EDP 256 Final Essay

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A 6 mo old who cannot walk or talk would be described as having an
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age appropriate inability
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to be legally considered exceptional, students…
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must require special education services to succeed
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most resembles the typical student who receives special education services
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sam is an elementary school student with a learning disability
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by federal law, an exceptional student is eligible for special education when
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careful assessment indicates he or she is unable to make satisfactory progress in the regular school program
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prevalence refers to
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the percentage of a population with a particular exceptionality
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the majority of students who receive special education fall within this age range
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6-17
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all of the following practices promote integration except
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institutionalization
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this theory provides the best description of normalization
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the belief that people with disabilities should have experiences as similar as possible to those of people without disabilities
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which federal proision requires that children with disabilities be provided with FAPE
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Individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)
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which one of the following accomplishments is associated with ADA
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movement that public transportation be made accessible to people with disabilitie
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P.L 99-457 and IDEA mandate a FAPE ages 3-21 in Addition PL 99-457
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provides incentives for states to develop early intervention programs
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which federal act requires most students with disabilities to take standard tests of academic achievement and to achieve at a level equal to that of students without disabilities
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No child left behind act
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In Hudson v Rowley the ruling was that the school did not have to provide a sign interpreter for Amy Rowley a child who was deaf because she had an IEP that allowed her to achieve at an average level for her age the decision interpreted which component of
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Free, appropriate education
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all of the following are provisions of IDEA except
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non discrimination in the workplace
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litigation is special education
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has been brought primarily by parens whose children are disabled and being denied appropriate special education services
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prereferral teams serve all of the following purposes except
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developing IEPS for students who need them
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RTI
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can be applied to social behavior and academic learning
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each of the following components must be included on an IEP except
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students IQ score
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which of the following represents the legally correct sequence of IEP development within planning of special education services
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evaluation, development of IEP, placement
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which one of the following best describes an individual family service plan?
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a type of IEP created for preschool children with disabilities
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the concept of transition involves more than just employment. it has broad emphasis to include
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concern for outcomes such as independent living and community adjustment
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special education intervention requires the least specialized environment is
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instruction by a regular classroom teacher
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Two teachers working together for special education and general education purposes include this type of teaching
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co-teaching
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the special education intervention that represents the highest level of specialization
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instruction in a self-contained special education classroom
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nationwide, what percentage of students with disabilities is educated primarily in general education classrooms
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more than 50%
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each of the following is a basic strategy for helping students with disabilities to participate in the gen ed classroom EXCEPT
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homogeneous grouping
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in collaborative consultation the special education teacher
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acts as an expert in providing advice to gen ed teacher
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in cooperative learning
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students with and without disabilities work together in small groups
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bill is a student with low vision his teacher provides him with a set of large font this is an example of an
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accomodation
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when teachers provide choices on a single topic that vary in difficulty is called
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tiered assessments
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a student who performs or behaves poorly in school and appears likely to fail or fall short is
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at risk
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which of the following is an expectation for general education teachers
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participating in writing IEPs
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the dimension of instruction that refers to the speed of introducing new concepts is
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pace
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considering the needs of all potential users including those with disabilities when developing technology is referred to as
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universal design
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in considering cultural differences in the context of education, one should
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be cautious not to stereotype
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quick measurements to determine who may need further assessment are
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screening measures
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RTI relies
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more on the curiculum based measurement
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the increase in the use of informal measures to assess student progress is beneficial to students from diverse populations because
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progress monitoring assessments may be less biased than traditional standardized tests
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tolerance is best described as
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an appreciation and valuing of difference
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research indicates that some instructional approaches, such classwide peer tutoring allow teachers
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to provide culturally sensitive instruction to all members of a diverse group at once
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instruction that is explicit systematic intensive frequent with an appropriate level of pacing corrective feedback and reinforcement and small group delivery is
