Drug Abuse In Sport

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History of drug maltreatment

Drug maltreatment in athletics is non a recent issue. In Ancient Greece, the Olympic jocks used particular diets ( herbs, mushrooms and sesame seeds ) to better their physical public presentation. The gladiators in the Roman times, consumed stimulations to cut down weariness. ( 1,2 ) South American Indians used coca leaves to heighten staying power. ( 2 )

During the 19th century, drug maltreatment became a great job. Caffeine, strychnine, intoxicant, cocaine, opium, and O were used by swimmers, smugglers and bicyclers to increase public presentation. ( 1,2 ) In 1896, the bicycler Arthur Linton was the first reported human death instance in athletics from strychnine consumption which was administered by his manager. ( 1 ) Subsequently on, in 1904, the smuggler Thomas Hicks, was near to decease in Olympic Marathon in St Louis USA, from usage of strychnine and brandy. ( 1 )

During the Second World War, pep pill ingestion started by the military personnels to cut down their weariness. In 1940s and 1950s, pep pills substitute other drugs in its usage in athletics. ( became the pick over other drugs ) . ( 1 )

Reported deceases from amphetamine maltreatment was in 1964, the Danish bicycler Canute Jensen at Rome Olympics died on the opening twenty-four hours of the games. In 1967, the British bicycler Tommy Simpson, at Tour de France, died from pep pill maltreatment. After Simpson’s decease, the International Olympic Committee took an action and the first list of prohibited substances was published in 1968. ( 1,3 ) In 1950s, a new category was misused by jocks and weightlifters to increase musculus size and strength and this category named anabolic steroids ; ( 1 ) in 1964, there was suspect for usage of anabolic steroid in Summer Olympics in Tokyo due to the addition in muscle mass of the jocks. ( 3 )

Top dirts in drug maltreatment

1.East German jocks ( 4,5,6 )

From 1972 to 1988, the East German which was a state of 17 million populations, won 20 to 40 gold decorations in 4 old ages and became a state viing the United States and Soviet Union. Manfred Ewald who was the caput of Olympic athletics commission in East Germany, and Dr. Manfred Hoeppner who was the athleticss physician at that clip, were responsible about giving the jocks banned substances deliberately without their cognition. This consequences in terrible complications in the athlete’s wellness such as liver disfunction, malignant neoplastic disease, hormonal alterations and sterility.

From 1966 and on, many physicians and managers in East German follow a program which was sponsored by the authorities known as “systematic and overall doping in competitory sports” . After the prostration of East German and Berlin Wall autumn in 1989, many jocks confessed about the pills and injections that were given to them. Kornelia Ender, Barbara Krause and Carola Nitschke were three of the 1000s of East German jocks who had provided with steroids. Heidi Kreiger was besides one of the jocks that was provided with steroids to a great extent and this was the chief ground that force her to do sex-alteration operation.

2. Pan American Games in 1983

IOC included testosterone in the prohibited list in 1983 and it was the first endogenous substance to be tested at that clip. The trial was based on mensurating the testosterone to epitestosterone ( T/E ) ratio. ( 1 )

The first drug proving for steroids was at the Pan America Games in Caracas and Venezuela in 1983. Around 15 jocks were caught at these games. Jeff Michaels, the American weightlifter, and Guy Greavette, the Canadian weightlifter, were tested positive for steroids. They returned their decorations and being suspended for 2 old ages. ( 5,7 )

Many jocks of the U.S track-and-field squad withdrew from the game instead than being captured. ( 7 )

3. Ben Johnson’s dirt

In 1988, the Canadian Ben Johnson was stripped of his gold decoration at 100 metres after he has been tested positive for the anabolic steroid stanozolol at Seoul Olympics. Johnson has been banned from competition for 2 old ages. ( 7 )

4. Michelle Smith: the Irish swimmer ( 5,7 )

In 1998, the Olympic title-holder swimmer Michelle Smith was tested positive for banned substance at her place through out-of-competition testing. The trial was positive for intoxicant in an sum that would be fatal if taken by an jock. So FINA, the international government organic structure for swimming, concluded that the urine sample was treated with intoxicant as a cover agent and Smith has been suspended for four old ages.

