Crit thinking

question

“I’m so jealous of Fred!” is a statement or non statement?
answer

Statement because it could be true or false
question

2+2=5 is a statement or non statement
answer

Statement because it could be true or false
question

“would you like fries with that?” is a statement or non statement?
answer

non statement because it could not be true or false
question

God created the earth in six days is a statement or non statement
answer

statement
question

I wouldn’t ride without a helmet if i were u is a what?
answer

statement
question

He’s pigheaded. he must be tartars.. identify premise and conclusion
answer

premise: he is pigheaded.. conclusion… he must be tartarus
question

We must never consider suicide. This act will only cause us to lose opportunities for further development while here on earth. And afterwards, in reflecting back on these lost opportunities we would feel much pain and sorrow. identify premise and conclusion
answer

premise:T his act will only cause us to lose opportunities for further development while here on earth. Premise 2: eflecting back on these lost opportunities we would feel much pain and sorrow. conclusion: we must never commit suicide
question

There exists, it is true, a group of criminals, born for evil, against whom all social cures break as against a rock—a fact which compels us to eliminate them completely, even by death. identify premise and conclusion
answer

premise: There exists a group of criminals, born for evil, against whom all social cures break as against a rock. conclusion: we must eliminate them completely, even by death
question

Yogurt and other sour milk products—like the more liquid Keir and even cultural buttermilk—are good for several reasons. They are high in protein, of course, being milk products. They are lower in fat than whole milk. Their lactic-acid content gives them an interestingly tangy flavor that adds sparkle to dishes, making them good substitutes for sour cream or whole milk or even mayonnaise in salads, dressings, sauces and baked goods. identify premise and conclusion
answer

premise- are high in protein, of course, being milk products…. premise- lactic-acid content gives them an interestingly tangy flavor that adds sparkle to dishes… premise: making them good substitutes for sour cream or whole milk or even mayonnaise in salads, dressings, sauces and baked goods. conclusion: yogurt and sour milk products are good for many reasons
question

A person is guilty of practical inconsistency when he or she asserts or believes inconsistent things about a particular matter. true or false
answer

false
question

Self-interested thinking is the tendency to accept and defend beliefs that harmonize with one’s own self-interest. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

TRUE
question

Self-serving bias is the tendency to overrate oneself–to see oneself as being better in some respect than one actually is. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

TRUE
question

. Conformism is the tendency to see one’s own group (e.g., nation, tribe, sect, peer group) as being inherently better than others. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

fALSE
question

eVERY ARGUMENT CONSISTS OF ATLEAST TWO STATEMENTS. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

TRUE
question

Inductive arguments always proceed from particular premises to a general conclusion. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

fALSE
question

Certainly, conclusively, and it logically follows that are common deduction indicator words and phrases. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

TRUE
question

If an arguer precedes his or her conclusion with the phrase “it must be the case that,” then the argument is definitely deductive. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

FALSE
question

According to the strict necessity test, if an argument’s conclusion follows with strict logical necessity from the premises, then the argument should always be treated as deductive. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

TRUE
question

According to the principle of charity test, we should never attribute to an arguer a weaker argument when the evidence reasonably permits us to attribute to him or her a stronger one. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

tRUE
question

A syllogism is a three-line argument in which each premise begins with the words all, some, or no. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

FALSE
question

Modus tollens is a deductively valid pattern of reasoning. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

TRUE
question

Affirming the consequent is a deductively valid pattern of reasoning. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

FALSE
question

Arguments based on mathematics are always deductive TRUE OR FALSE
answer

fALSE
question

Inductive generalizations always proceed from particular premises to a general conclusion. TRUE OR FALSE
answer

TRUE
question

An argument in which the conclusion is claimed to follow necessarily from the premises is a. a valid argument. b. an implicative argument. c. a deductive argument. d. an inductive argument.
answer

c
question

Arguments in which the conclusion is claimed to follow probably from the premises are a. inductive. b. abductive. c. plausibility arguments. d. deductive.
answer

A
question

. A(n)__________ is a three-line argument that consists of two premises and a conclusion. a. enthymeme b. syllogism c. trilogy d. categorical argument
answer

