Flashcards on Communication

question

communication
answer

a systematic process in which individuals interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meaning
question

rhetoric
answer

speaking well and persuasively
question

interpersonal communication
answer

communication between people whose lives mutually influence one another, builds maintians and ends our relationships. Influenced by social expectations.
question

intrapersonal communication
answer

communication with oneself, helps to achieve social adjustment, lack of this skill is associated with mental illness
question

group communication
answer

3 or more people interacting to achieve a shared goal. more intentional and formal than interpersonal. Not necessary voluntary since these scenarios usually involve assignment to a group.
question

public communication
answer

a sender focused form of communication where one person is responsible for conveying info to an audience. The most consistently intentional, formal, goal oriented form of communication.
question

mass communication
answer

public communication that is transmitted to many people through print or electronic media. differs in terms of personal connection between participants. Creates the illusion of a personal connection. There is no immediate feedback loop.
question

participants
answer

senders and or receivers of messages in a communication encounter
question

message
answer

verbal or non verbal content being conveyed from sender to receiver
question

encoding
answer

process of turning thoughts into communication
question

decoding
answer

process of turning communication into thoughts
question

channel
answer

where encoded messages are sent through, a sensory route on which a message travels to the receiver for decoding
question

transmission model of communication
answer

linear one-way process, message sent from one place to another simple and under developed. computer mediated communication
question

noise
answer

anything that interferes with a message being sent
question

environmental noise
answer

any physical present in a communication encounter
question

semantic noise
answer

refers to noise that occurs in the encoding and decoding process when the participants do not understand a symbol.
question

interaction model of communication
answer

views communication as an interaction in which a message is sent and then followed by a reaction/feedback, participants alternate positions as sender and receiver generating meaning within physical and psychological contexts
question

feedback
answer

includes messages sent in response to other messages, makes communication a two way process, less message focused and more interaction focused
question

physical context
answer

environmental factors in a communication encounter (time, temperature, layout, space that influences our communicators
question

psychological context
answer

mental and emotional factors in a communication encounter.
question

transaction model of communication
answer

views communication as a process which communicators generate social realities. We use communication to construct our realities. Accounts for context outside of a single interaction including how social, relational and cultural context frame our interactions.
question

social context
answer

the stated rules or unstated norms that guide communication. we are socialized into our communities, learning rules explicitly and implicitly.
question

norms
answer

social conventions
question

relational context
answer

previous interpersonal history and type of relationship we have with a person. some interactions are guided more by norms and rules, once a relational context is established we can bend or break social norms more easily.
question

cultural context
answer

includes aspects of identities (race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, sex orientation, class & ability). The marginalized are aware of the influence their cultural identity has on communication both to & from them. When cultural context comes to the forefront of an encounter it can be difficult to manage & can lead to avoidance of communication
question

integrative learning
answer

encourages students to reflect on how the content they are learning connects to other classes, their goals, and their civic responsibilities
question

academic role of communication
answer

good communication skills are tied to academic success, this included poor listening skills.
question

professional role of communication
answer

these skills are the most desirable, listening, writing, motivating/persuading, interpersonal, informational interviewing,and small group problem solving skills.
question

personal role of communication
answer

interpersonal
question

civic engagement
answer

working to make a difference in our communities by improving the quality of life of community members.
question

physical needs
answer

allows us to communicate our physical needs, and allows us to thrive
question

instrumental needs
answer

helps us get things done, fulfill goals
question

compliance gaining communication
answer

communication aimed at getting people to behave in a certain way by using rewards, punishments, expertise, liking, debt, altruism, esteem
question

relational needs
answer

help us maintain social bonds and interpersonal relationships
question

identity needs
answer

helps us to present ourselves to others and to be thought of in a particular way.
question

communication is a continuous process
answer

continuous and dynamic sequence of events, varying in intentions, is irreversible, changed by contexts
question

communication is guided by culture and context
answer

influencing how we perceive and define communication, cultural values are reflected by our definitions and models of communication. individualistic vs collectivistic, governed by rules and norms
question

communication is learned
answer

born with capacity, but everyones communication is different because of the different context and cultures in which communication develops with words assigned to meaning
question

phatic communication
answer

scripted and routine verbal interactions intended to establish social binds rather than exchange meaning, shows how we are influenced by rules and norms
question

communication ethics
answer

the process of negotiating and reflecting on our actions and communication regarding what we believe to be right and wrong.
question

communication competence
answer

the knowledge (what & why) of effective & appropriate communication patterns & the ability to use & adapt knowledge in various contexts (influenced by status & power).
question

unconscious incompetence
answer

unaware of lack of competence
question

conscious incompetence
answer

knowing what you should be doing, knowing that you are not doing as well as you should
question

