Evolution of Human Sexuality Topic 5

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Concealed Ovulation
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The exact timing of female ovulation (able to get pregnant) is unknown to both the male and female of a species
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Estrus
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Is marked by increases in female sexual behavior (proceptivity) and attractiveness at the period of highest fertility just before ovulation Period of pronounced genital swelling \”In Heat\”
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Receptivity
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Readiness to copulate when solicited by a male
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Proceptivity
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Active encouragement and solicitations by females to copulate
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Attractiveness
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Females become sexually exciting to males During estrus (in primates) males find females sexually attractive, thus initiating copulations
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Bipedalism
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Centralized foramen magnum The vertebral column has distinct S-curve The pelvis rotates forward in humans, becomes shorter and bowl shaped The femur angles inward to the knee The foot develops a distinct arch Abducted big toe, used for toe off walking
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Visual Cues
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By reducing swelling and movement of genitals, the visual cue indicating ovulation (loss of estrus) is no longer advantageous Males cannot see if females are ready to become pregnant
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Olfactory Cues
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Males more often prefer a females odor during ovulation When not on contraception. Modern hygiene eliminates natural scent
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Singh and Bronstad Study
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Males smelled female shirts from different times of their cycle (no contraception – 3 nights during ovulation and 3 during non-ovulation Males lead to believe one t-short worn by attractive female (and vice versa) Rated most attractive/sexier smell during ovulation
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Lapdancers and Ovulation
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Received more tips when ovulating, no difference in tips present when ovulating and on contraceptives.
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Vocal Studies and Ovulation
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Women had higher pitch voice during fertile phase and that voice was rated as being more attractive (bryant and haselton)
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Behavioral Changes/Theories
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Concealed ovulation enhanced bond between man and women b/c continuous receptivity, perceptivity, and attractiveness Concealed estrus exploits male paranoia over paternity, enhances pair bond Concealed ovulation increases chances for paternal care
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Hadza and Estrus
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Females still have concealed ovulation, estrus even more concealed by the smell of smoke.
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Huala Menstrual Huts
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Menstruation is seen as toxic, men cannot go near menstruation huts, believed they will die if they come in contact with a woman who is menstruating.
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Kodi – Dye Pots
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Men forbidden to touch dye pots, only women make the blue dye
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Kodi – Blue Witches
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Blood is poisonous to others, associated with witchcraft

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