B
question

The argument “If Elizabeth plays first base, then Laura plays shortstop; if Laura plays shortstop, then Tess plays catcher; so, if Elizabeth plays first base, then Tess plays catcher” is a. a hypothetical syllogism. b. an argument by elimination. c. an argument by definition. d. a categorical syllogism.
answer

a
question

The argument “Shadowfax is a stallion; it follows that Shadowfax is a male” is a. an argument by definition. b. an inductive generalization. c. a hypothetical syllogism. d. an argument by elimination.
answer

a
question

Ninety percent of students at Central Tech University wear sandals to class, even in the winter. Ted is a student at Central Tech University. So, Ted likely wears sandals to class, even in the winter. Determine whether the following arguments are deductive or inductive. If the argument is deductive, determine whether it is valid or invalid. If the argument is inductive, determine whether it is strong or weak
answer

inductive strong
question

Jennifer was a brunette when she was freshmen, and she was a blonde when she was a sophomore. It follows that she will be redhead when she is a junior. Determine whether the following arguments are deductive or inductive. If the argument is deductive, determine whether it is valid or invalid. If the argument is inductive, determine whether it is strong or weak
answer

inductive weak
question

. There is loud music blaring from Matt’s house, lots of cars are parked out front, and I just saw two frat brothers of mine carrying kegs of beer into the house. Let’s check it out. Matt must be having a party. Determine whether the following arguments are deductive or inductive. If the argument is deductive, determine whether it is valid or invalid. If the argument is inductive, determine whether it is strong or weak
answer

inductive strong
question

. Vague language is useful and appropriate in some contexts. True/false
answer

true
question

All overgeneral words or phrases are vague True/false
answer

false
question

All ambiguous words are vague. True/false
answer

false
question

Some words are both vague and ambiguous. True/false
answer

true
question

Words such as excessive, inappropriate, and unreasonable are primarily ambiguous. True/false
answer

false
question

A word that has two or more clearly distinct meanings is a. vague. b. ambiguous. c. overgeneral. d. none of the above
answer

b
question

A word whose meaning is fuzzy or blurry is a. vague. b. ambiguous. c. overgeneral. d. none of the above
answer

a
question

. “Frank told Tom he needed a new lawnmower” is primarily a. vague. b. ambiguous. c. overgeneral. d. none of the above
answer

b
question

. Teacher: Billy, do you who the first president of the United States was? Billy: Some guy who wore a wig. Billy’s answer is primarily a. vague. b. ambiguous. c. overgeneral. d. none of the above
answer

c
question

A fallacy is an argument that contains a mistake in reasoning.
answer

tRUE
question

If an argument contains a false premise, then it is necessarily fallacious.
answer

fALSE
question

Statement A is negatively relevant to statement B if Statement A provides no evidence for statement B.
answer

FALSE
question

Statement A is logically irrelevant to Statement B if Statement A provides no evidence either for or against statement B.
answer

tRUE
question

All personal attacks are fallacies.
answer

FALSE
question

The attacking the motive fallacy occurs when an arguer rejects another person’s argument or claim because that person fails to practice what he or she preaches.
answer

FALSE
question

In the scare tactics fallacy, an arguer physically attacks an opponent.
answer

FALSE
question

. Emotional appeals are always fallacies.
answer

FALSE
question

. A bandwagon argument is an argument that illegitimately plays on a person’s desire to be popular, valued or accepted.
answer

TRUE
question

The straw man fallacy is committed when an arguer distorts an opponent’s argument or claim in order to make it easier to attack.
answer

TRUE
question

Two premises are linked if and only if a. the omission of one of the premises would weaken or cancel the amount of support provided by the other. b. the argument would not be deductively valid if one of the premises were omitted. c. the premises would not provide good reason to accept the conclusion if one of the premises were omitted. d. all of the above
answer

a
question

__________ in the following argument: “Bill will drive if Heather doesn’t drive. But Heather won’t drive, because she lost her driver’s license and her right leg is in a cast. Therefore, Bill will drive.” a. The premises are linked b. The premises are independent c. Some of the premises are linked and some are independent d. None of the above
answer

c
question

___________ should be omitted from argument diagrams. a. Logically irrelevant statements b. Redundant statements c. Both a and b d. None of the above
answer

c
question

There are __________ statements in the following argument: “If Jack plays soccer, then Jerry will play soccer and Jill will play soccer. Jerry will play soccer, but Jill won’t. Therefore, Jack won’t play soccer.” a. three b. four c. five d. six
answer

b
question

5. A(n) __________ is a detailed restatement of an argument using different words and phrases. a. synopsis b. summary c. outline d. paraphrase
answer

D
question

The premises in the following argument are independent: “Dogs make better pets than cats. They’re smarter, more sociable, and easier to train.”
answer

true
question

The premises in the following argument are linked: “Lake Jean is at a higher elevation than Lake Wallenpaupak, because Lake Francis is at a higher elevation than Lake
answer

true
question

Two premises, A and B, are linked just in case A and B, taken together, provide more support for the conclusion than either premise provides by itself.
answer

false
question

. Logically irrelevant statements should be numbered and included in argument diagrams, but no arrow should be drawn from them to any conclusion or subconclusion.
answer

