Electronegativity Analysis Persuasive Essay Example
Electronegativity Analysis Persuasive Essay Example

Electronegativity Analysis Persuasive Essay Example

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  • Pages: 6 (1598 words)
  • Published: November 29, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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Metals are the least electronegative of the elements.

The Palling electromagnetisms for the elements are often Included as a part of the chart of the elements. An Important application of electronegative is in the prediction of the polarity of a chemical bond. Because hydrogen has an electronegative of 2. 1 and chlorine has an electronegative of 3. 0, they would be expected to form a polar molecule with the chlorine being the negative side of the dipole.

The difference between the electromagnetisms of An(O. 9) and CLC(3.O) are so great that they form an ionic bond. The hydrogen molecule on the other hand, with zero electronegative deference, becomes the classic example of a covalent bond.

After fluorine, oxygen Is the next highest In electronegative at 3. 44, and this has enormous consequences in practice. Since oxygen is the most abundant el


ement on the Earth, its high chemical activity makes it a part of most common substances. It's electronegative leads to the polar nature of the water molecule and contributes to the remarkable properties of water.

Lewis Dot Structure

Lewis structures (also known as Lewis dot diagrams, electron dot diagrams, "Lewis dot formulas", Lewis dot structures, and electron dot structures) are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that ay exist in the molecule. A Lewis structure can be drawn for any covalently bonded molecule, as well as coordination compounds. The Lewis structure was named after Gilbert N. Lewis, who Introduced It In his 1916 article The Atom and the Molecule.

They are salary to electron dot diagrams In that the valence electrons In lone pairs are represented as dots

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but they also contain lines to represent shared pairs in a chemical bond (single, double, triple, etc.). Lewis structures show each atom and its position in the structure of the molecule using its chemical symbol. Lines are drawn teen atoms that are bonded to one another (pairs of dots can be used instead of lines). Excess electrons that form lone pairs are represented as pairs of dots, and are placed next to the atoms.

Although mall group elements of the second period usually react by gaining, losing or sharing electrons until they have achieved a valence shell electron configuration with a full octet of (8) electrons, other elements obey different rules.

Hydrogen (H) can only form bonds which share just two electrons, while transition metals often conform to a detected (12) rule (e. G. , impounds such as the permanganate ion). Generally, elements below the second Period (Row) are able to expand their valence shells to accommodate more than 8 NH do atoms react?

All atoms (except for the noble gases) are unstable because their outer electron shell in not full.

Atoms react with other atoms to gain or lose electrons to fill their outer shell. Describe the possible interactions between, at least, two particles. The exchange Interaction is a quantum mechanical effect between identical particles. It is due to the wave function of indistinguishable particles being subject to exchange symmetry, hat is, either remaining unchanged (symmetric) or changing its sign (metasyntactic) Nee two particles are exchanged.

Do you know the differences between atom, ion and radical? Ere atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of

negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. An ion is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom a net positive or negative electrical charge. A addict (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired 'alliance electrons or an open electron shell, and therefore may be seen as having one or more "dangling" covalent bonds.

Do you know the differences between molecule and formula unit? A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds. A formula unit in chemistry is the empirical formula of any ionic or covalent network solid compound used as an independent entity for econometric calculations.

Mention the part of the atom or subatomic particle that participates in chemical erection. In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more includes that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process. Thus, a nuclear reaction must cause a transformation of at least one nuclide to another.

If a nucleus interacts with another nucleus or particle and they then separate without Changing the nature of any nuclide, the process is simply referred to as a type of clear scattering, rather than a nuclear reaction. Define chemical bond. A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that

allows the formation of Chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei, or as the result of a dipole attraction.

Relate the periodic Properties Atomic Radius, nomination energy, electron affinity and electronegative) with the behavior of atoms Atomic Radius. The atomic radius of an element is half of the distance between the centers of two atoms of that element that are Just touching ACH other.

Generally, the atomic radius decreases across a period from left to right and increases down a given group. The atoms with the largest atomic radii are period, electrons are added one at a time to the outer energy shell. Electrons within a shell cannot shield each other from the attraction to protons.

Since the number of protons is also increasing, the effective nuclear charge increases across a period.

This causes the atomic radius to decrease. Moving down a group in the periodic table, the number of electrons and filled electron shells increases, but the number of 'alliance electrons remains the same. The outermost electrons in a group are exposed to the same effective nuclear charge, but electrons are found farther from the nucleus as the number of filled energy shells increases. Therefore, the atomic radii increase. Nomination Energy.

The nomination energy, or nomination potential, is the energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.

The closer and more tightly bound an electron is to the nucleus, the more difficult it will be to remove, and the higher its nomination energy will be. The first nomination energy is the energy required

to remove one electron from the parent atom. The second animation energy is the energy required to remove a second valence electron from the univalent ion to form the divalent ion, and so on. Successive nomination energies increase.

The second nomination energy is always greater than the first nomination energy. Nomination energies increase moving from left to right across a period :decreasing atomic radius).

Nomination energy decreases moving down a group leanings atomic radius). Group I elements have low nomination energies because the loss of an electron forms a stable octet. Electron Affinity. Electron affinity reflects the ability of an atom to accept an electron. It is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom. Atoms with stronger effective nuclear charge have greater electron affinity.

Some generalizations can be made about the electron affinities of certain groups in the periodic table. The Group 'IA elements, the alkaline earths, have low electron affinity values. These elements are relatively stable because they have filled s subtle. Group VIA elements, the halogens, have high electron affinities because the addition of an electron to an atom results in a completely filled shell. Group VIII elements, noble gases, have electron affinities near zero, since each tom possesses a stable octet and will not accept an electron readily.

Elements of other groups have low electron affinities. In a period, the halogen will have the highest electron affinity, while the noble gas will have the lowest electron affinity. Electron affinity decreases moving down a group because a new electron would be further from the nucleus of a large atom Electronegative. Electronegative is a measure of the attraction

of an atom for the electrons in a chemical bond. The higher the electronegative of an atom, the greater its attraction for bonding electrons. Electronegative is related to nomination energy.

Electrons with low nomination energies have low electromagnetisms because their nuclei do not exert a strong attractive force on electrons. Elements with high nomination energies have high electromagnetisms due to the strong pull exerted on electrons by the nucleus. In a group, the electronegative decreases as atomic number increases, as a result of Increased distance between the valence electron and nucleus (greater atomic radius). An example of an electrophoresis (I. E., low electronegative) element is cesium; an example of slightly electronegative element is fluorine.

Mention the types of chemical bond and their relationship with the behavior of atoms. The two main bond is formed when one atom accepts or donates one or more of its valence electrons to another atom. A covalent bond is formed when atoms share valence electrons. The atoms do not always share the electrons equally, so a polar covalent bond may be the result. When electrons are shared by two metallic atoms a metallic bond may be formed.

In a covalent bond, electrons are shared between two atoms. The electrons that participate in metallic bonds may be shared between any of the teal atoms in the region.

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