5. Chinese swim squad ( 5,7 )

The Chinese national swim squad has been used anabolic steroids, erythropoietin and human growing endocrine in the last 15 old ages. In 1992 Barcelona Olympics and 1994 universe titles, china won a high figure of gilded decorations. In universe swimming titles, a universe records was set by adult females swimmers, and this causes suspect that they were utilizing drugs. In 1994 at Asiatic Games, eleven jocks were caught as drug maltreaters for dihydrotestosterone. Since 1990, over 40 Chinese swimmers were tested positive for abused drugs and at that clip china reached the extremum for drug maltreatment over the swimming states.

6. Tour de France ( 5 )

Doping by bicyclers arises since 1967 after Simpson decease at Tour de France due to amphetamine abuse. Drug maltreatment by bicyclers continues and in summer 1998, the Festina cycling squad was pushed out from the competition at Tour de France after the Gallic Officials found EPO in their masseur’s auto. After probes, six of Festina’s nine riders confessed that they had taken abused drugs. Subsequently on, the leader besides has failed drug trials for anabolic steroids. Besides in 2002, Stefano Garzelli, the leader of the Vini Caldirola squad, has failed drug trial for probenecid, a diuretic which is used as a cover agent. Besides in the same twelvemonth at Tour de France, the Spanish bicycler Igor Gonzalez de Galdeano, was tested positive for anti-asthmatic drug. In January 2004, two bicyclers in the Cofidis squad, which is one of the top squads in France, were caught as drug maltreaters for EPO and pep pills.

7. Steroids in baseball ( 5 )

In 2002, a study was published by the Sports Illustrated and the National League MVP Ken Caminiti stated that “at least half the cats are utilizing steroids.”

In 2003, the Major League Baseball revealed that around 7 % of 1438 trials on all participants were positive for steroids.

8. Doping in skiing ( 5 )

Drug maltreatment in cross-country skiing has been spread for old ages particularly with EPO. In 2001 universe titles in Finland, six finish skiers have failed drug trial for HES which is a plasma volume expander. Three skiers at the Salt Lake Games were tested positive for the drug Darbepoetin which is a man-made compound of the natural endocrine EPO. Two of these jocks Olga Danilova and Larissa Lazutina were Russian medallists but subsequently on, they were stripped of their decorations and the gold decoration was awarded to the Canadian Beckie Scott who ended third.

9.BALCO dirt

BALCO is Bay Area Laboratory Cooperative which is a company that provides nutritionary addendums. Victor Conte built BALCO in 1984 and he followed a system for analysing urine and blood in order to order addendums that replace vitamin and mineral lacks. Tetrahydrogestrinone is one of banned substances that was used by BALCO and was undetected by drug testing. THG or “The Clear” is an anabolic steroid that can cut down weariness during preparation and can increase the musculus mass. In 2003, the USADA, United States Anti-Doping Agency, developed a trial for THG after having a syringe from anon. ( US track manager Trever Graham ) incorporating THG and claiming that most jocks are utilizing this drug. Don Catlin, succeeded in developing the trial and he tested the urine samples that were taken from jocks at the US titles and legion trials came back positive for THG ( 8,9 ) . Athletes that were involved in BALCO dirt were Kelli White, Marion Jones, C.J.Hunter, Tim Montgomery, baseball star Barry bonds, and NFL’s Bill Romanowski, and Dwain Chambers. In 2004, Dwain Chambers who was the European 100m title at that clip was banned from competition for 2 old ages. 100m and 200m Champion kelli white was banned for 2 old ages every bit good. USADA convicted BALCO, for the distribution of THG. In 2005, Victor Conte was jailed for four months. Greg Anderson ( Barry Bond’s trainer ) was jailed for three months. ( 9,10,11,12 )

