Forensic Crim 1

Psychological Criminology
Problem behavior that prevents a person from living within the existing social framework

Criminal Behavior
Intentional behavior that violated a criminal code, intentional in that it did not occur accidentally or without justification or excuse. Complex and poorly understood phenomenon that needs to be looked at from all perspectives

Sociological Criminology
Examines the relationship of demographic and group variables to crime

Conformity Theory
Views humans as creatures of conformity who want to do the right thing
-associated with STRAIN THEORY

Strain Theory
Humans are fundamentally conforming beings who are strongly influenced by the values and attitudes of the society in which they live
-MERTON

Nonconformist Theory
Assumes that humans are basically undisciplined creatures who, without the constraints of the rules and regulations of a society, would flout society’s conventions and commit crimes

Social Control Theory
Crime and delinquency occur when an individuals ties to the conventional order of normative standards are weak or nonexistent
-HIRSCHI

Social Learning Theory
Humans are born neutral and learn all behaviors, beliefs, and tendencies from their social enviroment

Differential Association Theory
Criminal behavior is learned as all social behavior through social interactions with other people

Psychodynamic Approach
theoretical perspective that argues that human behavior can be best explained through the use of psychological forces and pressures

Criminal profiling
Process of identifying personality traits, behavioral tendencies, geographical locations, and demographic variables based on characteristics of the crime. Not used to identify a perp but to give the characteristics of a person who commits the crime

Pavlovian Conditioning
The process of learning to respond to a formerly neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that already elicits a response
-CLASSICAL CONDTIONING

Reinforcement
Used to maintain a behavior, can be positive or negative

Punishment
Used to stop a behavior

Juvenile Risk Factors
-Social Class: established inverse relationship that the lower the social class, the greater the chance of delinquent behavior
-Poverty: youth living in poverty are more likely to be victims/offenders
-Peer Association: delinquent friends have the strongest pull on juveniles
-Family Background: strong relationship between single parent homes and delinquency

Conduct Disorder
A diagnostic term that represents a group of behaviors characterized by habitual misdemeanors

Authoritarian Approach
Sets a very rigid structure on the family setting and allows little decision by the child

Authoritative Approach
Sets firm rules yet encourages the autonomy of the child

Raine
-Twin study: genes play a significant role in antisocial behavior, as well as the environment
-Interaction between birth complications and early maternal rejection in predisposing individuals to adult violence

Twins
Monozygotic (identical) have a high rate of concordance, and those that are separated have an even higher rate, than Dizygotic (fraternal) twins

Self-Regulation
The ability to control ones behavior in accordance with internal cognitive standards

Concordance Rates
The degree to which related pairs of subjects both show a certain trail of behavior is that it has been researched in twins

Autonomic Arousal Theory
Neuroticism— a dimension of personality that theoretically reflects arousal levels of the autonomic nervous system

Eysenckian Theory
Believed that criminal behavior is the result of an interaction between certain environmental conditions and features of the nervous system

Eysnecks 4 Factors
1. General intelligence
2.Extraversion
3.Neuroticism
4. Psychoticism–Lack of empathy

Sympathetic Nervous System
Activates the body for emergencies by increasing heart rate,respiration, blood flow, and perspiration

Parasympathetic Nervous System
Counter balances the sympathetic, and brings the body back to its normal arousal state
-CORTIZOL

Limbic System
Includes the neurological structures known as the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
-WHERE EYSENECK BELIEVES PERSONALITY LIES

Juvenile Court Act
Law defines a delinquent act as a child under the age of 16 who violated a state law or any village or city ordinance. All states have some sort of juvenile court, wither separately or apart of the family courts

Juvenile Delinquency
Behavior against the criminal code committed by an individual who has not reached adulthood

Chicago Area Project
attempted to prevent juvenile offenses and represented the first systematic challenge of the juvenile justice system. it drew attention to the role of the community as an agent of informal social control to prevent delinquency

Status Offenses
Behavior is not against the criminal code but is behavior prohibited only for juveniles

Gender
-Juvenile boys offend more than girls, mostly with violent offenses
-Recently girls have been entering justice system at a faster rate due to them being charged with more status offenses

Developmental Factos
-Life Course Persisten Offenders: individuals that continue their antisocial ways across all kinds of conditions and situations.
-Adolescent Limited Offender: those who begin offending during early adolescense and stop somewhere around their 18th birthday. MOST COMMON

Primary Prevention Programs
Designed to prevent behaviors BEFORE they emerge

Secondary Prevention Program
For children who show early signs of behaviors but not have been adjudicated

Tertiary Prevention
Intervention strategy designed to reduce or eliminate antisocial behavior that is fully developed in a person

Multisystemic Therapy
For serious juvenile offenders that focuses on the family while being responsive to the other systems that impact the child
-MOST SUCCESSFUL BUT MOST EXPENSIVE

Lombroso
-Believed in the born criminal who is physically distinct and predisposed to anti social behavior
-6 categories
*habitual/professional criminals
*Judicial criminal
*Criminals of passion
*Criminaloids
*Born criminals
*Hysteric criminals

Sheldon
-Somatyping: theory of connecting body type to criminal behavior
*Endomorph- fat and soft
*Ectomorph- thin and fragile
*Mesomorph- muscular and hard (biggest tie to criminal activity)
-Attractiveness: there is a connection between level of attractiveness and criminal behavior; nondelinquents being rated more attractive

Classical Theory
-BECCARIA (father of criminology)
-Punishment should be swift, certain, and severe enough to deter people from the criminal act

Positivist Theory
Argues that prior experiences or influences determine the present

Goldstein 2001
Day care teachers need to be concerned with aggression in toddlers more than any other behavioral problems because it can be an indicator of criminal activity in the future

Who is most heavily linked to crime?
Psychotics

What is the major reason we can’t prevent crime?
It is too complex with too many variables

Psychological criminology is the science of trying to determine how criminal behavior is…
Acquired, evoked, and maintained

Which of the following is least consistent with the developmental approach in the study of crime
Obtaining a child IQ score as he or she enters adolescence

According to Virginia Douglas, the core problem in ADHD children involves:
executive functioning skills and over prescribed

Which of the following would be considered a callous-unemotional trait
Lack of guilt

Which of the following features of an intervention program is most likely to lead to effective change in the long run?
Begins early developmental trajectory of the child

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