EMT – Brady’s Emergency Care 12th Edition

question

Designated Agent
answer

p. 16 – An EMT or other person authorized by a Medical Director to give medications and provide emergency care. Such authorization is an extension of the Medical Director’s license to practice medicine.
question

Evidence-Based
answer

p. 16 – description of medical techniques or practices that are supported by scientific evidence of their safety and efficacy, rather than merely on supposition and tradition.
question

Medical Direction
answer

p. 15 – Oversight of the patient-care aspects of an EMS system by the Medical Director
question

Medical Director
answer

p. 15 – A physician who assumes ultimate responsibility for the patient-care aspects of the EMS system
question

911 System
answer

p. 8 – A system for telephone access to report emergencies. A dispatcher takes the info and alerts EMS/FD/PD as needed
question

Patient Outcomes
answer

p. 16 – the long-term survival of patients
question

Protocols
answer

p. 15 – Lists of steps, such as assessments and interventions, to be taken in different situations. Are developed by the Medical Director.
question

Quality Improvement
answer

p. 13 – A process of continuous self-review with the purpose of identifying and correcting aspects of the system that require improvement.
question

Standing Orders
answer

p. 16 – A policy or protocol issued by a Medical Director that authorizes EMTs and others to perform particular skills in certain situations.
question

Enhanced 911
answer

p. 8 – Has the capability of automatically identifying the caller’s phone number and location
question

Off-Line Medical Direction
answer

Standing orders issued by the Medical Director that allow EMTs to give certain medications or perform certain procedures without speaking to the Medical Director or another physician.
question

On-Line Medical Direction
answer

Orders given directly by the on-duty physician to an EMT in the field by radio or telephone.
question

Contamination
answer

p. 25 – The introduction of dangerous chemicals, disease, or infections materials.
question

Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM)
answer

p. 39 – A comprehensive system that includes education and resources to both prevent stress and to deal with stress appropriately when it occurs.
question

Decontamination
answer

p. 42 – The removal or cleansing of dangerous chemicals and other dangerous or infectious materials
question

Hazardous Material Incident
answer

p. 41 – The release of a harmful substance into the environment
question

Multiple-Casualty Incident (MCI)
answer

p. 38 – A single incident when there are multiple patients.
question

Pathogens
answer

p. 23 – The organisms that cause infection, such as viruses and bacteria.
question

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
answer

p. 24 – Equipment that protects the EMS worker from infection and/or exposure to the dangers of rescue operations
question

Standard Precautions
answer

p. 23 – A strict form of infection control that is based on the assumption that all blood and other body fluids are infectious.
question

Stress
answer

p. 36 – A state of physical and/or psychological arousal to a stimulus
question

Ryan White CARE Act
answer

p. 32 – Requires a designated official within every emergency response organization to gather information about airborne or bloodborne disease exposures.
question

This type of Hepatitis has no vaccine
answer

Hepatitis C
question

Acute Stress Reaction
answer

p. 36 – Occurs simultaneously with or shortly after a critical incident
question

Delayed Stress Reaction (PTSD)
answer

p. 36 – May occur at any time, days to years, following a critical incident.
question

Cumulative Stress Reaction ( Burnout)
answer

p. 36 – Occurs as a result of prolonged recurring stressors in work or private life.
question

The 5 Stages of Grief
answer

p. 40 – (In Order) Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
question

Actions Required to Respond to Danger
answer

p. 43 – Plan, Observe, React
question

3 Rs of Reacting to Danger
answer

p. 44-45 – Run, Radio, Reevaluate Situation
question

Bariatric
answer

Having to do with patients who are significantly overweight or obese
question

Body Mechanics
answer

The proper use of the body to facilitate lifting and moving and prevent injury
question

Direct Carry
answer

A method of transferring a patient from bed to stretcher, during which thwo or more rescuers curl the patient to their chests, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the stretcher
question

Direct Ground Lift
answer

A method of lifting and carrying a patient from ground level to a stretcher in which two or more rescuers kneel, curl the patient to their chests, stand, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the stretcher
question

Draw-sheet method
answer

A method of transferring a patient from bed to stretcher by grasping and pulling the loosened bottom sheet of the bed
question

Extremity Lift
answer

A method of lifting and carrying a patient during which one rescuer slpis hands under the patient’s armpits and grasps the wrists, while another rescuer grasps the patient’s knees.
question

Power Grip
answer

Gripping with as much hand surface as possible in contact with the object being lifted, all fingers bent at the same angle and hands at least 10 inches apart.
question