10. Ma’s smugglers

Ma Junren was the manager for the universe female titles smugglers ( 13 ) . In 1993, Ma’s Chinese female smugglers won three gold decorations at the World Track and Field titles in Stuttgart and besides in 1997 they set universe records. From that clip there was intuition that the smugglers were utilizing banned substances ( 13,15 ) . A doping dirt for Ma’s smugglers arose before the 2000 summer Sydney Olympic ( 14,15 ) . Top smugglers like Liquing Song and Lili Yin had failed drug trial for testosterone during an out-of competition proving in 2000 and the Ma’s Chinese smugglers were evicted from the Olympic squad ( 13,15 ) .

History of drug testing:

Doping was besides done for race Equus caballuss non and merely for worlds. The first drug trial was done for alkaloids on the spit of Equus caballuss in 1910 by a Russian Chemist in Vienna. ( 1,2 )

Drug proving on human piss started in 1950s after the broad spread maltreatment of pep pills. ( 7 )

After British Tommy Simpson decease from amphetamine maltreatment at Tour de France in 1967, IOC established the Medical Commission and a list of prohibited substances was established by the IOC. Professor Beckett was a member in the Medical Commission at that clip and he developed methods for sensing of stimulations, i.e. drugs that were used” in competition” . ( 3,7 )

Methods of Beckett for drug testing were foremost used in 1968 at Mexico City Olympic competition and these trials were for non-steroidal drugs ( narcotic anodynes and stimulations ) and there was no trials for anabolic steroids. ( 7 ) ( 3 ) . The first formal drug proving programmes for narcotics and stimulations was in 1972 at Munich Olympics. These trials were done at the competition periods.

The maltreatment of Anabolic steroids became prevailing in 1970s and its usage was banned in 1974 by the IOC and added to the list in 1975 ( 1 ) p313. The first formal steroid proving plan occurred in 1976 at Montreal Olympics utilizing radioimmunoassay testing for sensing its presence and GCMS for verification. ( 7,19 )

In and out of competition testing:

At first proving programmes were based on trials during the competition periods. But subsequently on it was recognized that these trials were of limited value to catch up the darnels. Athletes learn how to get the better of the proving programmes by ciphering the clearance clip of the drug in the organic structure so they could avoid its usage before the competition periods. Form here came the “out -of -competition” proving programmes to catch the darnels for drug maltreatment. “Out of competition testing” started in late seventiess. The first out of competition testing was conducted in 1977 by Norway and in UK, it started in early 1980s. However, the “out- of -competition” proving did non spread out globally until the constitution of WADA in 2000. WADA established out-of-competition testing programmes and it was followed globally from that clip. ( 1 ) p314-315

Categorization of Abused Drugs

Doping categories and methods


Anabolic steroids

Testosterone, Durabolin ( discussed subsequently

Blood Doping

blood transfusion ( discussed subsequently )


Amphetamine, ephedrine, cocaine, caffeine


Morphine, Methadone, Codeine

Peptide and glycoprotein endocrines

Human growing endocrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, erythro poietin

Diuretic drugs and dissembling agents

Acetazolamide, Furesamide, Probencid

Beta- blockers

Atenolol, Propanolol, Metoprolol

Atenolol, Propanolol, Metoprolol

Anabolic steroids ( discussed subsequently )

Blood Dopping ( Blood Transfusions ) ( discussed subsequently )

Central Nervous System Stimulants

Athletes frequently use stimulations to heighten watchfulness and cut down weariness i.e. increase physical and mental performance.1p41. These are more used on the twenty-four hours of competition to cut down the sensitiveness to trouble of jocks if they got injured ; nevertheless, nowadays they are used during developing to increase preparation clip.


