Communications 1-6

Communication age
age in which communication, technology, and media converge and deeply permeate daily life

convergence
the ways in which the many forms of technologically mediated ad face to face communication overlap and intersect in our daily lives

digital natives
people for whom digital technologies such a computers, cell phones, video games, and digital cameras, already existed when they were born

digital immigrants
people who have adopted and learned digital technologies later in life

communication
the collaborative process of using messages to create and participate in social reality

face to face communication
referes to situations in which the participants who are physically or bodily present speak directly to one another during the interaction

mediated communication
refers to communication or messages that are transmitted through some type of medium, including writing, the telephone, email, text messages, and the many forms of technological and computer mediated interaction

interpersonal communication
communication with or between persons who approach one another as individuals in a relationship

small group communication
communication among the members of a small group of people working together to achieve a common goal or purpose; three or more people working together interdependently for the purpose of accomplishing a task

public communication
situations in which a person delivers a message to an audience that is unified by some common interest

mass communication
messages transmitted by electronic and print media to large audiences that are distant and undifferentiated

transmission metaphor
the communication model that describes communication as a linear, one way transfer of information in which a source sends a message through a channel or a medium to a receiver in an environment of noise that serves as interference with effective transmission of the message

interaction metaphor
the communication model that describes communication as a two way process of reciprocal action, involving feedback and fields of experience

feedback
a receiver’s response to a sender’s message

fields of experience
the attitudes, perceptions, and backgrounds each person brings to the process of communication

transaction metaphor
the communication model that describes communication as a process in which participants, who are simultaneous senders and receivers, exchange meanings and influence their relationship.

social construction metaphor
the communication model that stresses that communication shapes and creates the larger social realities in which people operate

communication competence
the ability to communicate in a personally effective yet socially appropriate manner

ethics
a code of conduct based on respect for yourself, others, and your surroundings

connecting
the power of communication to link and relate us to people, groups, communities, social institutions, and cultures

engaging
the act of sharing in the activities of the group; in other words, participating

communication activism
direct energetic action in support of needed social change for individuals, groups, organizations, and communities

avatar
a digital representation of self

cognitive complexity
the degree to which a person’s system of interpersonal constructs are numerous, abstract, organized, and capable of handling contradictions

generalized other
the viewpoint of the entire society, including its values, rules, roles, and attitudes

interpretation
the process of giving meaning to information

looking glass self
the notion that the self arises from interpersonal interactions in which a person views himself or herself through the eyes of other people

perception
the process of wing aware of an understanding the world

possible selves
visions of what a person might become,what he or she would like to become, and what he or she is afraid of becoming

proteus effect
the phenomenon in which the appliance of an avatar leads to behavioral changes in its user

prototypes
a person’s image of the best example of a particular category of message, person, or social situation

relational self
a process of constantly changing and developing aspects of self as a result of togetherness with others

saturated self
an identity infused with the numerous, and sometimes incompatible, views of others

schemas
mental structures developed from past experiences that help people respond to stimuli in the future

scripts
organized sequences of action that define a well known situation

selective attention
the process of concentrating on one part of the environment while not paying attention to the rest

selective exposure
the process of exposing oneself only to beliefs, values, and ideas that are similar to one’s own

selective exposure theory
the theory that individuals prefer messages that support their own positions to messages supporting other positions

selective memory
the process of retaining and recalling certain bits of information from pst interactions, while forgetting the rest

selective perception
the process in which individuals filter what they see and hear to make it suit their own needs, biases, or expectations

self concept
a persons genreal perception of who she or he is

self esteem
the component of self concept that refers to an individual’s mental picture of him or herself

standpoint theory
the theory that a persons point of view arises from the social groups to which he or she belongs and influences how he or she socially constructs

self image
the component of self concept that refers to an individual’s mental picture of him or herself

stereotypes
generalizations made to an entire group of people of situations on the basis of the observed traits of one or few members of the group

symbolic interactionism
the framework that positions communication as the primary means by which people internalize and use social values to guide how they see themselves, how they see others, and how they interact

interpersonal constructs
bipolar dimensions of judgement used to size up people or social situations

