Exam 1 Review Test Questions

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How does connective tissue differ from the other three major tissue types?
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Connective tissue often consists of relatively few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix.
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Which of these describes loose connective tissue?
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It is a loose weave of fibers that functions as a packing material.
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Cartilage is found _____.
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at the ends of bones such as the femur
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_____ is the connective tissue specialized for transport.
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Blood
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What type of epithelium would you expect to find covering a surface subject to physical forces?
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stratified epithelium
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What type of epithelial tissue, found in the intestines, absorbs nutrients?
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simple columnar epithelium
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Which of these tissues, found in the lungs, permits gas exchange by diffusion?
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simple squamous epithelium
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What type of epithelial tissue lines kidney tubules?
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simple cuboidal cells
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What type of muscle is responsible for contractions of the digestive tract and arteries?
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smooth muscle
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Cardiac muscle is the only muscle composed of _____ fibers.
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branched
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_____ muscle is attached to bones.
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Skeletal
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A neuron consists of _____.
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dendrites, a cell body, and axons
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Nervous tissue functions _____.
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to sense stimuli
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Which of these is NOT one of the four major categories of tissue?
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blood
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Which term describes a mechanism by which the internal conditions of an organism are kept at set values without regard to the external conditions?
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Regulatory homeostasis.
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Which of the following actions is not a function of the epithelium?
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Allows the internal environment to alter its conditions to match those of the external environment.
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True or false? Organisms must maintain homeostasis because optimal enzyme activity is achieved within a very narrow range of conditions.
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True
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Which component of a homeostatic system sends instructions based on sensory information?
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Integrator
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Which component of a homeostatic system perceives changes in some parameter of the environment?
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Sensor.
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Which of the following actions acts to warm a homeothermic body?
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Shivering
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Which of the following statements describes a negative feedback response?
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After a meal, blood sugar levels in the body rise; insulin is secreted to lower blood sugar levels.
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Which of these is an example of negative feedback?
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After you eat, insulin stimulates the lowering of blood sugar levels.
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The skin is part of which body system?
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the integumentary system
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Which of these is not a function of the respiratory system?
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to sense changes in the atmosphere
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The human heart has two pumps composed of four chambers. One pump sends blood to the lungs, and the other pump sends blood to _____.
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all of the tissues and organs of the body
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Which of these is not a function of the excretory system?
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It processes nutrients after digestion.
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What are the functions of the excretory system?
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It removes excessive liquid waste. It regulates the level of salts in our body. It filters nitrogenous wastes.
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Breakdown and absorption of nutrients are accomplished by the _____ system.
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digestive
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Regulation of salt and removal of wastes from blood is accomplished by the _____ system.
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excretory
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About how many people in the U.S. are living with amputations?
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2 million
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Current data show that which of the following people is most likely to choose a more extensive amputation?
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Someone with an injury below their knee.
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Which of the following is frequently a problem for those who opted for fused joints?
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extreme arthritis
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New prostheses make use of which of the following to simulate action of missing muscles and tendons?
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robotics
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Currently, what type of prosthetic do those with upper extremity injuries most often use?
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hook
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Which of the following appears to play a large role in the cause of necrotizing enterocolitis?
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premature birth
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Current advances in tissue engineering seemingly rely on which of the following?
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stem cells
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What happens to the plastic scaffold Dr. Grikscheit uses to grow tissue?
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It breaks down.
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If human studies progress as mouse studies have, in order for this technique to work, the patient needs a healthy what?
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omentum
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You have been receiving total parenteral nutrition for several months. Which of the following organs is most likely damaged because of this?
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liver
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When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.
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amino acids
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When digested, fats are broken down into _____.
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both glycerol and fatty acids
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Starch is a type of _____.
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polysaccharide
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Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested.
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fructoses
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Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?
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amylase
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Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.
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maltose
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Protein digestion begins in the _____.
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stomach
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What is the main component of gastric juice?
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water
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_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____.
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Bile … liver … fats … small intestine
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What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?