conscious competence
answer

awareness of good communication
question

unconscious competence
answer

successful communication without straining to be competent
question

communication apprehension
answer

fear or anxiety experienced be a person due to actual or imagined communication with another person or persons
question

public speaking anxiety
answer

CA that produces physiological cognitive, and behavioral reactions in people when faced with a real or imagined presentation
question

perception
answer

process of selecting organizing and interpreting information, stimuli pass through our perceptual filters, are organized into our existing structures and then are interpreted based on previous experiences.
question

selecting
answer

first part of perception, we focus our attention on certain info
question

salience
answer

the degree to which something attracts our attention, can be abstract or concrete. 3 features:visually or aurally stimulating, things that meet our needs, and expectations
question

visual and aural stimulation
answer

gets our attention, we use this knowledge to determine the contexts appropriate for different communication
question

needs and interests
answer

instrumental, selective attention helps us to get things done
question

expectations
answer

we tune into what we expect to happen. when a threshold of difference is reached, the unexpected gets our attention
question

organizing
answer

second part of perception process, we sort and categorize into that we perceive based on innate and learned cognitive patterns; proximity, similarity and difference
question

punctuation
answer

organizing things into a timeline to determine cause
question

interpretation
answer

third part of the perception process, in which we assign meaning to our experiences using mental structures called schemata
question

schemata
answer

databases of store, related information that we use to interpret new experiences
question

internal attribution
answer

connect the cause of behaviors to personal aspects
question

external attribution
answer

connect the cause of behaviors to situational factors
question

fundamental attribution error
answer

our tendency to explain others behavior using internal rathe than external attributions
question

self serving bias
answer

perceptual error through which we attribute the cause of our success to internal personal factors while attributing our error to external factors
question

first and last impressions
answer

first impressions matter, we base our expectations of the future on experiences we have had in the past
question

primacy effect
answer

we place more value on the first information we receive about a person
question

recency effect
answer

we put more weight on the most recent impression we have of a persons communication
question

influences on perception
answer

grooming, style, physical characteristics, attractiveness, material objects surrounding the person
question

halo effect
answer

initial positive perceptions lead us to view interactions as positive
question

horn effect
answer

initial negative perceptions lead us to view interactions as negative
question

role of culture
answer

the schemata we use to interpret what we perceive is influenced by our cultural identities. sight, sound, touch, taste, smell- we all have different schemata of what is appropriate, attractive, unattractive etc. marriage, privacy and politics are abstract examples of the role culture has on our schemata and perceptions
question

personality
answer

a persons general way of thinking, feeling and behaving based on underlying motivations and impulses.
question

big five
answer

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism.
question

assumed similarity
answer

refers to our tendency to perceive others as similar to us
question

implicit personality theories
answer

generalize a persons overall personality traits we can perceive
question

self concept
answer

the overall idea of who a person thinks they are.
question

the looking glass self
answer

we see ourselves reflected in other people’s reactions to us and then form our self-concept based on how we believe other people see us.
question

social comparison theory
answer

we describe ourselves in terms of how we compare to others based on inferiority/superiority and similarity/difference, which is incorporated into our self concept.
question

non verbal communication
answer

process of generating meaning using behavior other than words. governed by right side of brain, processed by an older part of our brain-more instinctual & involuntary but not completely. 65% of communication. We rely more on nonverbal for credibility, truth seeking, emotion & interpersonal-except when info seeking is the focus.
question

channels of non verbal communication
answer

all five of the senses, but mostly auditory and visual.
question

vocal- non verbal communication
answer

verbal: spoken words nonverbal: paralanguage vocal element of nonverbal communication, vocalized but not verbal part of a spoken message-speaking rate, pitch, volume,
question

nonvocal verbal communication
answer

sign language and written language
question

nonvocal nonverbal communication
answer

gestures and body language
question

biologically based communication
answer

nonverbal-this is why some nonverbal communication has the same meaning across cultures.
question

culturally based communication
answer

verbal-this is why communications systems across cultures are not recognizable
question

ambiguous
answer

nonverbal communication is more ambiguous and can be linked to multiple meanings. We look for contextual clues. Because there are no grammatical rules, we rely on implicit rules which leads to greater variance.
question

credible
answer

nonverbal is more credible, we rely on verbal communication to fill in blanks, more trust in what people do, especially true in times of stress. actions seen as more instinctual & genuine. harder to fake
question

functions of nonverbal communication
answer

to convey meaning by reinforcing, substituting for, or contradicting verbal communication. Also used to influence others and regulate conversational flow. -relational communication and identity expression
question

mixed messages
answer

messages in which verbal and nonverbal signals contradict one another. lead to uncertainty and confusion in some cases, unless it can be resolved we naturally become upset and withdrawal
question

