FL7 Psych/Soc AAMC

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Categorical bias
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tendency to judge the physical distance between objects from the same category as being smaller compared to the distances b/w objects of different categories
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primacy effect
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better memory for events at the beginning of a series
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dual coding theory
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both visual and verbal information is used to aid in learning and memory (i.e. mental images)
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misinformation effect
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when a person’s recall of an episodic memory becomes less accurate due to post-event information
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state dependent effect
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phenomenon that memory retrieval is best when in the same state of consciousness as when the memory was formed
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spreading of activation theory
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when a concept is activated, the activation spreads to concepts that are semantically or associatively related to it.
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when are conservation tasks mastered according to Piaget?
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conservation tasks include understanding that water in a short fat beaker is the same as when poured in a tall thin beaker, this begins at the age of 7 and ends around age 11 or 12
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behaviorist theory
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learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions i.e. classical conditioning and operant conditioning
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psychodynamic theory
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a view that explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces, such as unconscious desires and beliefs
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trait theory
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is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion
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humanistic approach
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psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving.
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what is a positive v. negative punisher
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positive punisher- stimulus is added and behavior stops negative punisher- stimulus is removed and behavior stops
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what is a positive v. negative reinforcer
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positive reinforcer- stimulus is added behavior continues negative reinforcer- stimulus is removed behavior continues
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interoceptive awareness involves sensitivity to increases in activity of the:
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autonomic nervous system (i.e. bodily sensation, heart rate, blood pressure etc)
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cognitive appraisal
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personal interpretation of a situation; it is how an individual views a situation. ex. interpretation of bodily functions
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affective processes
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include all feelings and responses, positive or negative, related to emotion-laden behavior, knowledge, or beliefs. Affect can alter perceptions of situations as well as outcomes of cognitive effort; it can also fuel, block, or terminate cognition and behavior.
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top down processing
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referes to how our brain makes use of information that has already been brought into our brain by one or more sensory systems i.e. thoughts—> senses flow from higher to lower level functions
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bottom up processes
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progression from individual element to whole. flow from lower level to higher level cognitive process
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limits to experimental method design?
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what part of the eye is in direct contact with the eye lid?
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cornea
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function of the retina
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thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the inside of the eye, located near the optic nerve. Functions to receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send the signals to the brain (via optic nerve)
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sound induced vibrations depolarize the hair cells of the cochlea by opening ion channels that are gated in what way?
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mechanoreceptors (mechanically gated)
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actor-observer bias
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actors attribute their own behavior to situational factors (not feeling well) whereas observers attribute actor’s behaviors to dispositional factors (socially awkwardness)
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optimal arousal theory
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belief that optimal performance requires optimal arousal and that arousal levels that are too high or too low will impede performance
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what is the electrical conductivity of the skin a good indicator of?
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increased sympathetic arousal
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what happens if outliers accumulate in an experiment? why are they often dropped from the study?
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they can lead to cofounding errors in statistical inference
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Selye’s general adaptation syndrome
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people’s response various stressors is similar
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social loafing
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phenomenon that a person exerts less work when working in a group
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cerebellum
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coordinated motor tasks, autonomic function, balance, timing
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social facilitation
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or audience effect; the tendency for people to perform differently when in the presence of other than when alone
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obedience
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compliance with commands (an order) given by an authority figure
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compliance
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the tendency to agree to do what is requested (not an order) especially if there are certain factors present: a feeling that there is give and take, believability, likability, limited supply and positive feedback from others
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what type of research is the least appropriate/ethical for studying residential segregation?
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experimental methods
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social stratification analysis
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refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in hierarchy’s
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social reproduction anaylsis
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proposed by Karl Marx; refers to the emphasis on structures and activities that transmit social inequality from one generation to the next
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gentrification
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the reinvestment in lower income neighborhoods in urban areas, which results from the influx of more affluent groups. leads to an increased housing demands, neighborhood stratification, displacement of lower income residents, and expanded tax base for local government
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group polarization
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refers to the fact that peoples attitudes about something becomes more extreme after interacting with like-minded individuals ex. risk adverse people who interact in a group will become more risk adverse
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assimilation
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related to the process of social integration and generally refers to when new members adopt the main elements of a culture ie. adopt the dominant culture and relinquish your original culture
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linguistic relativity or Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
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language affects perception
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nativist theory
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a biologically based theory, which argues that humans are pre-programmed with the innate ability to develop language.
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social support
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social network ties (friends, family etc) that provide an individual with various types of assistance, which are associated with improving health or reducing harm
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what is the working memory capacity?
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7 plus or minus 2
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what are subjective measurements?
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measurements that are personal and indirect in a study i.e. a questionare
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chunking
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increasing working memory technique
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content analysis
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a sociological method that is used to make inferences about communication i.e. content analysis of a website helps determine which beliefs an organization publicly emphasizes
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what type of memory is used when riding a bike?
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procedural memory
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role strain
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tension that results from the demands of a single role
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role conflift
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tension that results from multiple roles that an individual posses
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racial/ethnic identity can be an important aspect of in-group, true or false?
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true- these are characteristics of an in-group resting in shared culture, language, or community
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in terms of sociology groups, what is more stable a didactic or tridactic group?
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tridactic (3) group is considered more stable, due to additional social ties
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conflict theory
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emphasizes the competition b/w groups over allocation of societal resources. it assumes that power and authority are unequally distributed across society and that groups attempt to maintain this inequality/ their advantage.
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what research methodology involves the extended, systematic observation of a complete social environment?
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ethnographical methods
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what term refers to closed status positions that hinder social mobility?
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caste system

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