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hydrochloric acid
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Secretin stimulates the _____ to secrete _____.
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pancreas … bicarbonate
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Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the _____ to secrete _____.
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pancreas … pancreatic enzymes
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The acidity of the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.
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secretin
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The presence of fatty acids and amino acids in the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.
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cholecystokinin, or CCK
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Bile is produced by the _____ and stored by the _____ until it is secreted into the small intestine.
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liver … gall bladder
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Which structure is not part of the alimentary canal?
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Salivary glands
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What structures are a part of the alimentary canal?
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Esophagus. Mouth. Stomach.
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Which process is not required for an animal to obtain energy from food?
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Excretion
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Which processes are required for an animal to obtain energy from food?
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Ingestion. Secretion Digestion
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True or false? One advantage of having a tube-like digestive tract is that digestion of all compounds can take place simultaneously down the tract.
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False
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True or False? The liver is a component of the alimentary canal.
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False
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Proteins that are consumed in the diet are absorbed as individual amino acids following digestion.
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Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase.
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Free fatty acid absorption occurs in the small intestine.
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To survive, all animals must have _____.
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a way to obtain and digest nutrients
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Which one of the following is an essential nutrient for a human?
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ascorbic acid, a vitamin calcium sodium linoleic acid, a fatty acid
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For the body to absorb and use _____, they must be broken down by hydrolysis into _____.
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proteins … amino acids
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Which of the following lists the four stages of food processing in the order that they naturally occur?
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ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
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How does a gastrovascular cavity differ from an alimentary canal? The gastrovascular cavity _____.
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has only a single opening
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Which one of the following correctly represents the order in which food coming into the body passes through the structures of the digestive system?
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pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
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Breakdown of carbohydrates first begins in which one of the following organs?
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mouth
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The cardiac sphincter surrounds the cardiac orifice, the upper opening into the stomach. If this sphincter failed to properly constrict, there might be a problem with _____.
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regurgitation of food into the esophagus, commonly called “heartburn”
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Deer, cattle, and sheep are ruminants.
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Obesity contributes to the most common type of diabetes.
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Obesity contributes to _____.
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diabetes heart disease cancer
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In the video, Roy Walford proposes that the decline in immune function associated with old age can be delayed with _____.
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a diet with restricted calories
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Maintaining a healthy body with moderate exercise and a good diet is believed to _____.
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keep the mind healthy reduce stress reduce the incidence of disease prevent obesity
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What can a person do to try to control weight gain?
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Exercise regularly and balance calorie intake with calorie requirements.
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How are refined sugar and high fructose corn syrup different?
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High fructose corn syrup contains more fructose than refined sugar.
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What, in part, fueled the use of high fructose corn syrup?
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High fructose corn syrup is cheaper to produce than refined sugar.
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Which organ converts fructose to fat?
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liver
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Approximately how much sugar does the average American consume each year?
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90 pounds
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Which of the following is in the correct order leading to the development of heart disease?
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fat accumulation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome
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When did fluoridation of water begin in the U.S.?
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1940s
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What happened to cases of dental fluorosis between 1986 and 2004?
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They doubled.
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You do not think that fluoride should be added to tap water. Who is most likely to agree with you?
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The Fluoride Action Network
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Besides teeth, what other body part does fluoride have the most impact on?
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knee
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How has the recent economic recession affected fluoridation of water in the U.S.?
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More cities are eliminating the use of fluoride in water to save money.
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You want to lose weight. Which of the following combinations would likely work best?
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Eat nuts and whole wheat bread, and sleep for 7-8 hours per night.
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According to this study, which of the following would be best to avoid if you want to lose weight?
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French fries
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Physical activity had less impact on weight than foods eaten.
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If a person quits smoking, they are likely to gain weight.
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What effect does watching television have on weight?
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As television watching increases, weight also increases.
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Choose the list that presents the four stages of food processing in the order in which they naturally occur.
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ingestion → digestion → absorption → elimination
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The gastrovascular cavity differs from the alimentary canal in that only the gastrovascular cavity _____.
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has only a single opening
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According to guidelines by the American Journal of Hypertension, who should watch their sodium intake?
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People diagnosed with hypertension.
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You are the head of the federal agency that sets limits on how much sodium restaurants can use in foods. Who do you work for?
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Food and Drug Administration
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You are having your sodium levels properly measured by a doctor. Which of the following is being sampled?