analog code
a system of representations based on likeness or similarity

connotative meaning
informal meanings associated with feelings and personal experiences

constitutive rules
stipulations for what messages and behaviors count as and how they should be interpreted

content
the actual information contained in a spoken or written message

cooperative principle
the expectation that people will use messages that are appropriate and meet the demands of the type or nature of the conversation at hand

coordinated management of meaning
the theory focusing on how communicators move through eight levels of interpretation to coordinate their actions with one another and to make and manage meanings

coordination
the establishment of rules that help guide people through interactions

denotative meaning
formal and public word meanings often described as dictionary definitions

digital code
people who have adopted and learned digital technologies later in life

episode
a broad communication situation created by conversational partners

inclusive language
expressions and words that are broad enough to include all people and, avoid expressions and words that exclude particular groups

language
a system of words represented by symbols, used for a common purpose by a group of people

linguistic relativity hypothesis
the idea that language creates and shapes social reality

message design logic
distinct ways of thinking about communication situations, choosing which thoughts to express, and deciding how to express them in order to achieve goals

morphemes
the smallest unit of meaning in a language

peak communication experience
individuals’ greatest moments of mutual understanding, happiness, and fulfillment in interpersonal communication

phonemes
the sound of a language

polysemy
multiple meanings associated with a single word or symbol

referent
the last point on the triangle of meaning, or actual object to which the word refers

regulative rules
rules that guide how individuals respond or behave in interactions

semantics
the study of the meaning of words

speech act
a specific action like a promise, an apology, or a greeting performed through speech

symbols
things that represent or stand for something else

syntax
meaning at the level of sentences

adapters
gestures we use to release tension

affect displays
nonverbal gestures, postures, and facial expressions that communicate emotions

contact culture
these cultures are frequent in touching

contamination
a type of intrusion in which someone’s territory is marked with noise or population

chronemics
the study of the ways in which time is used to structure interactions

deception cues
things like avoiding eye contact, looking down at the floor, fidgeting, clearing the throat, and using lots of filled pauses like um and er commonly indicate that someone is lying. breaking or being unable to sustain eye gee is commonly believed to indicate deception

deintensification
to reduce the intensity of our facial expression of a certain emotion

emblems
specific, widely understood meanings in a given culture that may actually substitute for a word or phrase

emoticons
a textual expression of emotions that show our feelings in the digital world. the use of 🙂 demonstrates our feelings in text

environment
the study of our surroundings; the physical setting of a presentation. the environment can shape the communication interaction

gestures
hand movement used to emphasize and reinforce a message

haptics
the study of touch

illustrators
gestures that complement, enhance, or substitute for the verbal message

impression management
the formation of an impression, a perception, or a view of the other

intensification
to use an expression that exaggerates how we feel about something

intimate zone
reserved for our significant others, family members, and closest friends

invasion
an intense and typically permanent intrusion, in which the intention is to take over a given territory

kinesics
the study of the body movement

masking
to hide an expression connected to a felt emotion and replace it with an expression more appropriate to the situation

monochronic
a time orientation that stresses being on time and maintaining a schedule for events

neutralization
the process of using facial expression to erase or numb how we really feel

noncontact culture
cultures infrequent in touching

nonverbal communication
all the ways we communicate without using words. nonverbal communication can include our clothing, physical appearance, gestures, facial and eye expressions, and more

nonverbal immediacy
the use of closeness inducing nonverbal behavioral cues

personal zone
reserved for personal relationships with casual acquaintances and friends

physical appearance
observable traits of the body and its accessories and extension

physical attractiveness
a perception of beauty derived from cultures

polychronic
a time orientation that places less emphasis on keeping a tight schedule and values greater flexibility

proxemics
the study of how we use space and distance to communicate

public zone
the distance typical of large, formal, public events

regulators
gestures used to control the turn taking in conversations

social zone
the distance at which we usually talk to strangers or conduct business

somatyping
a system that classifies people according to their body type

territoriality
the study of how people use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space

violation
the use of or intrusion into primary territory without our permission

vocalics
the study of the use of voice to express oneself

appreciative listening
listening of pleasure

bias
any assumption or attitude about a person, an issue, or a topic that is made before knowing all of the facts; a particular point of view that skews information