deception
answer

the intentional act of altering information to influence another person which means that it extends beyond lying to include concealing, omitting, or exaggerating information. nonverbal deception makes verbal deception more credible. Not always malevolent and mean.Often times it is to be courteous. Vital to survival.
question

immediacy behaviors
answer

verbal and nonverbal behaviors that lessen real or perceived physical and psychological distance
question

kinesics
answer

gestures, head movements, posture, eye contact, facial expressions
question

gestures
answer

adaptors, emblems, and illustrators
question

adaptors
answer

touching behaviors and movements that indicate internal states related to anxiety and arousal. self, others, objects etc.
question

emblems
answer

gestures that have a specific agreed on meaning
question

illustrators
answer

most common type of gesture, used to illustrate the verbal message they accompany. Used more subconsciously than emblems.
question

head movements and posture
answer

used to acknowledge others and communication interest or attentiveness.
question

eye contact
answer

oculesics- the study of eye behaviors. function to monitor, regulate interaction, signal cognitive activity, convey information, & establish interpersonal connections.
question

pupil dilation
answer

biometric form of measurement, involuntary, vali and reliable form of communication. pain, sexual attraction, general arousal, anxiety, strew and thought affect. we subconsciously perceive. mood lighting.
question

facial expressions
answer

most expressive part of our bodies, happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust. display rules, social smile,
question

haptics
answer

the study of communicate by touch,
question

vocalics
answer

the study of paralanguage,-pitch, volume, rate, vocal quality, and verbal fillers.
question

functions of vocalics
answer

repetition-reinforcement of other cues, complementing-elaborate/modify cues, accenting-emphasis of particular parts, substituting-take place of other cues, regulating-flow of conversations, contradicting-mixing up message
question

proxemics
answer

the study of how space and distance influence communication.
question

“personal space”
answer

differs within cultures but take an oval shape with most distance int he front of the eyes.
question

public space
answer

12 feet or more-least personal of the zones
question

social space
answer

4-12 feet-communication that occurs in the social zone, professional or casual interaction, not intimate or public
question

personal space
answer

1.5-4 feet-friendship, close acquaintances – 2.5-4 is for conversations
question

intimate space
answer

0-1.5 feet-intimate zone, closest friends, family and intimate partners,
question

violation of our space
answer

varying responses to violations, social and public zones is ok for the most part, personal and intimate zone violation leads to upset, even if it is expected. we rely on nonverbal communication to deal with breaches of space, avoid eye contact etc…
question

territoriality
answer

innate drive to take up and defend space
question

primary territories
answer

claim to space is official, home yard room desk…
question

secondary territories
answer

dont belong to us and are not exclusively under our control but they are associated with us. leads us to believe this space is open and available to us. seating…
question

public territories
answer

open to all people, use for a limited period, can lead to conflict, people mark teir territory,
question

chronemics
answer

the study of how time affects communication, biological, personal, physical, and cultural time… as well as the amount of time we spend talking
question

biological time
answer

humans follow a circadian rhythm-daily cycle which can be disturbed.
question

personal time
answer

the ways individuals experience time, based on mood, interest level, and other factors. individuals vary on whether they are future or past oriented.
question

physical time
answer

fixed cycles of the days, years and seasons- can affect mood, and psychological states. SAD
question

cultural time
answer

how a large grow of people view time. polychromic people do not view time as a linear progression that needs to be divided into small units and scheduled in advance, they keep more flexible schedules and engage in several activities at once
question

personal presentation and env
answer

physical characteristics-body shape, height, weight, attractiveness, and other features of the body-not much control artifacts-clothes, jewelry, body art, political, social, and cultural symbols used to send messages about who we are to other people. Number and size of artifacts play a large part. environment-we can manipulate the env too. objects and furniture.
question

nonverbal congruence
answer

consistency among different nonverbal expressions, non verbal communication is multichannel in nature, when we are aware of the message we are sending we can avoid non congruence.
question

signal changes/nonverbal gestures
answer

can affect our own emotions and others, when we are aware of them, we can interject and change the trajectory of our comm
question

monitoring and controlling nonverbal displays
answer

more comfortable public speakers,
question

mirroring
answer

subconscious practice of using nonverbal cues in a way that match those of others around us. sends implicit messages
question

encoding
answer

the ability to encode signals allows for nonverbal cues to regulate our conversations and communicate understanding with compliance or lack of compliance
question

being a good listener to nonverbal
answer

involves nonverbal encoding competence, signals that a person is sending must be received for effective communication. things like attentiveness…
question

impression management
answer

nonverbal communication is key to achiveing identity goals.
question

civil inattention
answer

a social norm that leads us to avoid making eye contact with people in situations that deviate from expected social norms.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member