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Essentials of Business Communication Chapter 3

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active voice
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Sentences in which the subject is the doer of the action (such as Monica read the press release)
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clause
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Related group of words that has a subject and verb
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comma splice
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A sentence error that results when a writer joins two independent clauses with a comma
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complex sentence
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A sentence that contains an independent clause and a dependent clause, often introduced by a subordinate conjunction
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compound sentence
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A sentence that contains two complete but unrelated thoughts joined by a conjunction, a semicolon, or a conjunctive adverb
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compound-complex sentence
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A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses and one dependent clause
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dangling modifier
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A modifier dangles when the word or phrase it describes is missing from the sentence; for example, Using a search tool, the Web site was finally found
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dependent clause
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A group of words with subject and verb that depend for meaning on an independent clause; cannot stand alone
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direct strategy
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An organizational pattern in which the main idea comes first, followed by details, an explanation, or evidence
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formal research
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Techniques such as searching resources in public and college library, accessing electronic information, going directly to the source, and conducting scientific experiments
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fragment
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A sentence error that result when a broken-off part of a complex sentence is punctuated as if it were a complete sentence
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freewriting
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Getting your thoughts down quickly during the writing process
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frontloading
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Another name for the direct strategy, which places the main idea first
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fused sentence
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A sentence error that results when two independent clauses are incorrectly joined (fused) together without a conjunction or a semicolon; also called a run-on sentence
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grouping
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An organizational process that groups similar ideas together, following a sequence that helps the reader understand relationships and accept the writer’s views
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independent clause
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A clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand alone
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indirect strategy
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An organizational pattern in which the main idea comes later in a message, after the details, explanation, or evidence
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informal research
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Techniques such as looking in the files, talking with a supervisor, interviewing a target audience, conducting an informal survey, or brainstorming for ideas
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misplaced modifier
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A modifier is misplaced when the word or phrase it describes is not close enough to be clear; for example, After being in the refrigerator for a week, Brian said the milk tasted bad
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outline
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A hierarchical structure that helps to organize ideas
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paragraph
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A group of sentences about one idea
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parallelism
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A writing technique that uses similar construction, such as researching, organizing, and writing to achieve balanced writing
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passive voice
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Sentences in which the subject is acted upon, such as The press release was read by Monica
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research
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Collecting needed information before writing a message
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run-on sentence
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A sentence error that results when two independent clauses are incorrectly joined (fused) together without a conjunction or a semicolon; also called a fused sentence
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simple sentence
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A sentence that contains one complete thought with a subject and a predicate
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support sentences
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Sentences that illustrate, explain, or strengthen the topic sentence
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topic sentence
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A sentence that states the main idea of a paragraph
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transitional expressions
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Words (such as meanwhile, although, furthermore, and for example) that show connections and build paragraph coherence