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urine
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Sodium is a necessary part of the human diet.
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You are a world renowned food critic. In which of the following cities will you have to ask for a salt shaker at a restaurant you are reviewing?
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Buenos Aires, Argentina
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You are voraciously hungry and your doctor says it is a hormone imbalance. Which hormone do you likely have very high level of?
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ghrelin
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Which of the following hormones is known to suppress hunger and increase metabolism?
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leptin
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No matter how much weight is lost, it is difficult to keep it off permanently
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A person with more body fat will produce more leptin than a person with less body fat.
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About one in ____ Americans is considered obese
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3
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In which of the following animals are the blood and the interstitial fluid considered to be the same body fluid?
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grasshoppers (insects)
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In the adult heart, blood in the right chambers of the heart cannot enter the left chambers without passing through the lungs.
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Which of the following best describes an artery?
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Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
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Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
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Stroke occurs when _____.
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a blood clot enters the cerebral circulation, blocking an artery and causing the death of brain tissue
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Which of the following organisms has no specialized respiratory structures?
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earthworms
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An advantage of gas exchange in water, compared with gas exchange in air, is that _____.
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the fine structure of the gas exchange surface is supported by being in direct contact with the moving respiratory medium
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The smallest airway through which inspired air passes before gas exchange occurs in the mammalian lungs is the _____.
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bronchiole
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_____ in carbon dioxide in your red blood cells, which causes _____ in pH, causes your breathing to speed up.
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An increase … a drop
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The amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin _____.
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increases in the presence of high concentrations of oxygen
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Voice sounds are produced by the _____.
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larynx
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The primary functions of the _____ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.
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nasal cavity
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Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____.
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capillaries of the head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs
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The _____ has(have) the thinnest walls.
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capillaries
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Blood pressure is highest in the _____.
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aorta
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Most gas exchange with blood vessels occurs across the walls of the _____.
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alveoli
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Red blood cells are different from most cells of our body because _____.
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they lack a nucleus and mitochondria
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Hemoglobin is _____.
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a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen
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White blood cells _____.
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attack foreign cells and infectious agents defend our body against illness can move between the bloodstream and tissues produce antibodies as part of the immune response
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Blood cells are produced in _____.
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bone marrow
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The fluid part of blood is called _____.
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plasma
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Red blood cells are involved in all of the following except _____.
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fighting disease
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Blood platelets are involved in _____.
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blood clotting
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Most carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs _____.
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as bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)
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By picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____.
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acidic
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In the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues _____.
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combined with hemoglobin
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What is the function of a circulatory system?
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It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.
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Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?
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The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.
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True or false? The circulatory systems of land-dwelling vertebrates are composed of two pumping circuits: the systemic circulation, which is a lower-pressure circuit to the lung, and the pulmonary circulation, which is a higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body.
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False
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What is the function of the left ventricle?
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It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
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Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.
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Which event occurs first during diastole?
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The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria
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Which event of the cardiac cycle occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured?
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The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.
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Which of the following codes for proteins in all cells, including cancer cells?
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genes
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In Dr. Wartman’s case, which of the following was true?
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Both his DNA and his RNA had mutations and were acting wildly.
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You are a cancer researcher studying the use of flow cytometry on three different forms of thyroid cancer. Which of the following are you using to label the cancer cells?
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antibodies
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Which of the following is true regarding bone marrow transplants?
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Even if the patient and the donor are a match, the patient can still experience side effects.
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Dr. Wartman received the drug Sutent because the mutation found in his cancer cells matched that of which kind of cancer?
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kidney
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True or false? The lungs of humans form from the embryonic foregut.
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true
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True or false? The pressure inside the human chest cavity is always positive, so the lungs stay relatively inflated even upon exhalation.
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false
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Which lung structure is a tiny sac that functions as an interface between air and blood?
answer