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allows teacher to individualize instruction
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recommended technique of breaking down prejudice and encouraging positive interactions among students with different characteristics is
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cooperative learning
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unlike the past many professionals now view early intervention as an opportunity
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to support the natural parent-child relationship
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An IFSP is
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individualized family service plan
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high prevalence of feelings of guilt for parents who have a child with a disability is probably due to the fact that
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the cause for so many disabilities is unknown
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each of the following statements about parental adjustment and stress is true EXCEPT
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the more severe the disability, the greater the stress
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young siblings of a child with a disability are likely to
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have just as difficult, if not more difficult time coping with their feelings than their parents
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professionals to encourage the family to make its own decisions and get professional and informal support is what type of model
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family-centered
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wraparound service refers to
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a system of using educational service in addition to available community services to meet the needs of children and their families
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family systems approach emphasizes
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interrelationships among the family and other social systems
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a family that spends alot of their time apart has low
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cohesion
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degree to which families are able to change their modes of interaction when they encounter unusual or stressful situtations refers to
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adaptability
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families of a child with a disabillity tend to experience most stress during
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transitions
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one person having the authority granted by the courts to make decisions to another person
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guardianship
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distinctive feature of the social support approach is that it focuses on
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developing informal sources of support
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each of the following is an example of social support EXCEPT
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a subscription to a disability journal
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social support be integrated with FBA and PBIS specifically in the case of children with
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emotional or behavioral disorders
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functional behavioral assessment involves evaluation of each of the following except
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disciplinary style
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which area is often a source of misunderstanding and conflict for the home-school relationship of students with disabilities
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homework
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under IDEA one form of advocacy to which parents are entitled to are
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due process
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professionals have become more cautious in diagnosing intellectual disabilities EXCEPT
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increasing costs associated with special education
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classification system that most school systems use to describe levels of intellectual disabilities is based on
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IQ Score
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according to the hypothetical normal curve, approx what percentage of the population is expected to have intellectual disabiliies
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2.27%
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claudia has thick epicanthal folds in the corner of her eyes, small stature, decreased muscle tone, sparkling iris, small oral cavity, characteristics are typical to
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down syndrome
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Alzheimers disease has been linked to which cause of Intellectual Disabilities
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Down Syndrome
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each of the followingn diagnostic techniques involve the fetus EXCEPT
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Phenylketonuria (PKU) screening
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People with Williams syndrome
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can pass it on to each of their offspring regardless of gender
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fragile X syndrome occurs most often in
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Males
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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is classified as resulting from a
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environmental hazard
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A persons awareness of what strategies are needed to perform a task, the ability to plan how to use the strategies and the evaluation of how well the strategies are working is
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metacognition
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Joe tends to believer whatever he is told, even highly questionable statements or claims, despite any evidence. This tendency is
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gulliability
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In functional academics, academics are taught in the context of
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daily living skills
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using instructional prompts, consequences for performance, and strategies for transfer of stimulus is called
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systematic instruction
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most professionals agree that programming for transition to adulthood for students with disabilities should begin
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during the elementary years
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the ability to make personal choices, regulate one’s own life and be a self-advocate
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self-determination
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a motivational term referring to a condition wherein a person believes that no matter how hard hey try, failure will result is called:
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learned helplessness
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the ability to keep information in mind while simultaneously doing another task is
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working memory
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Two broad dimensions of behavior disorders
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externalizing and internalizing
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comorbidity in persons with E/BD is
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not unusual
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according to the federal government, what percentage of the school age population is identified for special education services under the category of emotional disturbance
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less than 1%
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what percentage of school-aged population exhibits serious and persistent emotional/behavioral problems , according to credible studies in the US and other countries
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6-10%
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On standardized achievement tests, most students with E/BD perform
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below grade level
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which of the following statements about depression is true?
