Essay Summary of Corrections Exam 1

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Developing an understanding of corrections requires focusing on certain types of cases. The types of cases that are most helpful in development an understanding of corrections are typified cases, such as
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Tonya Drake
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Jeffrey Reiman argues that the CJS can be credited for
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reinforcing the notion that crime is committed mainly by members of the underclass who deserve harsh punishment.
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Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a CJS designed to maintain and encourage the existence of a stable and visible class of criminals, according to Reiman?
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The CJS focuses on the social conditions that contribute to crime.
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In the case of Christian Martensen described in your text, how many actual doses of LSD were involved?
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None. He was merely asked to find someone else who would be willing to sell LSD to Grateful Dead fans in exchange for $400.00.
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Which of the following is true about the case of Tonya Drake, which is described in your text?
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All of the above – She was told by a man that she could keep the change from $100.00 if she would put a package in the mail for him; She was unaware that the package contained 232 grams of cocaine; She was sentenced to 10 years in a federal prison despite having no previous criminal record, drug related or otherwise; The judge acknowledged that her sentence was absurd, but had no choice under federal mandatory minimum sentencing laws.
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America’s prisons held more than _____ convicts in 2008, resulting in an incarceration rate of ____ per 100,000 US residents.
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1,610,446; 952
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The imprisonment rate for black males is ____.
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3,161 per 100,000.
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The imprisonment rate for Hispanic males is ____.
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1,200.
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Between 1987 and 2007, the prison population
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tripled from 585,000 to almost 1.6 million.
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Which country has a higher incarceration rate than the US?
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None of the above. THe US has the highest incarceration rate in the world.
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Which state has the highest recidivism rate in the country at 70%?
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California
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______ is a form of politics aimed to appeal to people who feel that their views and interests have been left out of the debate over governance.
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Populism
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In Governing Through Crime, Jonathan Simon argues that
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new forms of governance have stoked the fear of crime generating a demand for more punitive punishment.
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Feeley and Simon’s concept of the new penology describes an approach whose goal is to
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identify and manage unruly groups.
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Scholars have argued that since the 1980s, a sizable proportion of the American public perceives the crime problem through a racial lens that results in an associate of crime with
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black men.
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________ is the ideological foundation for social domination by the ruling class.
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Hegemony
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Hegemony is facilitated by _______ that allow the ruling class to exert its influence over civil society and government.
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Mass media
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Which of the following does your text give as an example of highly coded racial rhetoric?
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All of the above – drug kingpin, gang banger, welfare queen, and crack *****.
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Some argue that increasingly harsher punishments for crime is a result of democratic policy making reflecting the desires of a majority of the population. Other scholars argue that the consent of most citizens for harsher penalties, especially white citizens, is engineered (or created) by the the ruling classes of society through their control of mass media. Which of the following statements supports the text book author’s position in that debate?
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Many Americans favor liberal programs, such as rehabilitation, especially for youthful offenders.
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The movie Escape from New York is an engaging science fiction tale, but it also addresses which of the following real issues concerning incarceration?
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A and B only – The construction of super-max facilities designed to contain what authorities claim to be a growing population of more dangerous felons; A lock ’em up and throw away the key sentiment that resonates in the public conversation about crime.
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More than ____ people are held in penal institutions worldwide.
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9.8 million
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Internationally, prison populations are
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growing.
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Robert Gangi of the Correctional Association of New York is quoted in your text as saying, building more prisons to address crime is like building more _____ to address a fatal disease.
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Graveyards.
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The workhouse movement of the 16th and 17th centuries can be interpreted as a form of _____, which was designed to sweep undesirables from the streets and put them in institutions away from public view.
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Social sanitation
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Which of the following economic and social circumstances was a reason for the use of transportation?
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All of the above – existence of a growing underclass, overcrowding in jails, and the need for labor in the colonies
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Among the oldest forms of collective punishment is ___.
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Stoning to death
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Which of the following was a punishment in ancient Greece?
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All of the above – stoning, burning alive, garroting.
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Beccaria advanced the idea that ____ of punishment served as the crux of deterrence.
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A and B only – certainty and swiftness
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Old, unseaworthy vessels that were converted into floating prisons were known as ____.
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All of the above – hulks, hell holds, and floating hells
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The Bridewell, which was converted from a royal palace to an institution, and one of the first examples of the workhouse, confined _____.
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All of the above – the poor, lewd, and less serious offenders.
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The Inquisition is an example of the role of ____ in law enforcement during the middle ages.
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Religious institutions
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Galley slavery was often a(n) ____.
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Life sentence
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The Enlightenment philosophers contributed to the field of CJ by _____.
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All of the above – criticizing arbitrary sentencing, inhumane punishment, and advocating for improvement of prison conditions
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The Bergundian Code categorized types of punishments according to _____.