Power Lift
answer

A lift from a squatting position with weight to be lifted close to the body, feet apart and flat on the ground, body weight on or just behind the balls of the feet, and the back locked-in. The upper body is raised before the hips, also called the squat-lift position.
question

Recovery Position
answer

For unresponsive patients with NO suspected spinal injury – on their side so that vomit/oral secretions can drain out the mouth
question

Stair Chair
answer

For moving patients around tight corners and up/down stairs. Places patient in a sitting position.
question

Spine Board (Backboard)
answer

Used for patients in the supine/prone or standing positions and need spinal immobilization.
question

Scoop Stretcher
answer

Splits into two pieces vertically, allowing the patient to be \”scooped\” by pushing the halves together under them. Does not have any support directly under the spine and is not recommended for patients with spinal injury.
question

Basket/Stokes Stretcher
answer

Can be moved to move a patient from one level to another or over rough terrian. Should be lined with a blanket prior to placing patient in it, unless patient is on a backboard.
question

Flexible/Reeves Stretcher
answer

Made of canvas or rubberized/flexible material, with or without wooden slats sewn into pockets, carrying handles on each side. Also may be known as Mega Movers or Shamu Tarps.
question

Vest-Type Extrication Device
answer

AKA Kendrick Extrication Device, used for immobilizing patients who are found in a seated position
question

Emergency Move
answer

Performed if the scene is hazardous, care of life-threatening conditions requires repositioning of the patient, or you must reach other patients. If possible, move the patient in line with the long axis of their body.
question

Urgent Move
answer

Required when the patient must be moved quickly for treatment of an immediate threat to life. Performed WITH spinal precautions.
question

Non-Urgent Moves
answer

Used when there is no urgent threat to life or scene hazards.
question

Abandonment
answer

Leaving a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transferred to someone with equal or greater medical treatment
question

Advance Directive
answer

A DNR order; instructions written in advance of an event.
question

Assault
answer

Placing a person in fear of bodily harm.
question

Battery
answer

Causing bodily harm or restraining a person.
question

Confidentiality
answer

The obligation not to reveal information obtained about a patient except to other health care professionals involved in the patient’s care, or under subpoena, or in a court of law, or when the patient has signed a release of confidentiality.
question

Consent
answer

permission from the patient for care or other action by the EMT
question

Crime Scene
answer

The location where a crime has been committed or any place that evidence relating to a crime may be found
question

Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Order
answer

a legal document, usually signed by the patient and his physician, which states that the patient has a terminal illness and does not wish to prolong life through resuscitative efforts.
question

Duty to Act
answer

An obligation to provide care to a patient
question

Ethical
answer

Regarding a social system or social or professional expectations for applying principals of right and wrong
question

Expressed Consent
answer

consent given by adults who are of legal age and mentally competent to make a rational decision in regard to their medical well being
question

Good Samaritan Laws
answer

A series of laws, varying in each state, designed to provide limited legal protection for citizens and some health care personnel when they are administering emergency care
question

HIPAA
answer

the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, a federal law protecting the privacy of patient-specific health care info and providing the patient with control over how this info is used/distributed.
question

Implied Consent
answer

the consent it is presumed a patient or patient’s parent/guardian would give if they could, such as for an unconscious patient or a parent who cannot be contacted when care is needed.
question

In Loco Parentis
answer

In place of the parents, indicating a person who may give consent for care of a child when the parents are not present or able to give consent
question

Liability
answer

being held legally responsible
question

Libel
answer

false or injurious information in written form
question

Moral
answer

regarding personal standards or principles of right and wrong
question

Negligence
answer

a finding of failure to act properly in a situation in which there was a duty to act, that needed care as would reasonably be expected of the EMT was not provided, and that harm was caused to the patient as a result.
question

Organ Donor
answer

A person who has completed a legal document that allows for donation of organs and tissues in the event of death
question

res ipsa loquitur
answer

A Latin term meaning \”the thing speaks for itself\”
question

Safe Haven Law
answer

a law that permits a person to drop off an infant or child at a police, fire, or EMS station or to deliver the infant or child to any available public safety personnel. The intent of the law is to protect children who may otherwise be abandoned or harmed.
question

Scope of Practice
answer

a set of regulations and ethical considerations taht define the scope, or extent and limits, of the EMT’s job.
question