Amphetamine is a man-made compound ( 1920 ) , it was developed as an appetency suppressant and for intervention of narcolepsy, to contend weariness and to heighten watchfulness, but subsequently it was withdrawn from clinical usage due to the development of tolerance. P42

Methamphetamine is really habit-forming stimulation, related to amphetamine with more thirster lasting and toxic effects on the CNS.

Mechanism of action:

These are indirectly moving adrenergic aminoalkane. They enter nerve cells and move presynaptically to let go of shops of norepinephrine, and Dopastat from nerve terminations ; they besides block norepinephrine and Dopastat transporter re-uptake and inhibit MAO.

They include Dexamphetamine, Methamphetamine, Phenmetrazine, and Ritalin.

Paths of disposal:

Amphetamine can be administered orally, nasally, and intravenously. Amphetamine itself is non really effectual if smoked. Methamphetamine is smokable signifier and it is going progressively popular as a drug of maltreatment.

Effectss of Amphetamines in Sport:

Athletes frequently use amphetamine to cut down weariness, addition watchfulness and concentration, increase euphory and to digest painful injuries.p42. p72

Side Effectss:

The most of import side consequence is bosom stroke.p72. Amphetamines cause peripheral vasoconstriction and therefore increase blood force per unit area. The organic structure overheats and can non recover its temperature ensuing in dehydration.1.p42

The 2nd side consequence is that the euphoric action may impact the consciousness of jocks and therefore they fall in misjudgements.

Cases of amphetamine maltreatment:

Amphetamine usage was spread around the clip of the Second World War, to diminish weariness of the military personnels. Subsequently, its usage was spread among jocks in 1940s and 1950s. 1.p30. its usage atarted to be controlled under the UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.

In 1960, the bicycler, Knud Jenson, died due to amphetamine maltreatment in the intense summer heat of Rome Olympics.1p72-30

In 1967 Tour de France, the British bicycler, Tommy Simpson, died as a consequence of pep pill maltreatment while mounting the ill-famed Mont Ventoux. His decease was due to cardiac arrest.1p72

In 1997, American Footballers, ( Clarkson and Thompson ) , withdrew from drama due to amphetamine maltreatment which was taken to digest injuries.1p72

Consequence on behavior Mandell ( 1979 ) , Golding ( 1981 )

In 2002, the British skier Alain Baxter, had lost his Olympic bronze decoration and he was banned from skiing from March until June, due to positive trial of Methamphetamine ( l-form which is found in OTC vicks inhalator. IOC trial do non separate between l- and d- signifier. D-form is used as public presentation –enhancing drug. Later on, Baxter’s name was cleared as being a drug deceiver and it was approved that the drug was l- signifier. ( 16,17,18 )


It is a man-made pep pill derived function. It was synthesized in 1914 as an appetency suppressant. It has stimulating pep pill like belongingss, now normally used in dance nines but it may be misused by jocks.

In UK, it was classified as an illegal substance since 1977, and in USA its usage was under control since 1985.

Since 1990, there were no studies for ecstasy abuse by athletes.p73

Ephedrine and related compounds

Ephedrine is a natural merchandise happening in the works genus Ephedra. Phyenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine are synthetics. These are used to handle cold symptoms as bronchodilators.1.p73.p42.

Mechanism of action

It has adrenergic action. These deplete noradrenalin from neural storage sites ensuing in indirect consequence on sympathetic nerve cells and CNS.1.p73

Paths of disposal

Ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine are found in cold medicines ( in UK and USA ) which are taken orally. Phenylpropanolamine is now prohibited by US governments. 1.p74

Consequence of Ephedrine in Sport

Ephedrine is misused by jocks for its euphoric action.1p42. Athletes try to misapply ephedrine because its usage could be negotiated due to its presence in the nonprescription medication.1p42

Side effects

The chief side consequence is the cardiac arrthythmias.

