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Educational Psychology and Measurement Exam 2 Essay

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Culture
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refers to the knowledge, rules, traditions, and attitudes that guide behavior in a particular group of people.
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Social class and cultural difference
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Social class is one of the best predictors of cultural differences. Ethnicity, gender, and level of intellectual functioning are variables that contribute to cultural differences, but social class remains the strongest predictor of academic achievement.
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Identify some of the factors that may lead low-income students to perform less well in school than middle-income students with the same abilities.
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Factors that may lead low-income students to perform less successfully in school include the following: poor health; limited resources, low self-esteem; learned helplessness, resistance cultures (rejects middle class); tracking practices; child rearing practices that do not promote independent thinking and low expectations.
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Resistance cultures
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Rejects middle class
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Tracking
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child rearing practices that do not promote independent thinking and low expectations.
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Ethnic groups and cognitive abilities
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teachers assume
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Outcomes of Brown vs. Board of Education
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a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
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Prejudice
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has to do with the inflexible and irrational attitudes and opinions held by members of one group about another usually means having preconceived beliefs about groups of people or cultural practices.
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discrimination
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refers to behaviors directed against another group
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stereotype threat
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which is the extra emotional and cognitive burden that a student of a minority group may experience when feeling apprehensive about confirming a stereotype.
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Stereotyping and stereotype threat
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This burden can induce a student’s test anxiety and undermine their academic performance Woolfolk suggests the strategies teachers use for decreasing test anxiety (i.e., no time limit for exams; the belief that intelligence can be improved, etc.) can help students resist stereotype threat.
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Gender differences in schools
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occurs when males and females are treated differently, mainly due to stereotypes ascribed to each sex
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Example of Gender Biass
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male infants are treated more physically by parents whereas female infants are protected more. In general, males are encouraged to become more independent, females dependent. At school, textbooks frequently portray females in roles that depict them as passive or domestic.
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example of gender bias in schools
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Teachers are more likely to verbally interact with males and assign them more active classroom responsibilities. Expectancies to do well in math and science are more likely to be conveyed to males than to females.
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Resilient students
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students taking educational risks within the classroom… If we as teachers let our students see us take risks even when failure may very well be the outcome, they will feel safe to take risks themselves, knowing they can always try again if they don’t “get it right” the first time. In modeling resilience as teachers, we inadvertently create a genuinely safe environment in which students feel comfortable with the trial and error aspect of learning, and we begin to earn the trust of our students.
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Behavioral views of learning
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when *experience* causes a relatively permanent change in behavior and knowledge.
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Definition of learning
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Principle of contiguity
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-Association of two events through repeated pairings. -Learning by association (two events or sensations that are remembered because of repeated pairings).
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Classical conditioning
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when individuals learn to respond to or form an attitude toward a stimulus that previously had no effect or a very different effect on them.
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example of classical conditioning
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The balloon demonstration
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Discrimination, generalization, extinction
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Operant conditioning
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Learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents (events that precede an action).
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Positive reinforcement
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strengthening or increasing behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior.
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ex of positive reinforcement
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receiving treats for following directions.
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negative reinforcement
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increasing a target behavior by removing an aversive stimulus.
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Example of Negative reinforcement
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Monty flicking the rope at the horse in the round pen technique.
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presentation punishment
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weakens or suppresses behavior decreases behavior by presenting an aversive stimulus following the behavior
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ex of presentation punishment
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Detention
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ex of removal punishment
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No recess
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removal punishment
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decreases behavior by removing a pleasant stimulus following the behavior.
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Schedules of Reinforcement: Continuous
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reinforcement after *every* response
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Ex of Continuous Reinforcement
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Giving a dog a treat every time he does a trick.
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Schedules of Reinforcement: Fixed-Interval
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reinforcement after a *set* period of *time*
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example of fixed interval
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exams in this class
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Schedules of Reinforcement: Variable-interval:
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reinforcement after *varying* lengths of time.
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Ex of variable interval
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pop quizzes
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Schedules of Reinforcement: Fixed-ratio:
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reinforcement after a set number of responses
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Ex of Fixed ratio
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Playing on computer after completing math problems
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Schedules of Reinforcement: Variable-ratio
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reinforcement after a varying number of responses.
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Ex of variable ratio
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Marge Simpson and the slot machines.
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Observational Learning
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Acquisition and later performance of behaviors demonstrated by others.
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What is necessary for observational learning to occur?
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Attention, Retention, Production Processes, Motivation and Reinforcement
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Retention
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our ability to retain a representation of others’ behavior in memory.
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Production Processes
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our ability to actually perform the actions we observe
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Motivation and Reinforcement
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our need for the actions we observe; their usefulness to us.
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token reinforcement strategies
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A point system or token economy involves awarding (“reinforcing”) tokens, chips, stickers, check marks , points, stars, or other items/markings to students who demonstrate desired behaviors identified by the teacher.
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shaping
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a method that assists you in setting goals for the behavior of a certain student. Shaping will provide guidance and direction for your behavior change program, and will help you assess its effectiveness. It can assist you in changing an aberrant behavior or creating an appropriate behavior that is not yet in the student’s repertoire.
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General Knowledge
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information that applies to many situations. How do you spell Dictionary
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Domain-specific
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information that applies to only one specific topic. Who was the last philly to win the Kentucky Derby Who played right field when the cubs won the world series
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conditional knowledge
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knowing when and why to use declarative and procedural knowledge. Joe has 5x pumpkins as nick joe has 100 pumpkins how many does nick have?