Slander
answer

false or injurious information stated verbally
question

Standard of Care
answer

for an EMT providing care for a specific patient in a specific situation, the care that would be expected to be provided by and EMT with similar training when caring for a ptient in a similar situation.
question

Tort
answer

A civil, not criminal, offense; an action or injury caused by negligence from which a lawsuit may arise
question

Abdominal Quadrants
answer

four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of a pain or injury – RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
question

Acetabulum
answer

pelvic socket into which the boll at the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint
question

Acromioclavicular joint
answer

the joint where the acromion and the clavicle meet
question

Acromion Process
answer

The highest portion of the shoulder
question

Anatomical Position
answer

the standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this position, the body is standing erect, facing the observer, with arms down at the sides and the palms of the hands forward.
question

Anatomy
answer

the study of body structure
question

Anterior
answer

front of the body or body part
question

Aorta
answer

large blood vessel in mammals through which blood travels from the left ventricle to all parts of the body except the lungs
question

Appendix
answer

a small, fingerlike tube near the junction of the large and small intestines; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity
question

Arteriole
answer

the smallest kind of artery
question

Artery
answer

any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
question

Atria
answer

the two upper chambers of the heart- the receiving areas that pool incoming blood.
question

Automaticity
answer

The ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on its own.
question

Autonomic Nervous System
answer

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
question

Bilateral
answer

on both sides
question

bladder
answer

round sac-like organ of the renal system used as a reservoir for urine
question

blood pressure
answer

measurement of the force exerted by the heart against the arterial walls when the heart contracts and relaxes
question

brachial artery
answer

artery of the upper arm, site of the pulse checked during infant CPR
question

bronchi
answer

the two large sets of branches that come off the trachea and enter the lungs. Right and Left Bronchi
question

Calcaneus
answer

Heel Bone
question

Capillary
answer

smallest blood vessel; brings nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and waste products
question

Cardiac Conduction System
answer

a system of specialized muscle tissues which conduct electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat
question

Cardiac Muscle
answer

Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart
question

cardiovascular system
answer

the body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood, and that carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells.
question

Carotid Arteries
answer

large neck arteries, one on each side of the neck, that carry blood from the heart to the head
question

Carpals
answer

wrist bones
question

Central Nervous System (CNS)
answer

brain and spinal cord
question

central pulses
answer

carotid and femoral pulses, which can be felt in the central part of the body
question

Clavicle
answer

collarbone
question

compound
answer

word formed from two or more whole words, such as small + pox = smallpox
question

coronary arteries
answer

blood vessels that supply the myocardium (heart muscle)
question

cranium
answer

top, back, and sides of the skull
question

cricoid cartilage
answer

ring-shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx
question

dermis
answer

second (inner) layer of skin, rich in blood vessels and nerves, found beneath the epidermis
question

diaphragm
answer

muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. A major muscle of respiration.
question

Diastolic Blood Pressure
answer

pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling
question

Systolic Blood Pressure
answer

pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is contracting
question

Digestive System
answer

body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
question

Distal
answer

farther away from the torso
question

Proximal
answer

closer to the torso
question

Dorsal
answer

referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot. A synonym for Posterior
question

Dorsalis Pedis Artery
answer

artery supplying the foot, lateral to the large tendon of the big toe
question

Endocrine System
answer

system of glands that produce hormones that help to regulate many body activities and functions
question

Epidermis
answer

outer layer of skin. Primarily made up of dead/dying cells
question

epiglottis
answer

leaf shaped structure that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the trachea
question

epinephrine
answer

a hormone produced by the body. As a medication, it dilates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reactions.
question

exhalation
answer

passive process where the intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax and the chest cavity decreases in size, causing air to flow out of the lungs
question

femoral artery
answer

the major artery supplying the leg
question

femur
answer

thigh bone
question

fibula
answer

lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg
question

Fowler position
answer

sitting position
question

Gallbladder
answer

sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile
question

humerus
answer

upper arm bone between shoulder and elbow
question

hypoperfusion
answer

Inadequate perfusion of the cells and tissues of the body caused by insufficient flow of blood through the capillaries.
question

ilium
answer

superior and widest portion of the pelvis
question

inferior
answer

away from the head, usually compared with another structure that is closer to the head
question

inhalation
answer

active process in which the intercostal muscles and the diapgragm contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity and causing air to flow into the lungs
question

insulin
answer

hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics
question

involuntary muscle
answer

muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled
question

ischium
answer

the lower, posterior portions of the pelvis
question

joint
answer

the point where two bones come together
question

kidneys
answer

organs of the renal system used to filter blood and regulate fluid levels in the body
question

large intestine
answer

muscular tube that removes water from waste products received from the small intestine and moves anything not absorbed by the body toward excretion from the body
question