comprehensive listening
listening to understand and make meaning of a message

critical listening
listening to evaluate an argument or stance and develop an opinion based on evidence

discriminative listening
listening to understand the different stimuli in the environment in order to process their meanings

empathic listening
listening to another person by responding nonjudgementally to his or her physical and or emotional needs

hearing
the physical process in which the ear and brain receive sound waves

HURIER
a six step listening process of hearing, understanding, remembering, interpreting, evaluating, and responding

listening
the active process of receiving and understanding spoken or written messages

listening anxiety
apprehension associated with receiving messages that triggers the inability to process and interpret incoming information

listening goal
the objective a person aims to accomplish by listening in a particular context or situation

listening tour
a person’s visit to one or more communities made with the specific purpose of listening to the concerns and ideas of those who live within them

media awareness
the ability to selectively attend to and evaluate messages in the media

medium distractions
characteristics of the channel through which a message is delivered that obstruct the ability to receive messages

mindfulness
the ability to remain in the present moment and be fully aware of the speaker, the environment, and the message

situational distractions
features of a particular environment, location, or setting that interfere with the ability

source distractions
behaviors or mannerisms of the message source or the characteristics of a mediated message that detract from the ability to listen

androgyny
a blend of both feminine and masculine traits

co cultural communication
the interactions amend underrepresented and dominant group members

collectivist cultures
cultures where more emphasis is placed on the group rather than the individual to promote group cohesion and loyalty

cultural competence
the level of knowledge a person has about others who differ in some way in comparison to self

cultural rituals
practices, behaviors, celebrations, and traditions common to people, organizations, and institutions

cultural value dimensions
the idea o people having particular ways of thinking that developed from the timid of childhood including individualism versus collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity versus femininity, and long term versus short term orientation to time

culture
the rules of living and functioning in society

discrimination
the act of excluding people from or denying them products, rights, and services based on their race, ethnicity, religion, gender, age, sexual orientation, disability

diversity
a term used to describe the unique differences in people

economic imperative
countries are becoming more and more independent in shaping a global economy. importing and exporting ware important to countries across the globe

ethical imperative
guides you in doing what is right versus what is wrong in various communication context

ethnicity
a social group that may be joined together by factors such as shared history, shared identity, shared geography, or shared culture

ethnocentrism
evaluating another culture using the standards of one’s own culture

femininity
behaviors associated with being caring or compassionate

gender
the psychological and emotional characteristics of individuals

hate speech
general to uncivil discourse phrases, terms, cartoons, and entire campaigns used to humiliate people based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, social class

heterosexist
a view or an assumption that everyone is heterosexual

high context cultures
cultures that place emphasis on the total environment or context where interactions occur

individualistic cultures
cultures where more emphasis is place on individuals rather than groups

long term time orientation
emphasizes processes for accomplishing tasks not focused on a quick end result. a persistent and focused process is believed to achieve the best outcome

low context cultures
the message itself means everything, and its more important to have a well structured argument or a well delivered presentation that it is to be a member of a high status family or to actually be related to the person by blood

masculinity
behaviors associated with being more assertive or aggressive

mutual respect
when individuals and groups communicate with the goal of mutual understanding to avoid cultural tensions, misunderstandings, and conflict

peace imperative
essential in understand the foundations of communication, culture, and diversity. while conflict exists between various cultures, it is a top priority to maintain overall peace

perception checking
the practice of asking others to get a more informed sense of understanding

power distance
the perceived equality or inequality felt between people in certain cultural or social contexts

prejudice
the dislike or hatred one has toward a particular group

race
the categorization of people based on physical characteristics such as skin color dimensions of the human face, and hair

rapport talk
cooperative messages used to establish connection

report talk
information based messages used to establish status and gain power

self awareness imperative
encourages communicators to learn about other cultures. not only do you learn about other cultures themselves but by doing so you learn more about your own culture

short term time orientation
emphasizes efficiency, production, and fat results

technological imperative
important in todays society as technological advances make the world more easily accessible

uncertainty avoidance
deals with the way that a culture handles change and accepts uncertainty within social or cultural contexts

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