alveolus
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Which barrier(s) must and cross to pass between air and blood inside lungs?
answer

capillary wall extracellular fluid epithelial cells
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True or false? The driving force for the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin into tissues is the difference in PCO2 levels between the blood and body tissues.
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false
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How is most carbon dioxide transported from tissues to the lungs?
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As bicarbonate ions
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Which of the following statements about the oxygen-hemoglobin interaction is true?
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The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the binding of other oxygen molecules.
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Blood returns to the heart via the _____
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pulmonary veins
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From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.
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left atrium
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From the anterior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.
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right atrium
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From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.
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posterior vena cava
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Arteries carry blood _____.
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away from the heart only
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Blood returns to the heart via the _____.
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pulmonary veins
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From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.
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left atrium
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From the anterior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.
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right atrium
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From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.
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posterior vena cava
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Innate immunity and acquired immunity are both _____.
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characteristics of all vertebrate animals
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Macrophages are _____.
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large, phagocytic cells that can leave the circulation and enter the tissues of the body
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An antigen _____.
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is a foreign molecule that evokes a specific response by a lymphocyte
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The fact that there are about a million different antigen receptors possible in human B cells is based on _____.
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recombination of the segments of the receptor DNA that make up the functional receptor genes of differentiated B cells
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The role of active cytotoxic T cells is to attack _____.
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body cells that have been infected
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Cell-mediated immunity differs from humoral immunity in that _____.
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they respond differently to invaders
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Helper T cells are part of _____.
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cell-mediated immune responses
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Extracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria in body fluids are attacked by _____.
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antibodies from plasma cells
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Tissues are immunogically “typed” before an organ transplant to make sure that the donor and recipient match as closely as possible in their _____.
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MHC (major histocompatibility complex) proteins
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A primary reason for needing a new vaccine for influenza each year is that _____.
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mutation in the influenza virus is frequent
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If recent studies hold true, which of the following children would be most likely to develop allergies and asthma?
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A child frequently given antibiotics.
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An infant is delivered by Caesarean section. To help her digest breast milk, it may prove beneficial to give the child which of the following?
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Lactobacillus johnsonii
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Clostridium difficile typically infects which organ system?
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digestive system
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You are a medical researcher studying how fungal infections can be controlled in humans. Which of the following proteins will be helpful in your research?
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dectin-1
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You are a doctor. You have a patient infected with antibiotic-resistant Clostridium difficile. Which of the following treatments should you try?
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fecal transplant
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Which secretion is not a barrier that prevents pathogens from entering the body?
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antigens
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What secretions are a barrier that prevents pathogens from entering the body?
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Ear wax. Mucus. Lysozyme.
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True or false? The leukocytes of the innate immune system are B cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.
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false The leukocytes of the innate immune system are mast cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.
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How do cells involved in the innate immune response detect the presence of pathogens?
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Leukocytes recognize unique molecules on pathogens
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Which of the following cells can engulf a pathogen?
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macrophages
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Which of the following statements best describes the role of mast cells in the inflammatory response?
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They release chemicals that constrict blood vessels at the wound site.
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Which of the following events of the innate immune response occurs first when a wound that breaks the skin has occurred?
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Platelets release proteins that form clots and decrease bleeding.
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The site of inflammation may become swollen due to the increased numbers of cells and fluids at the site and painful due to signals from pain receptors.
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true The site of inflammation may also become red due to increased blood flow at the site; the inflammatory response continues until all invaders are eliminated and the wound is repaired.
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Which of these cells is a phagocytic leukocyte that can engulf a foreign bacterium?
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macrophage
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_____ interact with the antigen-class II MHC complex presented by macrophages.
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Helper T cells
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B cells that have been stimulated by interleukin-2 develop into _____.
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plasma cells
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The role of cytotoxic T cells is the secretion of _____, which plays a role in the _____ immune response.
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perforin … cell-mediated
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Clonal selection is the division of _____ that have been stimulated by binding to an antigen, which results in the production of cloned _____.
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B cells … plasma cells and memory cells
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Which of these cells is responsible for the rapidity of the secondary immune response?
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memory cells
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Which of these cells produce and secrete antibodies?
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plasma cells
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Which structure is not a component of the adaptive immune system?
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tissues
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True or false? B cells were originally isolated from the bursa in chickens, and their function is to produce antibodies; T cells were originally isolated from the thymus in mice, and their functions include killing host cells that are being infected with a virus.
answer

true
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Which of the following statements about the clonal-selection theory of immune system function is false?
answer