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procedural
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“knowing how to”; performing a task. first thing you do when changing the oil in a car
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declarative
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“knowing that” something is the case. Name all the presidents since Eisenhower
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Sensory register (capacity and duration)
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system of receptors holding sensory information (1-3 seconds; huge capacity). Giving us a large list of numbers and letters for a short period of time and making us remember
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short-term memory (capacity and duration)
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holding a limited amount of information briefly (5-9 chunks of information for approximately 20-30 seconds).
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long-term memory (capacity and duration)
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permanent store of knowledge (practically unlimited capacity and duration). your earliest memory
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Working Memory
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the information you are focusing on at a given moment. what are you thinking about rn
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Elaborative Rehearsal
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keeping information in working memory/long-term memory by associating it with something you already know. Dr Kellys pretend party, and dates
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Maintenance rehearsal
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keeping information in working memory by repeating it to yourself (Woody). Phone number? number again?
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Chunking
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grouping individual bits of data into meaningful larger units. dog bat hippo
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prototype
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A best example or representative of a category. Famous race horse Secretariat
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Levels of processing theory: Bottom-Up Processing:
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perceiving based on noticing separate defining features and assembling them into a recognizable pattern. dog Dog
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Levels of processing theory: Top-Down Processing:
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perceiving based on the context and the patterns you expect to occur in that situation. big brown animal with fur that lives in the forest
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Decay
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fading of memory with the passage of time or Reconstruction: recreating information by using memories expectations, logic and existing knowledge. who was your class president when did you graduate who was your freshman year class president
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Automaticity:
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the ability to perform thoroughly learned tasks without much mental effort. write the alphabet as fast as you can
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Schema
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basic structures for organizing information and concepts. Currency where you can exchange an amount for a product
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Story Grammar:
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typical structure or organization for a category of stories. Rudogh with your nose so bright wont you ride my sleigh tonight
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script
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expected plan for the sequence of steps in a common event. what do you do right when you wake up -turn off alarm, retainers out, make bed
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Episodic Memory
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long-term memory for information tied to a particular place and time. where did you graduate
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Reconstruction
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Serial position effect
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Mnemonic devices
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techniques for remembering; the art of memory. 30?
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Acronym
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technique for remembering names, phrases, or steps by using the first letter of each word to form a new memorable word. NIMBY not in my back yard
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Mnemonic Device
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techniques a person can use to help them improve their ability to remember something. In other words, it’s a memory technique to help your brain better encode and recall important information. L S K B A C G
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Loci Method
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i need to remember my grocery list: I need to get bread, cottage cheese,steak, bananas, milk, and syrup. bread = kitchen cottage cheese = TV room steak = dinning room bananas = Molly’s bedroom milk = bathroom syrup = our bedroom
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Key points distinguishing constructivism from teacher-centered classrooms
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1. Psychological/Individual/ Cognitive Constructivism â—‹ Focuses on the active role of the learner in constructing knowledge Social Construction Views social interactions as necessary to construct knowledge
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Psychological/Individual/ Cognitive Constructivism
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Focuses on the active role of the learner in constructing knowledge
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Social Construction
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Views social interactions as necessary to construct knowledge
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Psychological Constructivism:
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individuals construct their own cognitive structures as they interpret their experiences in particular situations First-wave constructivism Piaget
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First wave constructivism (Piaget)
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Piaget focuses more on meaning as it is constructed by the individual (not necessarily a correct representation) Thinking becomes more organized as children age Concern with logic â—‹ Such knowledge comes from reflection Social environment important factor, but social interaction was not the main mechanism for changing thinking
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who thought social interaction was NOT the main mechanism for changing thinking
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Interaction, PIaget “for GET talking to people”
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second wave constructivism (Vygotsky)
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Learning meaning means belonging to a group and participating in the social construction of knowledge -Vygotsky was a mix between psychological/social constructivism *ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEV* one of proximal development: area in which a child can solve a problem with the help of an adult or more able peer Culture creates cognition – when adults use tools and practices to steer the child Cognition creates culture – adult and child generate new practices and solutions
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Social Constructivism:
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Social interaction, cultural tools, and activity shape individual development and learning
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Situated learning vs. transfer
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Situated (V): The idea that skills and knowledge are tied to the situation in which they were learned and that they are difficult to apply in new settings—HORSE BACK RIDING
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Inquiry learning
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Approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation and students solve the problem by gathering data and testing their conclusions The students: Formulate hypotheses to explain/solve the problem Collect data Draw conclusions Reflect on the problem and thinking processes
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-Problem-based learning
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Students are confronted with a problem that launches their inquiry as they collaborate to find solutions and learn valuable information and skills in the process Designed to help students develop knowledge that is useful and flexible
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Six features of cognitive apprenticeship
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1. Students observe an expert model the performance 2. Students get support through coaching or tutoring 3. Students receive scaffolding that gradually fades 4. Students articulate their knowledge 5. Students reflect on their progress 6. Students explore new ways to apply what they are learning
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-Cooperative learning groups
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Situation in which elaboration, interpretation, explanation, and argumentation are integral to the activity of the group and where learning is supported by other individuals
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-Benefits and pitfalls of cooperative learning experiences
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Group work-not everyone cooperating awkward ex. Positive independence only do well if others do well-roles interaction accountability social skills group processing
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Scaffolding
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Support for learning and problem solving Clues â—‹ Reminders â—‹ Encouragement â—‹ Breaking down the steps â—‹ Providing examples
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3 Characteristics of Scaffolding
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Contingency Support: Fading: Transferring responsibility think of activity
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Perception
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Interpretation of Sensory information what we think we see “Birds in the moonlight pans in the spring hand dance”
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Gestalt
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theory that states that people organize information into coherent wholes. Dalmatians sniffing the ground, image in b/w
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Attention
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focus on a stimulus. extent to which we focus on others’ behavior. how many times do they pass the ball