Cases of Ephedrine maltreatment

Pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phenylephrine were removed from WADA list for banned substances in 2004, but they are still controlled by WADA for athlete’s abuse. Ephedrine is still on the banned list.1p76

In 1972 Olympics, the US swimmer, De Mont, was banned due to urinary ephedrine positive trial in which he declared that its presence due to a medicine.1p76

In 1988, Linford Christie, at Seoul, was tested positive for cold remedy substance, and he was about to lose his Ag decoration.


Cocaine was a constituent of Coca-Cola until it was classified as an illegal drug and it was removed in 1903. ( 1 ) The chief curative consequence is its usage as a local anesthetic.

Mechanism of action

Cocaine exerts its adrenergic cardinal effects by suppressing the re-uptake of norepinephrine, Dopastat, and 5-HT into presynaptic terminuss of the mesolimbic reward/pleasure tract.

Paths of disposal

“Snorting” is the most common path of disposal of cocaine. The pulverization is drawn up to the noise, and is absorbed through the rhinal epithelial tissue into the blood. It reaches the encephalon within about three proceedingss.

It can besides administered by endovenous injection, making the encephalon in 15 seconds and the effects last for 15 proceedingss.

Crack cocaine is smoked in a pipe, absorbed quickly in the lungs and making the encephalon in approximately 5 seconds.

Effectss of cocaine is sport

It was misused in athletics due to its euphoric consequence and due to decrease of weariness.

Side effects

Its side effects are: tachycardia, high blood pressure and at high dose, shudders and ictuss may happen. Cardiotoxic metabolite may ensue due to concomitant usage of cocaine with intoxicant and anabolic steroids.

Reported instances of cocaine abuse

Len Bias, the US hoops participant, and Don Rogers, the American football player died from cocaine maltreatment. ( 1 )


Caffeine is the most popular used drug which is found in many drinks like java, tea and soft drinks. Caffeine was banned by IOC but so it was withdrawn from the list by WADA in January 2004. However, its usage is still monitored by WADA. Quantitative measuring for caffeine in the piss was established in 1984 at the Olympic Games in Sarajevo and Los Angeles. IOC set the degree in the piss at 15 mcgs per milliliter and so in 1988, it was decreased to 12micrograms per milliliter. Surveies showed that 1000mg doses of caffeine are required to egest caffeine in the piss at degrees more than 12 mcgs per milliliter.

Paths of disposal

It is taken as tablets or injections ( 1 )

Effectss of caffeine in athletics

High doses are required in athletics to diminish weariness and increase concentration. ( 1 )

Side effects


Narcotic anodynes

These are called opiates. Raw opium contains morphine and codeine which have strong analgetic belongingss. Drugs that are normally misused are: Morphine, diacetylmorphine, and dolophine hydrochloride. All opiates were banned by IOC except dextromethorphan, pholcodeine, and diphenoxylate. Codeine was foremost banned but because many athleticss federation had refused that so it was so removed from the list due to its presence in many nonprescription medicines.

Mechanism of action:

Opiates bind to specific opiate receptors in the encephalon and spinal cord, and besides interact with endogenous opiate peptides, enkephalins and endorphins, in interceding emotional highs and in the procedure of addiction.p ( 1 ) -23

Paths of disposal

Opiates are taken orally, by injection or by inspiration.

Effectss of narcotic anodynes in athletics

These are used for their euphoric and analgetic actions. They are used to mime the hurt during preparation or competition.

Side effects

These include emesis, diarrhoea, dry oral cavity, tegument itchiness, loss of concentration, sleepiness, comas, and dependence. At high doses it may do respiratory depression. ( 1 ) p24, ,BBC

Diuretic drugs and other cover agents

Diuretic drugs are drugs that are used by people to take fluid in order to diminish blood force per unit area. Examples are: furesamide, acetazolamide and Hygroton.

Effectss of water pills in athletics

Diuretic drugs are misused in athletics to get the better of the side consequence fluid keeping that is cause by jocks misapplying anabolic steroids. They are besides used to take down the athlete’s weight in athleticss that competition occurs in weight groups. P46red and BBC. Besides water pills are used to increase the flow of urine and hence addition the rate of elimination of abused drug or its metabolite in the piss so the abused drug could non be detected.

