Please enter something

CT Chapter 9 Ethics & Moral Decision Making

question

Moral Reasoning
answer

used when a decision is made about what we ought or ought not to do
question

Moral Values
answer

values that benefit oneself and others and are worthwhile for their own sake
question

Nonmoral (Instrumental) Values
answer

values that are goal oriented– a means to an end be achieved
question

Moral Tragedy
answer

this occurs when we make a moral decision that is later regretted
question

Conscience
answer

a source of knowledge that provides us with knowledge about what is right and wrong
question

Affective
answer

the emotional aspect of conscience that motivates us to act
question

Moral Sentiments
answer

emotions that alert us to moral situations and motivate us to do what is right
question

Helper’s High
answer

the feeling that occurs when we help other people
question

Compassion
answer

sympathy in action
question

Moral Outrage
answer

indignation in the presense of an injustice or violation of moral decency
question

Resentment
answer

a type of moral outrage that occurs when we ourselves are treated unjustly
question

Guilt
answer

a moral sentiment that alerts us to and motivates us to correct a wrong
question

Shame
answer

a feeling resulting from the violation of a social norm
question

Preconventional Stages
answer

stage of moral development in which morality is defined egotistically
question

Conventional Stages
answer

stage of moral development in which people look to others for moral guidelines
question

Postconventional Stages
answer

stage in which people make moral decisions on the basis of universal moral principles
question

Justice Perspective
answer

the emphasis on duty and principles in moral reasoning
question

Care Perspective
answer

the emphasis in moral development and reasoning on context and relationships
question

Mature Care Ethics
answer

the stage of moral development in which people are able to balance their needs and those of others
question

Ethical Subjectivist
answer

one who believes that morality is nothing more than personal opinion or feelings
question

Cultural Relativism
answer

people who look to societal norms for what is morally right and wrong
question

Utilitartianism
answer

a moral philosophy in which actions are evaluated based on their consequences
question

Principle of Utility (greatest happiness principle)
answer

the most moral action is that which brings about the greatest happiness or pleasure and the least amount of pain for the greatest number
question

Utilitarian Calculus
answer

used to determine the best course of action or policy by calculating the total amount of pleasure and pain caused by that action
question

Deontology
answer

the ethics of duty
question

Categorical Imperative
answer

Kant’s fundamental moral principle that helps to determine what our duty is
question

Prima Facie Duty
answer

moral duty that is binding unless overridden by a more compelling moral duty
question

Legitimate Interests
answer

interests that do not violate others’ similar and equal interests
question

Welfare Rights
answer

the right to receive certain social goods that are essential to our well-being
question

Liberty Rights
answer

the right to be left alone to pursue our legitimate interests
question

Virtue Ethics
answer

moral theories that emphasize character over right actions
question

Moral Sensitivity
answer

the awareness of how our actions affect others
question

Moral Dilemma
answer

a situation in which there is a conflict between moral values
question

Steps for Resolving a Moral Dilemma
answer

1. Describe the FACTS 2. List the relevant MORAL PRINCIPLES & CONCERNS 3. List & evaluate POSSIBLE COURSES OF ACTION 4. Devise a PLAN OF ACTION 5. CARRY OUT the plan of action
question

Universal Moral Theories
answer

1. Utilitarianism 2. Deontology 3. Rights-based Ethics 4. Virtue Ethics
question

Seven Prima-Facie Duties
answer

Future-Looking Duties: 1. Beneficiance 2. Nonmaleficence Duties Based on Past Obligations: 3. Fidelity/loyalty 4. Reparation 5. Gratitude Ongoing Duties: 6. Self-Improvement 7. Justice
question

Utilitarian Calculus (7 Factors to Consider)
answer

1. Intensity 2. Duration 3. Certainty 4. Propinquity 5. Fecundity 6. Purity 7. Extent