Crack the PCAT: Organic Chemistry

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Atom
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Basic building block of matter, representing the smallnest unit of a chemical element
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Alkane
Alkane
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Cycloalkanes
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Alcohol
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Ketone
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Amine
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organic compounds that contain only hydrogen, carbon , and nitrogen
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Nitrile
Nitrile
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Acid halide
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Alkyl halide
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Ether
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Aldehyde
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Ester
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Amide
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Anhydride
Anhydride
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Aniline
Aniline
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Toulene
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Pyrole
Pyrole
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Electrophilic substitution reaction
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E1 reaction
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E2 reaction
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SN1 reaction
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SN2 reaction
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Free radical halogenation reaction
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Isomers
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Meso compound
Meso compound
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Achiral compound w/chiral centers
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Achiral
Achiral
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Symmetrical (mirror image is same)
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Chiral
Chiral
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Asymmetrical (different from mirror image)
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Enantiomers
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Pair of nonsuperimposable mirror image molecules/mirror-image isomers
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Diastereomers
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Stereoisomers that are not mirror images
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Constitutional isomers
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Compounds with different sequence in atoms (different order bonding)
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Structural isomers
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Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
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Geometric isomers
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Compounds that differ in position of substitutents attached to a double bond or cycloalkane (Ex: cis or trans, E or Z)
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Polar protic solvents
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Solvent that gives off H+ atoms (Ex: water, most alcohols, formic acid, hydrogen fluoride, and ammonia. Polar protic solvents are favorable for SN1 reactions)
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Polar aprotic solvents
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Nonpolar solvents
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Alpha beta unsaturated aldehydes
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A special group of carbonyl compounds; saturated because they are conjugated to an alkene group; electrophilic b/c the carbon atoms are e- deficient; participate in addition reactions with Nu’s where Nu’s add atoms to the alpha carbon
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Miscible with water
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Ketones, polar bonds, free election pairs Immiscible with water: Lipids, long hydrocarbon chains (like octanol), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2)
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Infrared absorption (IR) spectra
Infrared absorption (IR) spectra
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C=O 1680-1750 cm-1 C-O 1000-1300 cm-1 O-H 2500-3300 cm-1 C-H 2850-2960 cm-1 C-C wide range of values
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SN1 reactions
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Unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions. Leaving group leaves, forming a carbocation that then reacts with a nucleophile. Reactivity increases from methyl to primary to secondary to tertiary with increasing carbocation stability. The rate determining step is dependent on the electrophile
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Electrophile
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“Electron loving”; are electron deficient and typically react with nucleophiles by accepting electrons
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Nucleophiles
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“Nucleus-loving” atoms with either lone pairs or π bonds that can be used to form new bonds with electrophiles by donating electrons. 3 trends: 1) Nucleophilicity increases as charge on atom is more (-) 2) ” ” increases with basicity 3) ” ” increases with polarizability
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Solubility in water
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Amide > Acid > Alcohol > Ketones & aldehydes > Amine > Ester > Ether > Alkane
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Meta directors
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Para directors
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Polymerization
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A chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer or polymeric compound; changes a simple chemical into another substance that contains the same elements
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Density gradient centrifugation graph
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Two separate peaks indicate that both are pure

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