Film Exam 2

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Ch. 6: Components of Fictional Films
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When did feature films become commonplace?
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What is Story Time?
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the amount of time represented in a films narrative or story. For example, if a films earliest scene occurs on Sunday and its latest scene takes place on the following Friday, then the story time is six days. The story time for a movie is nearly always much longer than its running time.
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What is Running Time?
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…IS THE AMOUNT OF TIME IT TAKES TO VIEW A FILM, INCLUDING THE OPENING AND CLOSING CREDIS
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What does closure do for a film?
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…closure supplies viewers with the answers and a sense of completion that real life so often withholds.
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What kind of subjects does Black comedy cover?
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a narrative style that shows the humorous possibilities of warfare, death, illness, and other subjects often considered off limits to comedy.
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What is Magic Realism?
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a style in which occasional wildly improbable or impossible events occur in an otherwise realistic story.
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What are the uses of flashbacks?
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to show what influenced a character earlier, also may be used at the end of a film to reveal causes of previously puzzling events …
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Which of the following is not one of the basic components of a narrative?
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characterizations
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A film that ends by showing or implying the consequences of the narrative’s major events is said to have ____.
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closure
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Which of the following is not an accurate description of the imaginary events in a fictional film? a. They are presented in one or more styles. b. They consist of random details. c. They are presented over time (chronologically or not). d. They are selected and arranged in a unified order.
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b. They consist of random details
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A film in which individual scenes might be located elsewhere in the story with little consequence can be said to have _____.
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an episodic plot
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Characters, goals, and conflicts are the basic elements of
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structure
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What are the three traditional types of conflict?
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people versus nature, people versus people, and conflict within a character or person
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Main characters typically achieve all their major goals in which of the following kinds of film?
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classical Hollywood cinema
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Most short fictional films have ____________. a. a story time of a few days or less b. one or two major characters c. one goal for the main character, usually not stated explicitly, but easy to figure out d. all of the above
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d. all of the above
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Information supplied about characters and about events that supposedly transpired before the earliest event in the plot is called
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exposition
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The concluding shots of The Searchers and The Godfather do not _____________.
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evoke the emotions of relief and happiness
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Feature films typically consist of two or more _____.
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plotlines
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Which term describes a brief narrative focused on a few characters and that could function as a separate story?
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plotline
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In a narrative, _____ can be recognized only retroactively.
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a flash-forward
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Flashbacks may be used __________. a. to show what influenced a character earlier b. as the final scenes that clarify earlier events c. to question assumptions about causes d. all of the above
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d. all of the above
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_____ is the term used by some film and literary theorists to mean the mental chronological reconstruction of the events of a nonchronological narrative.
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Fabula
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A nonchronological plot may be used to _____________________.
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create a more engaging beginning than a chronological version
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The story time of a film is _____ the film’s running time.
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usually longer than
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The film style most likely to deal with the humorous possibilities of warfare would be _____.
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black comedy
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Magic realism is a style that _____________.
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may be included in otherwise realistic films
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According to the chapter, viewers are unlikely to become engaged with a film if they do not understand and accept the film’s _____.
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style
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Ch. 7: Types of Fictional Films
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What are the characteristics of Classical Hollywood Cinema ?
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1) The story is set mainly in a present, external world, (not necessarily in the current era) and is seen largely from outside the action, although point of view shots, memories, fantasies, dreams, or other mental states are sometimes included. 2) the film focuses on one character or a few distinct individuals 3) the main characters have a goal or a few goals 4) in trying to attain their goals, the main characters confront antagonists or a series of problems 5) the emphasis is on clear causes and effects of actions. What events happen and why they happen are clear and unambiguous 6) the film has closure – a sense of resolution or completion at the end of a narrative – and often the main characters succeed in reaching their goals (happy endings) 7) the film uses unobtrusive filmmaking techniques
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What makes revisionist Westerns different?
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they ignore or challenge the fundamental traditions of the western film…
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What is the basic conflict in the Western genre?
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a threat to civilization (outlaws committing a crime by robbing the passengers on a train) and the eventual reestablishment of order ( a posse giving chase, catching the four outlaws, killing them, and recovering the stolen goods)
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Are there restrictions when filming musicals?
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What are the shooting techniques of Italian Neorealist Cinema?
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few close ups, wipes that are about as inconspicuous as an editor could make them and little or no supplemental lighting
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What the typical settings of Film Noir?