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social class
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Devil’s Island in French Guiana was used as a penal colony for ____ until 1953.
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France
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Which of the following has had the most influence over correctional practices throughout history?
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Economic factors, such as generating profit or reducing cost
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Foucault argues that the constant inspection of inmates in the panopticon is _____.
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B and C – visible and unverifiable
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The panopticon was originally designed by ____, which became known as the \”ultimate penitentiary\”
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Bentham
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Beheading has been explained as ______.
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All of the above – an act to placate the gods, a form of apotropaic punishment, an honorable death
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Some scholars have suggested that stoning has ____.
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All of the above – sacred meaning, a sacrificial function, and a cleansing effect on the community
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During the Middle Ages, incarceration took place in _____, at times even inside monasteries.
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Makeshift arrangements
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Galley slavery flourished during periods of ____.
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All of the above – imperialism, colonialism, and global expansion
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During the Enlightenment, which flourished during the 18th century, _____ became a prevailing method of analyzing social life.
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All of the above – reason, humanitarianism, and secularism
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During the Middle Ages, ordeals were used to test the innocence or guilt of those charged with crimes. The belief was that ______ would prevent an innocent person from being harmed during the ordeal.
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Divine intervention
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The institutionalization of galley slavery as a penal practice in 1348 and it’s use until 1803 was primarily driven by ________ forces, since the labor of convicts would be lost if they were executed.
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Economic
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Foucault argues that the design of the panopticon shows that the target of social control is the prisoner’s ____.
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Mind
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The explanation for the use of beheading by ancient civilizations is subject to debate, but some have argued that beheading was an apotropaic act, which means that it was ___________.
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Meant to ward off evil
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In ancient Rome, the Mamertime prison was _____.
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A primitive sewer
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_______ emerged as the prevailing political economy during the Middle Ages.
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Feudalism
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The introduction of the crank, treadmill, and shot drill…
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make it apparent that thew ideal of genuine rehabilitation that came about after the Enlightenment were replaced with a more retributive approach.
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The Justinian Code reflected an attempt to make punishments ______.
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More proportional to the severity of the offense
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Damiens was convicted of ________ in Paris, France, in 1787. For this crime, he was sentenced to make the amende honorable before the main door of the church.
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Regicide, or the killing of one’s king
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The emphasis in Ch2 of your text is on the analysis of penalties and prisons, especially in the light of _______ forces that shape them.
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Social forces, because all of the above are social in nature
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The basis for punishment, according to the Code of Hammurabi from ancient Babylon was lex talionis, meaning the law of _______.
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Retaliation
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When groups of individuals come together to carry out punishment, so that they all participate, but no individual has to take direct responsibility, it is referred to as ____.
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Collective punishment
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The 1987 UN Convention Against Torture prohibits the use of amputation of limbs as punishment, but in 2002, diplomats from _______ clashed with the UN over whether or nto amputation was covered by the treaty.
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Saudi Arabia
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The ancient Greek philosopher Plato
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believed that punishment should make the individual \”a better man, or failing that, less of a wretch\”
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One punishment used for Roman soldiers was ___, in which every tenth man was executed.
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Decimation
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Under feudalism, punishment was designed to _______.
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All of the above – maintain the existing social order, reform the offender, preserve the exiting economic order
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At the heart of Beccaria’s theory and the classical school is the concept of _____.
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Free will
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John Howard was appointed ______ in 1773.
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Sheriff of Bedfordshire, England
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John Howard wrote ______.
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the Penitentiary Act, which was passed by the British Parliament in 1779.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the principles that the Penitentiary Act was built around?
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Prisoners deserve their punishment and society’s contempt.
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Mr. Ferraby used a leather trace to whip his slave girl for the offense of _____.
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Burning the waffles for breakfast
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Ch 3 in the textbook discusses the emergence of American punishment in light of which social force?
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All of the above – politics, economics, religion, and technology
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Early English colonists of North America _____.
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Believed that criminals were sinners giving in to demonic possession
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A _____ used for flogging, had knots of rawhide attached to a handle.
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Cat-o-nine tails
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The last two states to use flogging as a formal punishment for a criminal offense were Maryland and _____.
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Delaware
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Flogging remained on the books in some states as a possible punishment for crime until _____.
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1972
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The brank was used in colonial america and was designed to punish ______.
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Those engaging in community gossip.
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The ducking stool was last used in 1811 in _____.
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Georgia
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______ were typically placed in the center of town where offenders were subject to humiliation and ridicule by the townspeople.
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A and B only – stocks and pillories
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_____ an American teenager in Singapore, was sentenced to six lashes with a brine soaked rattan cane for spray painting and petty vandalism.