Side effects

These include: musculus spasms, desiccation, concern, sickness and kidney harm.

Probenecid is used as doing agent to mask the presence of banned drugs and their metabolites by suppressing the elimination of these through the kidney.p47 ruddy.

Probenecid is no more used because the usage of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can observe its presence and catch up the darnels.

Beta blockers

These were added to the list of doping categories in 1985. But because of its curative usage, the IOC in 1993 added them in the “classes of drugs capable to certain limitations “part.

They were used by jocks to increase their public presentation by increasing the cardiac end product increasing blood flow to muscles.p-48-49 ruddy

Peptide and glycoprotein endocrines

These are natural substance that are produced by the body.BBC –doping I sport

Effectss in athletics

*Corticotrophin: it induces the release of the adrenal corticoids therefore mimic the hurting after hurt. ( 1 ) p47

*Human Growth endocrine ( HGH ) and chorionic gonadotropin ( HCG ) : it has anabolic consequence, so it increases size and strength of musculuss. BBc

*Erythropoietin: it is a peptide hormonep48 ( 1 ) . It increases ruddy blood cell production therefore increasing the O transportation by blood, Internet Explorer. Increase in the public presentation.BBC.

Side effects

HGH has chief side consequence that is, it may do acromegaly.BBC

EPO has chief side consequence that is, it may inspissate the blood, ensuing in bosom attacks.BBC

Chemical and physical use

It is the changing of urine sample by utilizing substances or processs in order to hide the sensing of a banned substance. Examples of use are: the usage of other’s piss, usage of acetum to impact the piss, epitestosterone to change the ratio. BBC intelligence, doping

Anabolic Steroids

What are Anabolic steroids?

Testosterone was isolated in 1935. ( 2 ) p52. It is an endogenous steroidal endocrine male endocrine produced by testicles in work forces. steroid 7. It is synthesized from cholesterin like all other steroidal endocrines. Steroid 7. Epitestosterone is a testosterone isomer and found in a little ratio with regard to testosterone. Steroid7.

Testosterone is responsible for the androgenic and anabolic effects.steroid7. The androgenic maps of testosterone are responsible for the alterations in the primary sexual male characteristics. Steroid7. , while the anabolic effects are responsible for heightening musculus growing, protein synthesis and red blood cells. steroid 7.

Anabolic steroids are group of man-made modified derived functions of testosterone. steoid 10. When administered, they bind to the androgen receptors which are found in the prostate, skeletal musculus and cardinal nervous system to give their mechanism of action. Their construction is developed and modified to better the anabolic effects with reduced androgenic effects. steroid 10

Paths of disposal

Anabolic steroids are administered orally or intramuscularly. Nowadays, jocks are utilizing transdermic spots, sublingual tablets, nasal sprays, and dermatological gels of testosterone to get away positive trials ( 2 ) . P 3

Why do jocks misapply anabolic steroids

Athletes use anabolic steroids due to their anabolic effects, so they are used due to its positive consequence on the skeletal musculus tissues. They are used to increase strength and musculus size. They are besides used to increase organic structure weight, protein metamorphosis and collagen synthesis. Steoird 6 and 35. Some jocks use anabolic steroids because they “want to be big” . steroid 7.

Side effects

  • Cardiovascular effects:

Anabolic steroids consumption consequences in terrible coronary bosom disease. They cut down high denseness lipoprotein ( HDL ) and increase low denseness lipoprotein ( LDL ) . Steroid 25- steroid 7. ensuing in coronary artery disease.