Larynx
answer

voice box
question

lateral
answer

to the side, away from the body’s midline
question

ligament
answer

tissue connecting bone to bone
question

liver
answer

largest organ of the body, producing bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assisting in the metabolism of various substances in the body
question

lungs
answer

organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place
question

malleolus
answer

protrusion on each side of the ankle – lateral and medial
question

mandible
answer

lower jaw bone
question

manubrium
answer

superior portion of the sternum
question

maxillae
answer

two fused bones that form the upper jaw
question

medial
answer

toward the body’s midline
question

metacarpals
answer

hand bones
question

metatarsals
answer

foot bones
question

mid-axillary line
answer

line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the lateral malleolus / ankle
question

mid-clavicular line
answer

vertical line through the center of each clavicle
question

midline
answer

imaginary line drawn through the center of the body dividing it into right and left halves
question

muscle
answer

tissue that can contract to allow movement of a body part
question

musculoskeletal system
answer

the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement
question

nasal bones
answer

nose bones
question

nasopharynx
answer

area directly posterior to the nose
question

nervous system
answer

brain, spinal cord, nerves that govern sensation, movement, thought
question

orbits
answer

eye sockets
question

oropharynx
answer

area directly posterior to the mouth
question

ovaries
answer

egg-producing organs in the female reproductive system
question

palmar
answer

referring the the palm of the hand
question

pancreas
answer

gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin and juices that assist in digestion of food in the duodenum of the small intestine
question

patella
answer

kneecap
question

pelvis
answer

basin shaped bony structure that supports the spine and is the point of proximal attachment for lower extremities
question

penis
answer

organ of male reproduction responsible for sexual intercourse and the transfer of sperm
question

perfusion
answer

The supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
question

Peripheral Nervous System
answer

All those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord. The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
question

Peripheral Pulses
answer

radial, brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral points of the body
question

phalanges
answer

toe bones and finger bones
question

pharynx
answer

oropharynx and nasopharynx combined – directly behind the mouth and nose
question

physiology
answer

study of body function
question

plane
answer

flat surface formed when slicing through a solid object
question

plantar
answer

referring to the sole of the foot
question

plasma
answer

fluid portion of the blood
question

platelets
answer

components of the blood; membrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells
question

posterior
answer

back of the body or body part
question

posterior tibial artery
answer

supplies the foot, behind the medial ankle
question

prone
answer

lying face down
question

pubis
answer

anterior portion of the pelvis
question

pulmonary arteries
answer

vessels that carry de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs
question

pulmonary veins
answer

vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
question

pulse
answer

rhythmic beats caused as waves of blood move through and expand the arteries
question

radial artery
answer

artery of the lower arm. felt when taking the pulse at the wrist
question

recovery position
answer

lying on the side, also known as lateral recumbent position
question

red blood cells
answer

carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells
question

renal system
answer

regulates fluid balance and blood filtration. Also called urinary system.
question

reproductive system
answer

responsible for human reproduction
question

respiration (cellular)
answer

process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide between circulating blood and the cells
question

respiratory system
answer

A system of organs, functioning in the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, consisting especially of the nose, nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
question

scapula
answer

shoulder blade
question

small intestine
answer

The muscular tube between the stomach and the large intestine, divided into the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum, which receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues digestion. Nutrients are absorbed by the body through its walls.
question

spleen
answer

organ located in left upper abd quadrant, blood filtration system and reservoir for blood reserves
question

sternum
answer

breastbone
question

stomach
answer

muscular sac between esophagus and small intestine that initiates digestion
question

subcutaneous layers
answer

fatty layers found below dermis
question

superior
answer

towards the head
question

supine
answer

laying on the back
question

tarsals
answer

ankle bones
question

tendon
answer

tissue that connects muscle to bone
question

testes
answer

male reproductive organs – used for sperm production
question

thorax
answer

chest
question

thyroid cartilage
answer

wing-shaped plate of cartilage that sits anterior to the larynx and forms the Adam’s apple.
question