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suicide is among the leading causes of death among young people
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the importance of integrated services for students with E/BD means that
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schools, families, and community agencies should cooperate to meet the student’s needs
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in case of discipline, zero tolerance means that
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the circumstances surrounding an incident are not weighed in deciding what the consequences should be, only the act itself is questioned
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under IDEA, FBA,
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clearly refers to a specific set of procedures designed to pinpoint the function of a student’s behavior
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dyslexia refers to a severe impairment in the ability to
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read
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up until the recent ascendance of the RTI model, the identification of learning disabilities focused on
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IQ achievement discrepancy
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each of the following is suggested as an explanation for why boys outnumber girls in the learning disabilities except
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Lower academic expectations for girls
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research using neuroimaging suggests that some cases of learning disabilities are caused by
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structural and functional differences in the brain
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research on the neurological basis of learning disabilities
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has been relatively consistent in pointing to the left temporal lobe as being involved
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what is an example of INTERindividual differences
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John has problems with math, while Ann has problems in reading
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which poses the most difficulty for most children with learning disabilities
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reading
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students with poor phonological skills are most likely to have problems with which aspect of written language
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spelling
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researchers have found that one of the major reasons that children with learning disabilities perform poorly on memory tasks is that
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they fail to use strategies
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what percentage of children with LD also have an attention problem?
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about 50%
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students with learning disabilities
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can also have problems in working memory and or long term memory
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Individuals who have a cluster of disabilities in social interaction, math, visual-spatial tasks, and tactual tasks are referred to as having
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nonverbal learning disabilities
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Brianna is a junior in high school who has a learning disability and an external locus of control. When she succeeds on a homework assignment, she is most likely to attribute her success to
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luck
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a method in which assistance is provided to students when they are first learning tasks, then gradually reduced until the students do the tasks independently is
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scaffolded instruction
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a method involving breaking down academic problems into their component parts that can be taught separately and then combined is called
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task analysis
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the most common placement for students with LD is
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general ed classroom
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most common testing accomodations for students with LD are
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extended time and small group administration
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which aspect of persons described as “hyperactive and distractible” did Werner and Strauss’s research examine
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figure-ground confusion
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each of the following is a subdivision of ADHD according to APA’s diagnostic manal except
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predominately lethargic-inattentive type
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what percentage of the school age population does the CDC report as having ADHD
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7-9%
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students with ADHD receive special ed services under IDEA in which category
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other health impaired
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rating scales used for ADHD are generally filled out by all of the following EXCEPT
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medical doctors
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part of the brain responsible for executive functions such as ability to regulate owns behvior is the
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frontal lobes
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a neurotransmitter involved in sending messages between neurons and the brain that is found in abnormal levels in people with ADHD is
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dopamine
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all of the following are ways people with ADHD can exhibit problems with executive function EXCEPt
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they have difficulty telling right from wrong
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compared to students with other disabilities, students with ADHD
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are more disliked by their peers
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ADHD has been shown to often coexist with each of the following except
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Giftedness
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about how many children with ADHD also have learning disabilities
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50%
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determining the antecedents, consequences, and setting events that maintain inappropriate behavior is called
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Functional assessment
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contingency-based self management involves having persons
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keep track of own behavior and then receive consequences based on that behavior
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according to NAtional institute of mental health, all of the following are reccomendations for teaching children with ADHD EXCEPT
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take advantage of their inherent fear of punishment
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the most frequently perscribed types of medication for students with ADHD is
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pyschostimulants
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a therapeutic technique that involves identifying someone whom the person with ADHD can rely on for support is
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coaching
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diagnosis of young children with ADHD is particularly difficult because
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many preschoolers without ADHD exhibit a great deal of activity and impulsivity
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asperger idenfied children who had
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average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupations in narrow areas
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which is not true regarding the APA definition of Autism spectrum disorder
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it is divided into Asperger syndrome and other more severe forms of ASD
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what is the prevalence of autism
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at least 1:88, perhaps as much as 1:50
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best scientific evidence indicates the dramatic increase in prevalence for autism is NOT DUE TO
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widespread use of vaccinations for babies
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cold, unresponsive mothers
