Evolution-Fall 2014

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Adaptation
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This is an inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival.
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Analogous Structures
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These are structures which are similar in different organisms because they evolved in a similar environment, yet do not have a common ancestor.
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Charles Darwin
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This scientist is known for his work with natural selection, and he is known as the Father of Evolution.
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Comparative Anatomy
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This is the study of similar and different structures in organisms.
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DNA
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This holds an organisms hereditary information.
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Genotype
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The genetic makeup of an organism.
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Homologous Structures
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These are physical features shared by organisms with common ancestry; they may have the same structure, but different functions developmentally mature organisms.
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Lamarack
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Theorized that evolution occurred through the use and disuse of physical features- now proven to be a false concept. Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Traits.
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Multicellular
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Organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Most life that can be seen with the naked eye is this
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Mutation
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This is a random error/change in the DNA sequence. These may be inherited or occur in cells during the lifetime of the organism.
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Natural Selection
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This is the process of organisms adapting to their environments over time
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Organism
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Any living thing with one or more cells.
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Phenotype
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The physical expression of genes.
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Population
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All the individuals of a species that live together in one place at the same time
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Species
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These are groups of reproducing populations that are isolated from other groups.
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Survival of the Fittest
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That species adapt and change by natural selection and the changes aid in the survival of the organism.
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Trait
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A specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another.
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Unicellular
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Literally, one-celled.
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Vestigial Structure
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This has been reduced in size, usually, over time and has less important function in some related organisms than in others.
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Evolution
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A change in a populations genes over time.
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Predator
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This is an animal that lives by preying on other animals.
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Prey
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An animal that is killed and eaten by another animal.
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Variation
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Differences in physical traits of an individual from the group to which it belongs
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Comparative Embryology
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Study of similar embryological development in closely related species
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Descent with Modification
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Species have descended, with adaptations or other modifications, from previous generations.
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Molecular biology
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The branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. Compares DNA and protein sequences of species.
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Fossil
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This is the mineralized remains of plants or animals
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Relative age
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Estimate of the age of a fossil based on the location of fossils in strata.
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Absolute age
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Age in years of a fossil which can only be determined by radioactive dating.
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Transition Fossil
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Fossils that show links in traits between groups of organisms
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Extinction
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This is the ceasing of existence of a particular species
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Coevolution
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This is a type of evolution that occurs when two organisms living in a close association change and adapt along with each other
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Speciation
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Evolution of two or more species from one ancestral species.
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Allel
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This is an alternative form of a gene
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Enzyme
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These are complex proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the amount of energy needed to get the reaction started
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Carbohydrates
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This is a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; it is used by cells to store and release energy. Sugars are made by chloroplasts through photosynthesis and consumed by mitochondria through cell respiration
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Glucose
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A simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.
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Monosaccharide
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This is the simplest type of carbohydrate, commonly known as a simple sugar, which acts as a building block for larger carbohydrates such as starches
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Disaccharide
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Two monosaccharides bonded together.
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Frequency
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The number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time
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Energy
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The capacity for doing work. It may be transformed from one form to another.
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Convergent Evolution
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Evolution toward similar characteristics in unrelated species, resulting from adaptations to similar environmental conditions.
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Divergent Evolution
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Evolution of one or more closely related species into different species; resulting from adaptation to different environmental conditions.
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Gene Flow
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Physical movement of alleles from one population to another.
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Genetic Drift
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Change in allele frequencies due to chance alone, occurring most commonly in small populations.
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Genetic equilibrium
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Describes the condition of an allele or genotype in a gene pool (such as a population) where the frequency does not change from generation to generation.
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Punctuated equilibrium
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Theory that states that speciation occurs suddenly and rapidly followed by long periods of little evolutionary change.
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Adaptive radiation
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Process by which one species evolves and gives rise to many descendant species that occupy different ecological niches.
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Gene
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This is a segment of DNA on the chromosome that is coded for a particular trait.
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Homeostasis
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The processes in which an organism maintains stable internal conditions.

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