CT Chapter 9 Ethics & Moral Decision Making

Moral Reasoning
used when a decision is made about what we ought or ought not to do

Moral Values
values that benefit oneself and others and are worthwhile for their own sake

Nonmoral (Instrumental) Values
values that are goal oriented– a means to an end be achieved

Moral Tragedy
this occurs when we make a moral decision that is later regretted

Conscience
a source of knowledge that provides us with knowledge about what is right and wrong

Affective
the emotional aspect of conscience that motivates us to act

Moral Sentiments
emotions that alert us to moral situations and motivate us to do what is right

Helper’s High
the feeling that occurs when we help other people

Compassion
sympathy in action

Moral Outrage
indignation in the presense of an injustice or violation of moral decency

Resentment
a type of moral outrage that occurs when we ourselves are treated unjustly

Guilt
a moral sentiment that alerts us to and motivates us to correct a wrong

Shame
a feeling resulting from the violation of a social norm

Preconventional Stages
stage of moral development in which morality is defined egotistically

Conventional Stages
stage of moral development in which people look to others for moral guidelines

Postconventional Stages
stage in which people make moral decisions on the basis of universal moral principles

Justice Perspective
the emphasis on duty and principles in moral reasoning

Care Perspective
the emphasis in moral development and reasoning on context and relationships

Mature Care Ethics
the stage of moral development in which people are able to balance their needs and those of others

Ethical Subjectivist
one who believes that morality is nothing more than personal opinion or feelings

Cultural Relativism
people who look to societal norms for what is morally right and wrong

Utilitartianism
a moral philosophy in which actions are evaluated based on their consequences

Principle of Utility (greatest happiness principle)
the most moral action is that which brings about the greatest happiness or pleasure and the least amount of pain for the greatest number

Utilitarian Calculus
used to determine the best course of action or policy by calculating the total amount of pleasure and pain caused by that action

Deontology
the ethics of duty

Categorical Imperative
Kant’s fundamental moral principle that helps to determine what our duty is

Prima Facie Duty
moral duty that is binding unless overridden by a more compelling moral duty

Legitimate Interests
interests that do not violate others’ similar and equal interests

Welfare Rights
the right to receive certain social goods that are essential to our well-being

Liberty Rights
the right to be left alone to pursue our legitimate interests

Virtue Ethics
moral theories that emphasize character over right actions

Moral Sensitivity
the awareness of how our actions affect others

Moral Dilemma
a situation in which there is a conflict between moral values

Steps for Resolving a Moral Dilemma
1. Describe the FACTS
2. List the relevant MORAL PRINCIPLES & CONCERNS
3. List & evaluate POSSIBLE COURSES OF ACTION
4. Devise a PLAN OF ACTION
5. CARRY OUT the plan of action

Universal Moral Theories
1. Utilitarianism
2. Deontology
3. Rights-based Ethics
4. Virtue Ethics

Seven Prima-Facie Duties
Future-Looking Duties:
1. Beneficiance
2. Nonmaleficence
Duties Based on Past Obligations:
3. Fidelity/loyalty
4. Reparation
5. Gratitude
Ongoing Duties:
6. Self-Improvement
7. Justice

Utilitarian Calculus (7 Factors to Consider)
1. Intensity
2. Duration
3. Certainty
4. Propinquity
5. Fecundity
6. Purity
7. Extent