  • Increase bosom stroke

Anabolic steroids addition blood coagulating and therefore favoring thrombosis ensuing in bosom onslaughts. steroid 26

  • Liver jobs

Oral anabolic steroids consequences in cholestatic hepatitis and icterus. steorid 7,26 Besides addition in the liver enzymes ( aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and lactate dehydrogenase ) is encountered with the usage of steroids. steroid 37

  • Sexual side effects

High doses of anabolics in a survey by Holma, shows that the sperm counts decreased by 73 % and azoospermia occurred for 3 persons i.e impacting birthrate. Steroid 7

They affect secernment of the generative endocrines like testosterone and therefore cut downing libido due to diminish degree of luteinizing endocrine ( LH ) and follicle exciting endocrine ( FSH ) .sterodi 37. Anabolic steroids maltreatment may ensue in prostate malignant neoplastic disease. Steroid 37

  • Gynaecomastia

It is the expansion of the mammary tissues in work forces due to reassign of androgens to estradiol and estrone. steroid 7,37

  • Psychological effects

A survey in USA showed that anabolic steroids revealed alterations in temper such as passion and depression. steorid7

Other side effects include: hyperinsulinemia, high blood pressure, tendon harm, steroid 26. hydrops, musculus cramp, acne hirsuteness, and deepening of voice. Steroid 35

History of anabolic steroids abuse and drug testing

The usage of prohibited substances such as caffeine, cocaine and strychnine started during the nineteenth century in most of the athletics events like cycling, swimming, and distance running. steroid 26.

The maltreatment of steroids in athletics started in 1950s by the Soviet weightlifting teams.p54 green, steroid26. In 1960 Olympic Games, anabolic steroids usage was restricted to Soviet weightlifting, but by 1964, their usage is increased in all strength athleticss. p45 green. 7. Anabolics use became more common in most athleticss in 1972 Olympic Games. Steroid 26

Anabolic steroids usage has been banned by medical committee of IOC in 1974 and has been added to the list of prohibited substances of IOC in 1975.steroid 10, 7

Although the first formal testing was introduced in 1972 Munich Olympics, there was no proving for anabolic steroids ( 7 ) . P4. The first formal trial for anabolic steroid was in 1976 Montreal Summer Olympics ( 7 ) . First positive trials for steroids were in 1976 Montreal Olympics, in which 8 jocks, seven weightlifters and one female jock in a field event were caught for steroid maltreatment ( 7 ) .p75. , while no positive trials were reported in 1980 Moscow Olympic Games.

Anabolic androgenic steroids are one of the most widely used drugs by jocks to heighten their public presentation and physical visual aspect. Steroid 6. Their usage extends to be non among professional jocks but besides among high school male and female pupils. Steroid 26

WADA accredited research labs published statistics form 1993 boulder clay 2003 and this showed that anabolic steroids are the most widely used banned substances.p32.red.







22.8 %

24 %

15.4 %

14.9 %

19 %

Anabolic steroids

59.9 %

50.5 %

40.1 %

36.8 %

32.1 %

Unlike pep pills and other stimulations which were taken on the twenty-four hours of competition ( which causes sudden decease due to cardiac apprehension ) , anabolic steroids are administered during the preparation exercising and non before the competition periods. P31 ruddy. they are taken in rhythms with continuance of six- 12 hebdomads, and normally 2-3 rhythms are taken in a twelvemonth. Steroid7.

The debut of the “out of competition” proving programmes limited the usage of the anabolic steroids. P46 red

Systematic doping: biggest dirt

One of the biggest dirts for steroid maltreatment was in the German Democratic Republic, they were used from 1965 to 1989 and this allows the East German to win many decorations. Coachs and physicians in East Germany follow a programme for systematic doping with steroids. In 1965, a pharmaceutical company had developed chlor-substituted derived function of methandrostenolone ( Oral-Turbinabol R ) , and from 1968 GRD started to present it to female jocks in the Olympic Games. Steroid 40

Detection of anabolic steroids:

Detection of urinary anabolic steroid by radioimmunoassay

Drug testing was based on radioimmunoassay showing of urine samples from jocks for sensing of banned substances and so gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy for verification the positive trials ( 7 ) . Testing at that clip was insensitive and non selective due to the fact that proving was done during competition periods and anabolic steroids were normally taken for long periods, so athletes used to discontinue these drugs at competition periods so their degree will diminish in the piss and could non be detected and the trials would give false negative ( 19 ) .

