Development and Managing Resources in Teaching Essay
“If change and uncertainty have become part of the practices of lifelong learning, in which the varying boundaries around and within the field are challenged and shift, then developing strategies to identify, interpret and make judgments about the significance of such changes become critical. The concern with boundaries suggests that practitioners constantly need to negotiate borders of varying forms in developing practices for working effectively with diverse adults in varying settings.
This can be unsettling and challenging, for in the borderlands we can be bound for glory or bound and gagged! ” (Petty, 2009) In my teaching practice, students are expected to be from multicultural background. But mainly are from Somali background at the moment. I am teaching them GCSE Science and the range of their age is 15 to 17 years. These students have some issues, for example some failed in previous GCSE exams, some couldn’t get admissions in main stream school, some recently moved from other countries and some are expelled from the school because of their behaviour issues.
The main study issues with my students are most of them needs to improve their English language, have less exposure to basic scientific facts, Educational system, Lack of concentration etc. Types of Resources and their Purpose: Although verbal communication is most commonly used in teaching, but in different circumstances of student’s set up, abilities and other purposes visual information is more effective. The main advantage of visual aids is that they gain attention. And without getting attention we cannot explain anything to our students.
Also visual aid increase conceptualisation, easier to remember and your prepared resource show your students that you take their learning seriously. (Petty, 2009) There are different types of visual aids like Handouts: you can make our own handouts according to students approach or can use articles or related information from online, newspapers, books etc. you can talk with your class through handouts, or ask them to use individually or in group. You can ask questions in handouts and leave spaces for answers.
Handouts are quite helpful in providing extra information and support to your students. Handouts can save great deal of time for you and your students. The White Board: It can be use to display the key ideas as your student covered. It can be used to write the summary of the lesson before the class arrives. Maths and science teachers use board work to demonstrate how to solve problems, and to give instructions for experiments. But sometimes too much use of writing can distract your students and instead of listening and understanding they will busy in coping your writing on board.
Microsoft PowerPoint® and Interactive whiteboard: Microsoft PowerPoint®, Apple Keynote™ and similar applications enable a computer or interactive white board to display a series of screens called slides. These can contain text, images, graphics, sound and video clips or any combination of these. These slides can be saved on your institution’s intranet enabling students to access them at any time. The most common faults in computer presentations are too much text on one slide, and over use of gimmicks. The goal of such presentations should be to explain rather than impress or distract.
Models and the Real thing: If a picture is worth a thousand words, how many for a model, And what about the real thing? Model can be commercially produced and made by the teacher. Different subject teachers can use different type models or real thing in class to explain in more efficient way in their class. You can engage your students to design and make models and it will leave deep impact on memory and understanding. Charts and Posters: Design is very important for charts and posters. They can be pinned up in class, with students left to read them at their leisure; but it is better to use them as a teaching aid.
Posters are particularly useful for teachers of foreign languages. Videos: Always preview anything you intend to show, and decide what you hope your student will learn from it. You can use the video to answer some question from the video at the end, so they pay attention towards what you actually want to show. Other teaching aids: the other teaching aids like games, slide projector, computers, audio tapes, Graphic organisers that compare etc can also be used as a part of your innovation as a teacher.
Range of sources and Resource Development: 87 per cent of information enters our brain through our eyes, 9 per cent by ears and 4 per cents via the other senses. ”(Petty, 2009) Different teaching methods and use of resources develop different skills in learners. Worksheets require students to develop carefully the skills of reading and attending to detail. Design works develop their creative flair. Teacher talks develop the skills of listening attentively, and group work develops the skills of discussions, persuasions and working with others. Independent learning develops the skill of learning how to learn, and so on. Petty, 2009)
When you summarise a topic for students try to use mind maps and other graphic organisers because it creates somehow picture of the topic they being taught for and let them memorise by creating links. You can ask them to create their own mind maps on individual or group base that what they learnt that specific day and then compare and discuss with each other. From online resources, books, magazines, newspapers, through your own creation you can show images, pictures, photographs posters, diagrams, shapes and patterns, drawing cartoons, overhead projector transparencies, graphs charts, symbols, icon, logos, leaflets etc. hich will actually affect the learner’s approach, interest and level of understanding in cognitive manner.
