ECPI Essentials of Nursing Practice Chapter 1 Exam 1

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Florence Nightingale “The Lady with the Lamp” FOUNDER OF NURSING
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**Studied nursing at Kaiserwerth School in 1851- 1853. **Upon graduation, she became superintendent of a charity hospital for ill governesses. **In 1854, she and 38 other nurses took care of British soldiers who were injured in the Crimean War in Turkey. **Improved sanitation in battlefield hospitals – first practicing epidemiologist 1859 – **Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not – nursing is an unique body of knowledge **Organized first school of nursing – 1860 – model of nursing today **Her practices remain a basic part of nursing today.
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Clara Barton “RED CROSS”
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**Founded the organization now known as the American Red Cross in 1881 **Known as the “Angel of the Battlefield **Copyist in the U.S. Patent Office **Established her own distribution system and refused to enlist in military service **Worked outside of the government until 1862 when she was granted a pass **First makeshift field hospital – Culpepper, VA
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Lillian D. Wald (1867-1940) PUBLIC HEALTH
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Development of Public Health Nursing Established the Henry Street Settlement on the lower east side of NYC Provided visiting nurses, social services, playgrounds and camps to the inner city population
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Isabel Hampton Robb “LICENSING”
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*Activist for nursing **Initiated reform to include: 12 hour day breaks, rest and recreation **Started the 3 year educational program for nursing Fought for licensing exams and registration to protect the public from incompetent nursing care Organized the John Hopkins School of Nursing Visionary – promoted the unity of all practitioners, including educators Founded the Nurses’ Association Alumnae of the U.S. and Canada – 1896 – Became the ANA in 1911
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Mary Breckenridge MIDWIFERY
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1925 – established the Frontier Nursing Service in Kentucky First organized midwifery program in the U.S. Demonstrated that nurses could provide primary care to patients in the rural setting
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MATCH THE NAME TO EXPLANATION – NEED TO KNOW!
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_____Florence Nightingale _____Mary Breckenridge _____Mary Mahoney _____Clara Barton _____Mary Adelaide Nutting _____Lillian Wald/Mary Brewster 1. Established first nursing philosophy based on health maintenance and restoration 2. Focused on health needs of poor in New York City 3. Established first organized midwifery program 4. First professionally trained African-American nurse 5. Founder of American Red Cross 6. First professor of nursing at Columbia University Teachers College
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Goal of Nursing
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To improve the health and well-being of all individuals, communities, and populations through the significant and visible contributions of registered nursing using standards-based practice
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Six standards of practice:
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Assessment Diagnosis Outcomes identification Planning Implementation Evaluation
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The nurse administers pain medications, repositions the client, and dims the room lights. Twenty minutes later, the nurse returns to check on the client’s level of pain. The nurse is performing which standard of practice?
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Evaluation
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Nursing is defined as a profession because nurses
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Practice Autonomy
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Benner’s stages of nursing proficiency (Box 1-3, p. 6):
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Novice Advanced beginner Competent Proficient Expert
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NOVICE
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Beginning nursing student or any nurse entering a situation in which there is no previous level of experience (Ex: an experienced operating room nurse now decides to practice home health)
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Advanced beginner
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A nurse who has had some level of experience with the situation. The experience may only be observational in nature; but the nurse is able to identify meaningful aspects or principals of nursing care
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Competent
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A nurse who has been in the same clinical position for 2 to 3 years; nurse is able to anticipate nursing care and establish long range goals
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Proficient
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More than 2 to 3 years experience in the same clinical position; nurse perceives the patients clinical situation as a whole, assess entire situation, and can readily transfer knowledge gained from multiple previous experiences; Focuses on managing care as opposed to managing and performing skills
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Expert
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nurse with diverse experience and who has an intuitive grasp of an existing or potential clinical problem. The nurse is able to zero in on the problem and focus on multiple dimensions of the situation. Skilled in patient-centered problems and problems related to the health care system or perhaps the needs of the novice nurse
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Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN)
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Competency: Patient-Centered Care Teamwork and Collaboration Evidenced Based Practice Quality Improvement Safety Informatics

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