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Michael Fay
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William Penn, a Quaker, founded the colony of Pennsylvania and introduced _______ which, among other reforms, restricted the use of the death penalty to offenders convicted of homicide.
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the Great law
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Penn’s legal reforms stayed in effect in Pennsylvania until _____, when he passed away, and then they were replaced by the Anglican code.
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1718
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David Rothman contends that the English colonists in North America __________.
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Saw deviance as a predictable and inevitable component of society
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In the English colonies in North America, jails were not expected to provide reform or rehabilitation, especially when ______ remained the preferred and most effective method of dealing with recidivism and threats to public safety.
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expulsion/banishment
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Newgate Prison in Connecticut was built _______.
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in an abandoned copper mine.
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Pennsylvania Quakers set out to reform harsh conditions in ___.
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The Walnut Street Jail
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The Walnut Street jail ____.
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All of the above – abolished the fee system, provided adequate clothing, food, and bedding to inmates, and provided medical care to inmates
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In the Walnut Street Jail, silence was enforced ______.
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because it was believed that silence would reduce criminal contamination among inmates.
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Takagi argues that the Philadelphia Prison Society was motivated more by _______ than anything else.
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centralizing political power
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Newgate Prison of NYC was established in 1797 in an area know known as _______.
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Greenwich Village
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Newgate Prison of NYC was initially viewed as a progressive institution _______.
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but eventually suffered from overcrowding
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The Jacksonian era of American history began in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson to the presidency. During that period, _______ was drastically reconceptualzied as a critical social problem.
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All of the above – crime, poverty, insanity
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______ emerged as the primary means of coping with growing social problems in the years after the American Revolution.
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Institutionalization
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During the Jacksonian period, institutionalization was used as a place of ________ resort.
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First
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Before the Jacksonian period, during the colonial period, institutionalization was used as a place of ______ resort.
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Last
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As a British colony, America enforced the legal codes established by ______.
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Duke of York
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The colonists believed that criminal behavior was an individual failing. The Jacksonians believed that criminal behavior _______.
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was caused by the corrupting influence over society.
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The Jacksonians believed imprisonment was necessary to ______.
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Protect inmates from society
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Warden Thomas Eddy and his family resided inside ______ in order to serve as role models for its inmates.
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Newgate prison (NYC)
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Eastern State Penitentiary eventually became burdened with the cost of maintenance, so inmates at were assigned individual handicrafts such as shoemaking and weaving, while maintaining their forced monastic like silence. This shows the effect of _______ forces on punishment.
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A and C only – economic and religious
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Due to the lack of _____, few institutions were willing to replicate the Penn. system of complete solitary confinement.
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profit
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The Auburn model introduced a _____ style of inmate management.
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quasi-militaristic
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Auburn’s first keeper, Elam Lynds, viewed all prisoners as ______.
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cowards who needed their spirits to be broken before they could be reformed.
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Lynds, the warden at Auburn, regarded ______ as the most humane of all punishments because it did no injury to the prisoner’s health.
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Flogging
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The utopian vision of the American penitentiary began to crumble by the 1850s. Few traces of the rehabilitation philosophy remained and a ______ dominated institutionalization.
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custodial philosophy
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The interior cellblocks and congregate workshops at Elmira were modeled after the ______.
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Auburn model
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_____ was not expected to be self-supporting financially, because the administration argued that the use of labor with the inmates was primarily a form of training.
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Elmira Reformatory
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About __% of the inmates at Elmire were beaten twice a week with a leather strap that had been soaked in water.
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30
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Under this system of prison labor, used primarily in the south, private contractors paid state governments for the use of inmates, taking them away from the institution and forcing them to work on plantations, levees, and railroads.
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leasing system
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Under this system of prison labor, used mainly in the industrial North, inmates remained incarcerated in the institution while manufacturing goods to be sold on the open market.
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contract system
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Under this system of prison labor, furniture, clothing, food, and license plates are manufactured by inmates inside the prison, but these goods are only used for government agencies and are not sold on the open market.
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state use system
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A common theme in the writings of Foucault, Ignatieff, and Rothman is that to understand the development of prisons, we must ___________.
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look beyond the basic notion that penal reform resulted from humanitarian social movements.
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In his Essay on Crimes and Punishments, published in 1764, Beccaria condemned ____.
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All of the above – arbitrary penalties, the death penalty, and the use of torture
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In the movie A Clockwork Orange, the character Alex is given drugs which _____.
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Cause him to feel nauseous when he is exposed to violence
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In order to achieve the greatest deterrent effect, Bentham suggested the use of _____ to create in citizens fear of punishment.
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Actors and theatre managers
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Walker refers to tough in crime proposals based on deterrence research as a crime-control ________, since deterrence is accepted as an article of faith rather than being supported by empirical facts.