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urban setting with dark, shadowy, low key lighting and many night scenes.
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What are the typical motivations of Film Noir characters?
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characters are motivated by selfishness, greed, cruelty and ambition and are willing to lie, frame, double cross, and kill
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What is the origin of the “femme fatale” character in Film Noir?
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…when women in the 1040’s in the US society during WWII were urged to take over factory jobs traditionally held by men. **
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What are the major influences in the development of Film Noir?
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…urban crime and corruption, unrestrained desire, and abrogation of the American dreams most basic promises of hope, prosperity, and safety from persecution. These films in this category were made during and after WWII
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How did French New Wave directors shoot their films?
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often shot on location with portable handheld cameras and sound equipment, fast film stock and new, more portable lighting equipment.
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When it comes to sex and violence, what differentiates European and Hollywood Cinema?
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the European independent cinema is more likely to be explicit about sexuality where as classical Hollywood cinema is more likely to be explicit about violence.
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What is Bollywood?
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extremely popular Hindi language movies made in India that usually feature complicated plots, large casts of mostly uncomplicated characters, frequent extravagant musical interludes and happy endings. This word was derived from a combination of Bombay and Hollywood
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How do Hong Kong films resemble Hollywood movies?
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in its reliance on streamlined plots and conventional genres such as comedies and gangster films
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What are the characteristics of the Dogme 95 Movement?
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film movement that instead of using expensive film making techniques they used realistic characters and settings.
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Which of the following are not major alternatives to fictional films?
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animated films
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Which one of the following is a characteristic of classical Hollywood cinema?
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The main characters have at least one goal.
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Film noirs usually take place in ________ settings and contain characters motivated by __________.
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urban, greed
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The many femme fatales in film noirs could have been the partial result of _____________.
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women playing a more prominent role in U.S. society during and after World War II
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Which of the following influenced film noir? a. detective fiction b. the Great Depression c. World War II d. all of the above
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d) all of the above
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Italian neorealist cinema uses _________ actors
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nonprofessional
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Italian neorealist cinema focuses on __________.
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characters
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French new wave cinema was a reaction to ____________.
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the carefully scripted products of the French film industry
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How was French new wave cinema often shot?
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with handheld cameras
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Which of the following is true of European independent films?
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There is usually one main character or a few distinct main characters.
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Independent European cinema is more likely to be explicit about ________ whereas classical Hollywood cinema is more likely to be explicit about ________.
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sexuality, violence
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of American independent cinema?
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The budget may run as high as $100 million.
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A western film may be __________. a. traditional or revisionist b. combined with film of another genre to create a hybrid c. set in the Canadian Rockies d. all of the above
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d) all of the above
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Which of these characteristics does not apply to American independent films?
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They tend to be produced in southern California.
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The films of classical Hollywood cinema ___________________________.
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stress continuity and clear cause-and-effect relationships
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The increased availability of digital filmmaking equipment and the ease of distributing films over the Web have greatly expanded the market for ___________ films.
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short
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A film that is about the film medium itself or frequently interrupts viewers’ involvement to draw attention to itself as a film could be called ___________.
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self-reflexive
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Dark and shadowy lighting, convoluted plots, and complex and flawed characters caught up in crime are all characteristics of _______________.
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films noirs
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Which of the following describes an element that could appear in a revisionist western?
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The film blends elements of the old and new west.
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Which kinds of films tend to use unobtrusive filmmaking techniques? a. Italian neorealist films b. short fictional films c. classical Hollywood cinema d. all of the above
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d) all of the above
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Ch. 10: Understanding Films through Contexts
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What film content did the Production Code of 1934 restrict?
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.restricted the explicit or positive representation of vast areas of human experience such as illegal drugs, illicit sex, scenes of passion, prostitution, childbirth, and obscene and profane speech.
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Who was the Soviet Union portrayed in U.S. films post-WWII?
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Who were the “Hollywood Ten”?
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ten filmmakers, mostly screen writers called this were sentenced to prison for contempt of congress. the HUAC held hearing sin Hollywood to investigate Communist infiltration of the film industry. Some film makers either from the conviction that the committee’s action’s infringed on their constitutional rights or because they had been communist party memebers. They refused to cooperate with the committee.
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What was the HUAC?
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The house committee of Un- American Activities.
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Why did the U.S. avoid controversial films in the 1950s?
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When was homosexuality portrayed openly in American films?