tibia
answer

medial/larger bone of the lower leg
question

torso
answer

trunk of the body, body without the head and extremities
question

trachea
answer

windpipe, structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs
question

Trendelenburg (shock) Position
answer

feet and legs higher than the head
question

Ulna
answer

medial bone of the forearm
question

ureters
answer

tubes connecting kidneys to bladder
question

urethra
answer

tube connecting bladder to vagina or penis for urine excretion
question

uterus
answer

female organ of reproduction used to house the developing fetus
question

vagina
answer

female organ of reproduction used for both sexual intercourse and as an exit from the uterus for the fetus
question

valve
answer

structure that opens closes to permit the flow of a fluid in only one direction
question

vein
answer

any blood vessel returning to the heart
question

venae cavae
answer

superior and inferior vena cava – two major veins that return blood from the body to the right atrium
question

ventilation
answer

process of moving gases between inhaled air and the pulmonary circulation of blood
question

ventral
answer

referring to the front of the body – synonym for anterior
question

ventricles
answer

two lower chambers of the heart – Right Ventricle sends de-oxygenated blood to the lungs, Left Ventricle sends oxygenated blood to the body
question

venule
answer

smallest kind of vein
question

vertebrae
answer

33 bones of the spinal column
question

white blood cell
answer

blood component that helps the body fight infection
question

xiphoid process
answer

inferior portion of the sternum
question

zygomatic arches
answer

bones that form the structure of the cheeks
question

voluntary muscle
answer

muscle that can be consciously controlled
question

aerobic metabolism
answer

The cellular process in which oxygen is used to metabolize glucose. Energy is produced in an efficient manner with minimal waste products.
question

anaerobic metabolism
answer

The cellular process in which glucose is metabolized into energy without oxygen. Energy is produced in an inefficient manner with many waste products.
question

cardiac output
answer

amount of blood ejected from the heart in 1 minute (heart rate x stroke volume)
question

chemoreceptors
answer

chemical sensors in the brain and blood vessels that identify changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
question

dead air space
answer

air that occupies the space between the mouth and alveoli but that does not actually reach the area of gas exchange
question

dehydration
answer

abnormally low amount of water in the body
question

edema
answer

swelling associated with the movement of water into the interstitial space
question

electrolyte
answer

a substance that, when dissolved in water, separates into charged particles
question

FiO2
answer

fraction of inspired oxygen; the concentration of oxygen in the air we breathe
question

hydrostatic pressure
answer

pressure within a blood vessel that tends to push water out of the vessel
question

hypersensitivity
answer

exaggerated response by the immune system to a particular substance
question

metabolism
answer

the process through which an organism changes food into energy
question

minute volume
answer

amount of air breathed in during each respiration multipled by the # of breaths per minute
question

patent
answer

open and clear, free from obstruction (in reference to an airway)
question

pathophysiology
answer

study of how disease processes affect the body
question

plasma oncotic pressure
answer

the pull exerted by large proteins in the plasma portion of blood that tends to pull water from the body into the bloodstream
question

shock
answer

inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body’s cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients. Also called hypoperfusion. A life threatening condition
question

stretch receptors
answer

sensors in blood vessels that identify internal pressure
question

stroke volume
answer

the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one contraction
question

systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
answer

the pressure in the peripheral blood vessels that the heart must overcome in order to pump blood into the system
question

tidal volume
answer

the volume of air moved in one cycle of breathing
question

V/Q match
answer

ventilation/perfusion match. This implies that the alveoli are supplied with enough air and that the air in the alveoli is matched with sufficient blood in the pulmonary capillaries to permit optimum exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
question

adolescence
answer

Ages 13-18 years, OR the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
question

bonding
answer

the sense that needs will be met
question

early adulthood
answer

19-40 years
question

infancy
answer

birth to 1 year
question

late adulthood
answer

ages 61 and older
question

middle adulthood
answer

from 41-60 years
question

Moro reflex
answer

when startled, an infant throws his arms out, spreads his fingers, then grabs with fingers and arms
question

Palmar reflex
answer

when you place your finger in an infants palm, he will grasp it
question

preschool age
answer

3-5 years
question

rooting reflex
answer

when you touch a hungry infant’s cheek, he will turn his head toward the side touched
question

scaffolding
answer

building on what one already knows
question

school age
answer

6-12 years
question

sucking reflex
answer

when you stroke a hungry infant’s lips, he will start sucking
question

temperament
answer

the infant’s reaction to his environment
question

toddler phase
answer

stage of life from 12-36 months
question

trust vs. mistrust
answer

concept developed from an orderly, predictable environment vs. a disorderly, irregular environment

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member