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theology
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Deterrence models fail to account for all but the following elements of crime.
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risks
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In their 2002 report, Langan and Levin of the BJS found that _____% of prisoners released from state prisons in 1994 committed at least one serious new offense within 3 years.
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67
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In Langan and Levin’s report, their finding was an increase of ______% from 1983 to 1994.
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5
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The textbook argues that it is actually ______ more than crime that serves as a unifying force and creates social cohesion.
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punishment
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Which is the best description of the mood and atmosphere of the gathering of people outside Raiford Prison in Starke, Florida just before Ted Bundy’s execution?
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a tailgate party
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The nation gravitated towards the political right in the 1980’s. This paved the way for the _________ model of imprisonment.
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just deserts
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________ is the objective of the just deserts model of imprisonment.
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Retribution
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The just deserts model ________.
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does not attempt to reduce criminality.
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J. Edgar Hoover referred to academic researchers who focus on the external factors of crime as _____.
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cream-puff criminologists
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Lombroso was greatly influenced by _________.
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Darwin’s writings on evolution
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Lombroso’s term for those who did not possess any outward pathological traits, but still engaged in crime.
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criminaloids
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By the end of his career, Lombroso went beyond the evolutionary perspectvie and began to look at ________ factors that explained criminal behavior.
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social
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Enrico Ferri argued that human behavior was controlled by _______ factors.
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external
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The theories of Ferri and Garofalo can be interpreted as being supportive of _____.
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fascism
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___________ is based on the principle of crime prevention since offenders are physically prevented from committing crimes while incarcerated.
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incapacitation
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Selective incapacitation relies on multivariate methods of analysis, making it more _________ than gross incapacitation because it strives toward a scientifically informed method of prediction.
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positivistic
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Selective incapacitation of high risk offenders _________.
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All of the above – assumes criminal careers are longer than than the sentence imposed; assumes that criminals are specialists; imposes longer sentences on some offenders and short sentences on others for precisely the same crime.
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The use of __________ as a prediction criterion in the use of selective incapacitation is problematic because it discriminates on the basis of social class.
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unemployment
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Prediction based programs are fallible. The term _________ is used to refer to those offenders who are predicted to commit future crimes but do not.
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false positives
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Selective incapacitation and prediction based strategies remain biased in that they focus exclusively on __________.
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street crime
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Although he was sane when he was convicted of murdering a Florida police officer and sentenced to death, ________ developed paranoid schizophrenia while awaiting his execution.
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Alvin Ford
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Which of the following is a problem with using castration in lieu of imprisonment for sex offenders?
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All of the above – Castration lowers but does not eliminate an individuals sex drive; Castration does not address the role of anger in the commission of sex crimes. It may in fact exacerbate it.; Castration leaves sex offenders in the community which may jeopardize public safety.
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When researchers evaluating rehabilitation programs find that they are ineffective, there is a possibility that
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All of the above – the program may in fact be ineffective; the program as it is designed is effective, but it may be administered in a faulty way; the evaluation methods and research are flawed to such an extent that they cannot accurately determine whether the problem is an ineffective program or ineffective administration
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Conservative retributionist Ernest van den Haag makes the point that
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All of the above – rehabilitation can only affect criminals after their first conviction; even if rehabilitation was completely effective, it would make no difference in the portion of the crime rate that is composed of first offenses; he criminal justice system should emphasize punishment to deter future crimes.
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________ can be so potent that eventually the accused internalizes the stigma, proceeding toward a self-fulfilling prophecy that enhances one’s chances of failure.
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Labeling
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Even early positivists such as Lombroso expressed reservations about long term effectiveness of individual based treatment unless _________.
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they were coupled with sustained social and economic reforms
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As an alternative perspective on crime, criminal justice, and corrections, __________ sets out to understand in greater depth the social context in which the individual is situated.
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radicalism
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Radical criminologists view lawbreaking and punishment as stemming from ___________.
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structured inequality along lines of political, economic, and racial disparities in American society
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Critical, or radical, criminology is shaped by the work of _____.
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A and B – Bonger and Marx
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Members of the underclass, what Marx termed the ____________ go their entire lives without any genuine economic opportunity and often resort to street crime.
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lumpenproletariat
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According to critical criminology, criminal justice makes sense only in the larger context of social _____.
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justice
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Which perspective of crime uses the term surplus labor pool?
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critical
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Chiricos and Bales discovered that when compared with employed whites convicted of drug crimes, employed African-Americans were _____ times more likely to be incarcerated.
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5.9
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According to __________, the criminal justice system is geared more to control offenses committed by members of the working class and underclass than those of the middle and upper class whose crimes are more subject to regulatory inspection.
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radical and critical criminology

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