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are no longer viewed by scientists as a cause of autism
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which statement about causes of autism is true
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scientists have provided strong evidence that the cause is neurological
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neurological research that involves the brain and head size of people with autism strong suggests that for many
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their brains grow suddenly and excessively early in life
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screening of children for autism can begin by the age of
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9 months
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neuroimaging research on persons with autism indicate that
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neuronal underconnectivity is evident
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mixing of sensory or cognitive systems whereby stimulation of one elicits stimulation of the other is
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synaesthesia
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central coherence means
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brining order and meaning to information by perceiving it as a meaningful whole rather than disparate parts
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behaviors serve as _____ in the FBA
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Consequences
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PECS focuses on
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improving relatively severe language problems
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each of the following is considered an essential feature of effective education program for preschoolers with autism EXCEPT
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active engagement for only five hours per week
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in many ways, outcomes for persons with severe ASD are similar to
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those with Intellectual disabilities
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which is not an aspect of communication
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communicative fluctuation
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language disorders
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involve violations of language rules
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what fraction of children who are identified for special education receive services primarly for speech or language disorders
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1 in 5 or 1/5
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which of the following is best example of a language variation
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african american english
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language disorders are classified into _ and __
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domain and etiology
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if a child exhibits a language delay at 2 years of age
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chances are 50/50 that he or she will continue to have language problems throughout school years
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an example of an articulation disorder
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lisping
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possible causes of voice disorders include all of the following EXCEPT
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chicken pox
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common fluency disorder is
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stuttering
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primary role of classroom teacher is to facilitate development of which aspect of language?
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social
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dynamic assessment
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involves progress monitoring using a cycle of teaching, followed by testing, and then reteaching
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a strategy to teach functional language skills in natural environment is
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milleu teaching
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which condition reduces the effectiveness of strategy training for adolescents with speech and language disorders
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poor reading skills
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from the physiological perspective, distinction between deaf and hard of hearing is based on
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decibel levels detected
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What percentage of students is identified as deaf or hard of hearing
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.10%
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most important organ for hearing
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cochlea
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which of the following is assessed in a typical hearing exam
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detection of sounds at different frequency levels
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most frequent viral cause of deafness in newborns
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congenital cytomegalovirus
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when performance tests, rather than verbal tests, are used with people who are hearing impaired
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there is no difference in IQ between those are deaf and those who are hard of hearing
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among students who are deaf, those who achieve the highest levels of literacy tend to have
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parents who are deaf and use ASL
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many members of the deaf community believe that inclusive educational practices are
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eroding the cultural values of the deaf culture
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auditory-verbal approach encourages children with hearing impairments to
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use their residual hearing
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this technique focuses on reading visual cues and lips to determine speech
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speechreading
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total communication approach uses
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oral and manual communication
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rationale behind a bicultural-bilingual approach is
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to provide a foundation in ASL to serve as a basis for learning english
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FM systems are used to conjunction with hearing aids
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amplify sounds
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many in the deaf community believe that residential schools for children who are deaf are necessary to
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perpetuate the deaf culture and use of ASL
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focus of early intervention for children with hearing impairments is on
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language development
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students who are deaf who do not go onto Post secondary training may face increased obstacles to employment in the future because
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the manual trades for which they have been traditionally prepared are disappearing
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communicative function
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expression for requests for social interaction, requests, intent
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Applied Behavioral Analysis
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highly structured approach focuses on teaching functional skills and continuous assessment of progress. it is comprehensive and emphasizes use of reinforcement
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putting a child who is deaf in a classroom may lead to the child
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being socially isolated from peers
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what gene is associated with congenital deafness?
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connexin-26 gene
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phonology skills of those with hearing impairments
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are similar to those of someone with a reading disability
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assessment of progress for those with ASD
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1. progress in language development 2. social/adaptive behavior

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