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1968…
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What has been the effect of Digital Video feature film-making?
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digital video has dramatically lowered the barriers to feature film making. for aspiring filmmakers who don’t have $200,00 to shoot on 35mm or $500,000 for 16mm, its an affordable alternative.
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Knowledge of a film’s context _________________________.
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helps viewers understand a film more completely
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Which of the following are not usually censored in films?
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technological subjects
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Filmmakers may use devices such as _____ to inform viewers about a film’s context.
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title cards
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What year did the production code begin to be enforced?
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1934
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From the beginning of the enforcement of the production code until the late 1960s, homosexuality in films was portrayed _______________.
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obliquely or not at all
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American filmmakers shied away from controversial subjects in much of the 1950s because of ________. a. the investigations of the House Committee on Un-American Activities b. the jailing of the “Hollywood Ten” c. the blacklisting of filmmakers accused of being members of the Communist Party d. all of the above
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d) all of the above
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From the late 1940s to the 1980s, American films nearly always tended to portray _____ as untrustworthy and treacherous.
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Russians or Soviets
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Which of the following was judged taboo under the guidelines of socialist realism?
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innovative styles
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Which of the following was not one of the reasons the Motion Picture Producers and Directors of America, Inc., used in supporting the enforcement of the production code?
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The entertainment industry functions as a branch of the state in creating good citizens.
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In the U.S. rating system, NC-17 was originally intended for films that ______.
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contain frank but serious representations of sexual subjects
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A filmic convention that today typically signifies a change of setting is a _____________.
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lap dissolve
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In the conventional western genre, the protagonist usually is ____________.
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European American male
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_____ is a relatively low-cost technology that has dramatically lowered the barriers to feature filmmaking.
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Digital video
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. For a low-budget, independent film, which of the following increases the chances for success? a. enthusiastic reviews b. a creative director c. recognition at a major film festival d. all of the above
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d) all of the above
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The introduction of synchronized soundtracks to filmmaking effectively put an end to which of the following film genres?
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slapstick comedy
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In the 1950s, _____ were used by the film industry to combat the growing popularity of television.
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large, wide-screen images
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Sophisticated computer software can make something seem to transform into something else on screen, a process called _____.
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morphing
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THX, DTS, and Sony Dynamic Digital refer to ______________.
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theater sound systems
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The viewing experience in an early nickelodeon often included all of the following except _____.
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decorative theater interiors
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Both a movie palace and an IMAX theater offer moviegoers ____________.
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c. an escape into a new world
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Genres:
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1. What do critics dislike about the typical characters in Action films?
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…their two dimensional heroes or villains
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How do the plots of Comedies resolve?
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usually have a happy ending even though humor may have a serious side, victory or resolution is attained by the end after strenuous physical feats and violence
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To what larger genre does Film Noir belong?
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crime and gangster…
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Where are Epic films set?
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against a vast panoramic backdrop.
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What is the largest film genre?
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dramatic
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At what age and gender group are Action films aimed?
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male audiences ages 13 to mid 30’s…
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What genre examines current social issues?
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drama
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Which genre centers on morality tales?
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gangster films
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Which genre has plots with high energy activity?
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action
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What kind of comedy includes physical action and vulgar gags?
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slapstick comedy
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Which kind of comedy looks at the battle of the sexes?
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screwball comedy
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What kind of comedy examines serious subjects, like war, death, or illness?
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black or dark comedy
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What is the typical setting for Science Fiction films?
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earth, outer space, or in the future time, fantastic and imaginative places places
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Which genre shows the battle against the irrational forces of chaos?
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horror films
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Which genre examines our most basic, primal fears?
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horror films
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Which genre looks at the impact of technology on society?
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sci fi
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Which genre explores the themes of sacrifice and struggle?
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war and anti war
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Where are Fantasy films often set?
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fairy tale and whimsical settings
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On which genre did Expressionistic German Cinema make a huge impact?
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…horror
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What films were often used as propaganda during the war years?
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war films
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Who are the typical characters in Fantasy films?
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Typically, the predominant characters in fantasies are princes or princesses. Some fantasy-type films might also include quasi-religious or supernatural characters such as angels, lesser gods, or fairies. Or they include the gnomes, dwarves and elves of legend.
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Which films threaten the destruction of humankind by eliminating individuality?
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science fiction
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War films became a major genre after the outbreak of which World War?
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…WW!

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