Educational Psychology Chapter 2 Test Questions Flashcard

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Orderly, adaptive changes we go through from conception to death.
Lose what you don’t use
synaptic pruning
4 Areas of Development
Physical, Personal, Social, Cognitive
Physical Development
Changes in body function and structure over time.
Personal Development
Changes in personality that take place as one grows.
Social Development
Changes over time in the ways we relate to others.
Cognitive Development
Gradual orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated.
People develop at different rates (Principle of Development)
______________is relatively orderly and takes place gradually.
Genetically programmed, naturally occurring changes over time.
Joint actions of individual biology and environment- each shapes and influences the other.
Sensitive Periods
Times when a person is especially ready for or responsive to certain experiences.
Nerve cells that store and transfer information.
The tiny spaces between neurons- chemical messages are sent across these gaps.
The process by which neural fibers are coated with a fatty sheath called myelin that makes message transfer more efficient.
The specialization of the two hemispheres (sides) of the brain cortex.
The brain’s tendency to remain somewhat adaptable or flexible.
Organization (Piaget Basic Tendency of Thinking)
Ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories.
Adaptation (Piaget Basic Tendency of Thinking)
Adjustments to the environment.
Schemes (Piaget Basic Tendency of Thinking)
Mental systems or categories of perception and experience.
Assimilation (Piaget Basic Tendency of Thinking)
Fitting new information into existing schemes.
Accommodation (Piaget Basic Tendency of Thinking)
Alternating existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information.
Equilibration (Piaget Basic Tendency of Thinking)
Search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from the environment.
Disequilibrium (Piaget Basic Tendency of Thinking)
“out-of-balance” state that occurs when a person realizes that his or her current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a situation.
Sensorimotor (Piagetian 4 stages of cognitive development)
learn through reflexes, senses and motor activity then move from reflexive to intentional actions and dvelop object permanence (up to 2 years)
Object Permanence (Piaget Sensorimotor)
The understanding that objects have a separate, permanent existence.
Goal-Directed Actions (Piaget Sensorimotor)
Deliberate actions towards a goal.
Operations (Piaget Sensorimotor)
Actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions.
Preoperational (Piagetian 4 stages of cognitive development)
prior to mastering logical mental operations (age of speech – 7 yrs); develop language use symbols representatively, think in the present,
Semiotic Function (Piaget Preop)
The ability to use symbols- language, pictures, signs, or gestures- to represent actions or objects mentally.
Reversible Thinking (Piaget Preop)
Thinking backward, from the end to the beginning.
Conservation (Piaget Preop)
Principle that some characteristics of an object remain the same despite changes in appearance.
Decentering (Piaget Preop)
Focusing on more than one aspect at a time.
Egocentric (Piaget Preop)
Assuming that others experience the world the way you do.
Concrete Operations
logical thinking about concrete objects and situations; past, present, future understood; understands conservation and categorical organization. (7-11)
Identity (Piaget Concrete)
Principle that a person or object remains the same over time.
Compensation (Piaget Concrete)
The principle that changes in one dimension can be offset by changes in another.
Classification (Piaget Concrete)
Grouping objects into categories.
Adolescent Egocentrism
Assumption that everyone else shares one’s thoughts, feelings, and concerns.
Neo-Piagetian Theories
More recent theories that integrate findings about attention, memory, and strategy uses with Piaget’s insights about children’s thinking and the construction of knowledge.
Believed that learning is an active process that does not wait for readiness (Vgotsky or Piaget)
Sociocultural Theory (Vgotsky)
Emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgable members of society. Children learn how to think and behave from their interactions. with their community
Co-Constructed Process (Vgotsky)
A social process in which people interact and negotiate (usually verbally) to create an understanding or to solve a problem. The final product is shaped by all participants.
Private Speech (Vgotsky)
Children’s self-talk, which guides their thinking and action. Eventually, these verbalizations are internalized as silent inter speech.
Communicative Speech (Vgotsky)
using speech to communicate
Zone of Proximal Development (Vgotsky)
Phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support.
Scaffolding (Vgotsky)
Support for learning and problem solving – clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
Speaking two languages and dealing appropriately with the two different cultures.
The rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture.
Metalinguistic Awareness
Understanding about one’s own use of language.
Speaking only one language.
Heritage Language
The language spoken in the student’s home or by members of the family.
Balanced Bilingualism
Adding a second language capability without losing your heritage language.
Emergent Literacy
The skills and knowledge, usually developed in the preschool years, that are the foundation for the development of reading or writing.
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development
Piaget believed that thinking processess change because we constantly strive to make sense of the world.
Organization, Adaptation, Schemes, Accommodation, Assimiliation, Equilibration, Disequilibrium are
Piagetian basic tendencies in thinking
Piaget believed that teachers should act as scaffolds, providing just enough guidance to help students progress on their own. (educational implication)
Vgotsky believed that teachers should teach within the students Zone of Proximal Development.
Vgotsky believed that if material is presented at or below mastery level there will be no growth and the child will be bored.
Teacher model skill and verbal commentary of how and why, students imitate modeling, teachers fade as students gain mastery
Vgotsjy’s 3 stages of instruction
Reading is not innate or automatic, every brain must be taught to read (Vgotsky or Piaget)
Learners will have preferred methods of learning
Vgotsky believed that teachers should teach within the students Zone of Proximal Development.
Vgotsky believed that some learning disorders have a neurological basis
Vgotsky did NOT believe that learning from life experience and problems builds knowledge,
The brain seeks new information with what we already know, so it is best to connect new knowledge with what we already know (Vgotsky or Piaget),

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