Detection of urinary anabolic steroids by GC/MS, mensurating testosterone to epitestosterone ( T/E ratio )

Drug proving at that clip could non distinguish between endogenous testosterone and man-made anabolics.steroid7.

Testosterone was introduced in the prohibited list of IOC in 1983, it was the first endogenous substance to be banned, after the find of the sensing method in 1982. p35red.

In 1984 Olympic Games, all urine samples from jocks were screened by GC/MS for sensing and designation. The T/E ratio was used as quantitative trial for testosterone usage. The trial was based on mensurating testosterone and its isomer epitestosterone. In 1982, the ratio was set at 6:1, if greater than this ratio, this revealed grounds of positive trial of disposal of testosterone ( 7 ) . Later on, in 1992, the IOC increased this ratio to 10:1 due to the ground that some people have elevated ratio. P36red.

In 2005, this ratio was so decreased by WADA to 4 due to the suspect that jocks were still utilizing testosterone spots or gels maintaining the ratio below 6. steroid 38

Anabolic steroids are metabolised in human organic structure and therefore increasing the hydrophilic belongings of the steroid. The procedure of metamorphosis is junction with glucuronide or sulfate molecule, so anabolics are excreted in urine in two signifiers, glucuronide and sulphated conjugate signifiers. Steroid 2

GC/MS is the ideal technique for finding of urinary steroid conjugates. Prior to finding, sample pre-treatment for conjugated steroids must be done to let its finding by GC. Pre-treatment depends on deconjugation and so derivatisation. St 2

Urinary conjugated steroid





Deconjugation measure is to bring forth free steroid from conjugated one. Derivatisation measure is to diminish mutual opposition and addition volatility of the steroid utilizing timethyl silyl derived functions. N-Methyl-N-timethyl silyl trifluroacetamide can be used for derivatisation and ammonium iodide and 2-mercaptoethanol as accelerators. Steroid 3

Detection of urinary steroid by gas chromatography-combustion- isotope ratio mass spectroscopy ( GC-C-IRMS )


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11.http: //news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/athletics/4350810.stm balco foreman begins jail sentence, 18 October 2005.

12. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/drugsinsport/2300766/BALCO-drug-scandal-hanging-over-athletics.html

13.http: //www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2001/jul/25/athletics.duncanmackay two 0f Ma’s smugglers test positive

14.http: //www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-12/04/content_397317.htm

Ma junren commands farewell

15. hypertext transfer protocol: //factsanddetails.com/china.php? itemid=271 & A ; catid=12 & A ; subcatid=79

16.Thursday, 21 March, 2002, 19:07 GMT

British skier stripped of bronze, BBC Sport intelligence

hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/winterolympics2002/hi/english/alpine_skiing/newsid_1882000/1882870.stm

17.Friday, 22 March, 2002, 11:59 GMT

Baxter protests artlessness

hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/winterolympics2002/hi/english/alpine_skiing/newsid_1887000/1887267.stm

18.Friday, 18 October, 2002, 17:17 GMT 18:17 UK

Baxter hails moral triumph

hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/winterolympics2002/hi/english/alpine_skiing/newsid_2341000/2341143.stm

19.Mass spectroscopy and Illicit Drug Testing: Analytic Challenges of the anti-doipng Laboratories.. articles 1

20. Doping in athletics, 12 August 2004, BBC intelligence, Tom Fordyce

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31.Hadef Y, Kaloustian J, Portugal H, and Nicolay A, “Multivariate optimisation of a derivatisation process for the coincident finding of nine anabolic steroids by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry” , Journal of chromatography, Elsevier, 2008, 1190, 278_285 steroid 3

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