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Educational Psychology Ch10: Theories in Motivation

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Importance of Motivation in Education
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Correlation between motivation and achievement
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Motivated students do this/have this (3)
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1. positive attitude toward school; school is satisfying 2. persist on difficult tasks and have few management problems 3. process info in depth and excel in classroom learning experiences
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Motivation
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an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior
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Types of motivation
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Extrinsic and intrinsic
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Extrinsic Motivation
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desire to engage in an activity as a means to a reinforcement; get something
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Intrinsic Motivation
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desire to engage in an activity for its own sake; you like doing it
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To internally motivate (4)
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1. present a challenge 2. give the learner control 3. evoke curiosity 4. involve creativity
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Behavioral Theories
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focuses on changes in behavior that result from experiences with the environment; reinforcers – what do you get?
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Humanistic Theories
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emphasizes people’s attempts to fulfill their total potential as human beings
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Cognitive Theories
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examines people’s expectations and beliefs and their attempts to understand how the world works
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Questions to ask about motivation (5)
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1. what choices do people make about their behavior? 2. How long does it take to get started? 3. What is the intensity or level of involvement in the chosen activity? 4. What causes a person to persist or give up? 5. What is the individual thinking and feeling while engaged int he activity?
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Positives and Negatives of rewards
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(+) motivation; communicate increasing competence (-) controlling behavior or participation rewards decrease motivation (-) decreases base motivation for internally interesting stuff
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Sociocultural Motivation
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emphasizes participation in communities of practice; students are motivated to learn if they are members of a classroom or school community that values learning
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Humanistic Psychology
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Maslow: motivation = people’s attempt to fulfill their total potential as human beings and to encourage people’s inner resources: their sense of competence, self-esteem, autonomy and self-actualization; you just want to be good at something
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Maslow’s Hierarchy
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Deficiency Needs: Survival, Safety, Belonging, Self-Esteem Being Needs: Intellectual Achievement, Aesthetic Appreciation
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Unconditional, Positive Regard
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belief that someone is worthwhile and appreciated regardless of behavior
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Resiliency
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base needs not met + you have someone who has one person in your life that cares about you
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Instructional Strategies to Promote Self-Actualization (4)
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1. treat students as people first, students second 2. recognize that students are separate from their behavior. You like them, but don’t always appreciate their behavior 3. Create safe, orderly classrooms with the expectation and opportunity for learning 4. keep students perspectives in mind
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Cognitive Theories of Motivation
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focus is on learner’s beliefs, expectations, and needs for order, predictability, and understanding. Motivation is seen as internal. Behavior is determined by our thinking and to our interpretation of events (rather than external conditions) *Cognitive Dissonance* People are active and curious, searching for information to solve personally relevant problems
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Locus of Control
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how much responsibility you accept fro actions; things we can’t control, but try to get students to get control; internal & external, stable & unstable, controllable & uncontrollable
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Expectancy x Value Theory
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expectation of reaching a goal and the value of the goal to the person
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Self-Efficacy Theory
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belief about one’s own capability to organize and complete actions required to accomplish a specific type of task; if you think you can’t do it, you wont’ be motivated – better at something = more likely to do it
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Factors that influence self-efficacy (4)
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1. Past performance on similar tasks 2. Observing the modeling on similar tasks 3. Verbal persuasion 4. Physiological factors (e.g. fatigue or hunger)
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Self-Efficacy effects (6)
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Task orientation, effort, persistence, beliefs, strategy use, performance
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Goal
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an outcome an individual hopes to succeed (i.e. understand, socialize)
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Learning Goals
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focuses on mastery of a task, improvement, & increased understanding
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Performance Goals
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focuses on competence or ability and how ti compares to the competence or ability of others
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Entity View of Intelligence vs Incremental View of Intelligence
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do you believe people can get smarter
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Types of Goals (3)
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Entity View of Intelligence vs Incremental View of Intelligence, Social Goals, work-avoidance goals (how little work can I do)
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Goals are made up of (3)
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1. Motivation 2. Self-Efficacy 3. Achievement
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Goal Orientation
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Mastery Approach (mastering) & Performance Approach (being the best); Mastery Avoidance (just don’t be wrong; don’t do it incorrectly) & Performance Avoidance (avoid looking stupid; don’t want to be the worst) – these are different in different situations
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To reach goals (3)
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1. Set specific, immediate, realistic, and moderately challenging goals 2. Choose appropriate strategies (disregard any that are not working) 3. Monitor the progress in regards to time, quality, and understanding ALL METACOGNITION
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Self-Determination Theory
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having choices and making decisions is intrinsically motivating; competence, control/autonomy, relatedness
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Glasser’s Theory on Motivation (6)
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all need love, belonging, freedom, power, survival, and fun in different quantities
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Affective factors in motivation
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1. self-worth 2. anxiety 3. curiosity
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Three types of self-worth divisions
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1. Mastery-Oriented 2. Failure-accepting – 🙁 3. Failure-avoiding