voice 5 Dealing with nerves
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positive nervousness
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positive nervousness
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How to become a better listener
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1) take listening seriously 2) be a active listener 3) resist distractions 4) don’t focus on appearance or delivery 5) suspend judgment 6) focus your listening 7) develop note taking skills
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The causes of poor listening
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1) Not concentrating 2) listening too hard 3) jumping to conclusions 4) focusing too much on delivery and appereance
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critical thinking
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focused, organize thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas; and the differences between fact and opinion
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speaker
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person presenting on oral message
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message
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whatever the speaker communicates to someone else
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Channel
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the means b which the message is communicated
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listener
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person who receives the speaker’s message
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appreciative listening
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listening for pleasure
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emphatic listening
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listening to provide emotional support for a speaker
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comprehensive listening
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listening to understand
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critical listening
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listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it
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Dealing with nervousness
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1 Acquire Speaking experience 2 prepare 3 think positively 4 use the power of visualization 5 know nervousness is not visible 6 Don’t expect perfection
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Communication Process
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1 Speaker 2 message 3 Chanel 4 listener 5 frame reference 6 interference 7 situation

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