False
question

There are two statements asserted in the sentence “Either Paul walks to school or he rides his bike to school”.
answer

false
question

Diagram the following arguments. 1. Look, it’s this simple. No one is allowed to serve as President of the Math Club unless he or she has at least a B average. Sturdley has, at best, a D average. Therefore, Sturdley cannot serve as President of the Math Club.
answer

question

Sam will come to the party only if Alison comes. Alison will come only if Gretchen comes. But Gretchen probably won’t come, because she has a bad cold. Therefore, since Alison probably won’t come to the party, Sam probably won’t come to the party.
answer

question

A summary of an argument or essay contains only the main idea of the argument or essay and, depending on the purpose of the summary, the main premises or supporting points.
answer

True
question

A paraphrase is generally more detailed than a summary.
answer

True
question

Much of what we know and think does not have to acknowledged or documented in our writing.
answer

true
question

A writer commits plagiarism if he or she paraphrases material from an outside source with no acknowledgment given to the source.
answer

true
question

This chapter recommends taking notes in a notebook or legal pad, rather than on index cards.
answer

false
question

The goal of a good paraphrase is a. to capture the essence of the original passage. b. to substitute synonyms for synonyms. c. to summarize briefly the main point of a passage. d. none of the above
answer

a
question

. Which of the following does not have to be acknowledged or documented? a. any generally known facts b. any ideas not your own c. direct quotations d. statistics and the results of surveys
answer

a
question

. To illustrate how to summarize an essay or argument, this section summarizes an essay by Anna Quindlen on a. raising teenaged girls. b. the Clinton impeachment. c. rock-and-roll. d. the Olympics.
answer

c
question

. According to the text, plagiarism is wrong because a. it is a kind of kidnapping or theft. b. it violates the principles of academic integrity. c. both a and b d. none of the above
answer

c
question

In writing argumentative essays, one should include only facts, not opinions.
answer

f
question

A good method for generating ideas for an argumentative paper is to organize your argument around one of the standard developmental patterns for writing essays (e.g., narration, illustration, definition).
answer

t
question

. Writing takes place in three very broad stages: what you do before you actually begin the first draft, what you do during the writing of the first draft, and what you do after the first draft is completed.
answer

t
question

In writing short argumentative essays, it is usually not necessary to support one’s argument with research.
answer

f
question

In writing argumentative essays, one should consider and rebut opposing points of view.
answer

t
question

Before you write, you should a. choose and narrow your topic. b. write a sentence that expresses your claim. c. both a and b d. none of the above
answer

c
question

According to the text, in writing the first draft of your argumentative essay, you should a. read what you’ve written and revise. b. edit your work. c. both a and b d. none of the above
answer

d
question

The first rule of all communication is to a. know who your audience is and adjust your style accordingly. b. know yourself. c. be clear. d. none of the above
answer

a
question

In choosing a topic for an argumentative paper, you should a. choose a topic that is both controversial and interesting to you. b. pick a topic that you can manage to cover completely in the space allowed in your paper. c. both a and b d. none of the above
answer

c
question

The central claim of an argumentative essay is called the a. topic. b. subject sentence. c. thesis. d. none of the above
answer

c
question

The news media is often criticized because a. rather than offering an honest and thorough examination of an issue in all its complexity, it often distorts meaning in its presentation of the news. b. it often employs attention-grabbing techniques that do little to increase our knowledge of a topic. c. both a and b d. none of the above
answer

c
question

Young people, including college students, usually claim that a. advertising does not influence them. b. advertising strongly influences them. c. advertising does influence them, but only to a limited extent. d. advertising is something to which they are totally indifferent.
answer

a
question

Every advertisement serves two basic functions: a. to manipulate and persuade. b. to captivate and amuse. c. to inform and motivate. d. none of the above
answer

c
question

The view that ads simply passively mirror the attitudes and values of society is a. an overly simplistic view of the relationship. b. a substantially correct view of the relationship. c. a completely erroneous view of the relationship. d. none of the above
answer

a
question

Most mass media news stories exhibit a. a strong liberal bias. b. a strong conservative bias. c. a strong pro-business bias. d. none of the above
answer

d
question

2. List three common techniques that advertisers use to break through our rational defenses. Are these techniques defensible? Why or why not? short answer
answer

sex appeal, anxiety appeal, and humor appeal
question

How would you argue for or against the following proposition: “For the most part, the news we receive is accurate, timely, informative, and unbiased.” Please state your conclusion and list at least two supporting premises and two opposing premises
answer

The constitution of the Us states that the media cannot state what one person has not or lie to its consumers. If the News we receive is a lie, the newscompany may be sued. Because most news outlets would not profit from being sued, they will not lie. Therefore, The news we receive is quite true, unbiased and informative.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member