In order to make visual representation you must first understand the topic which you going to teach, so the method is ‘constructivist’ For different levels of students you can create different handouts e. g. grabbed handouts, where space is left for students to answer question, transparencies can be photocopied as handouts and handouts can be made transparencies, can use word process handouts with own drawn diagrams and remember don’t overcrowd handouts because if they are unattractive they will not be read.
In Power point slides the use of graphic organisers can summarise and explain topics with few words and great power. You can also use reveal and overlay techniques; it often helps not to show the whole slide or a diagram at once, but to reveal it in stages. This technique can be use and quite effective in teaching science as well like you can show changes in time, like piston moving in a cylinder or growth of a plant.
In your slides you can use the technique of hyperlinks on any slide of your choice which links with some website link, video, or another related slide. Also you can interrupt your presentation for activities, etc. by pressing the ‘B’ key to turn the screen black, or a ‘W’ key to turn it white. Pressing the key again returns you to the same slide. So you can use a wide range of resources available now days but resources should be more effective if they use according to the demand of course and student’s learning styles.
Inclusiveness of Resources: It is very important to use the different resources at right time and in right sequence so that it will work constructively. Resources are not only to show off that how impressive you prepared lesson for your students but the intention should be constructive and should show inclusiveness of resources. In my teaching practice most of my students have language issues and it takes long for them to write when I am explaining something for example worried about spelling and sentences etc.
I am trying to provide them same power point slides handouts which help them to concentrate in lesson instead worrying how to write correctively. Also it is easy to revise later and can add any extra knowledge. In slides I add extra knowledge from different online resources to increase their vision about topic. I always try to include pictures of different related topics that help them to remember properly and pictures creates links in mind, also they can see actually what it looks like sometimes they know already but don’t know the name in English.
Most of the time, I try to show them videos which give them idea how the basic idea really works in real world. I also include the online resources links in slides that if they need in future. For starter and end activities I try to use more engaging and attention catching activities. It varies with different lesson topics. Normally at the end I just want to summarise the whole lesson so sometimes I use small quiz or test or pair discussions and presentation of the idea what they learnt.
To maintain the interest of my students and check the inclusiveness of the resources I try to use different resources and activities in group and on individual bases. I try to include different examples from daily routine life to let them think how things work in actual world and try to make links in their mind. Managing Resources: It is very important to use resources effectively that what are the strengths and weaknesses associated with the use of particular resource and also where you can usefully incorporate these ideas into your teaching.
According to Blooms taxonomy there are six levels of thinking (Knowledge, Understanding, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation) and which can treat as the cognitive goals of education. These were in ascending hierarchy, the most basic knowledge and highest was evaluation. (Jarvis, 2005) So to approach the actual learning in your class keep in mind the level of the students in your class. Student’s level in class could be their prior knowledge, understanding and according to that learning approach and use of effective resources.
Resources can be managed more appropriately if you try keep in mind student level of understanding and learning styles plus after application of any resource need to keep it in track by analysing and evaluating for example to what extent you think that specific learning resource work whether you can use it again with some changes or need to try something else. I personally feel behaviour of class also affect the use of resources to maintain the interest of most distracting class; you need more powerful, eye catching and interesting resources for such classes.
Legal Requirements and Responsibilities in Relation to use of Resources: “Teachers have a common law duty of care for pupils in their charge which arises from their being in loco parentis (in place of the parent). What this means is not clearly defined but is usually interpreted as caring for their pupils in a similar manner to a reasonable and caring parent. ” (A guide to legal liabilities, 2006) So Teachers should therefore ensure that they take reasonable steps to ensure the safety of the pupils in their charge and not act in a careless or reckless way which might expose them to danger, and keep in mind safety first in use of any resource.
Teachers are therefore advised to think about risk assessment to evaluate potential hazards taking into account the particular needs, characteristics and capabilities of the pupils, the school environment etc. The Education Act 1996 requires schools to ensure that the needs of all pupils are met –as far as is practicable – within the context of mainstream education.