Antigens are recognized by receptor proteins inside the lymphocyte.
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Which of the following statements about the clonal-selection theory of immune system function is true?
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Each lymphocyte recognizes one antigen. An activated lymphocyte makes many copies of itself in response to an infection. Cloned cells persist after the pathogen is eliminated.
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What is the final step in the cell-mediated response to a viral infection?
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Cytotoxic T lymphocytes punch holes in the membranes of infected host cells.
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How do cells involved in the humoral response respond to antigen presentation on the surface of a B cell?
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Helper T cells recognize the receptor-antigen complex and cause plasma and memory cells to be produced to then produce antibodies.
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Which protein presents viral antigens on the outer surface of cells?
answer

MHC protein
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How are cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) produced?
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CD8+ T cells divide and differentiate into cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
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What is cancer?
answer

abnormal or uncontrolled division of cells
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What is a lymphocyte?
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a type of white blood cell involved in the immune response
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Which of these is true of a vaccine?
answer

It typically is harmless to the body. It is derived from a disease-causing agent or its components. It possesses antigens similar to those of a pathogen. It stimulates the body’s immune system to mount a defense in advance of an actual exposure.
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Melanoma is a type of cancer that affects _____.
answer

skin
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How is Dr. Rosenberg attempting to cure patients with melanoma?
answer

by using gene therapy to instruct lymphocytes to recognize cancerous cells
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Which of these statements describes antibodies?
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They are proteins that attach to foreing antigen such as bacterias or viruses, marking them for destruction.
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The role of memory cells in the immune response is to _____.
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facilitate a rapid response to later infection by the same invader
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How does immunization work?
answer

The body’s defenses are primed by advance exposure to a harmless version of the virus.
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Jonas Salk’s work helped to produce _____.
answer

a vaccine for polio
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Edward Jenner created the first vaccine, which was used to treat _____.
answer

smallpox
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Viruses that have entered our body are engulfed and destroyed by _____.
answer

white blood cells
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The genetic material of HIV consists of _____.
answer

single-stranded RNA
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Which of these binds to receptor molecules on the host cell membrane?
answer

glycoprotein
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What is the function of reverse transcriptase?
answer

catalyzing the formation of DNA from a RNA template
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What is the source of a viral envelope?
answer

host cell membrane
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Double-stranded viral DNA is incorporated into a host cell as a _____.
answer

provirus
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Which of the following describes innate immunity?
answer

Tears, saliva, and mucous secretions contain lysozyme, an enzyme that digests bacterial cell walls. Unbroken skin creates a physical barrier that cannot normally be penetrated by bacteria or viruses. Surface secretions from sebaceous and sweat glands give the skin an acidic pH that is unfavorable for bacterial colonization. Mucus traps microbes and other particles that come in contact with it.
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Which statement best describes tissue macrophages?
answer

They are large, phagocytic cells that can leave the circulation and enter the tissues of the body.
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Which choice best describes an antigen?
answer

An antigen is a foreign molecule that evokes a specific response by a lymphocyte.
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How do memory cells differ from effector cells?
answer

Memory cells live longer.
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The role of cytotoxic T cells is to attack _____.
answer

body cells that have been infected
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Cell-mediated immunity differs from humoral immunity because_____.
answer

they respond differently to invaders
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Helper T cells are part of _____.
answer

a cell-mediated immune response
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Viruses and bacteria in body fluids are attacked by _____.
answer

antibodies from B cells
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Tissues are typed before an organ transplant to make sure that the _____ of donor and recipient match as closely as possible.
answer

MHC (major histocompatibility complex) proteins
question

Which of the following cell types does HIV preferentially infect?
answer

helper T cells

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