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COMM1 Study Guide #3

question

Hypothetical examples can serve to amplify, clarify, or prove a point
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F, page 189
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Speakers must be careful not to confuse audience members with the words they choose
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T, page 185
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Rather than building your credibility, citing sources during your speech can be distracting and it’s often unneccessary
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F, 198
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Speakers should always use as many statistics as possible
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F, 194
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It is not necessary to evaluate the credibility of the authorities you cite when you use testimony as proof.
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F, 195
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Hypothetical examples cannot be based on facts.
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T, 188 (i think!)
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A definition by example is an effective way to explain something by pointing at it, verbally or literally
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T, 187
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Paraphrasing testimony from authorities should be avoided because it could distort the idea
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F, 195
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A word’s etymological definition is the same as its historical definition
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F, 186
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The accuracy of statistical evidence can be checked by applying the following tests except for: A. Who collected the data? B. Why was the data collected? C. When was the data collected? D. How much of the data was used? E. How was the data collected?
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D, 191-192
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Which of the following is not a fallacy involving statistics? A. The fallacy of the average B. The fallacy of the unknown base C. The fallacy of the atypical or arbitrary time frame D. The fallacy of the variance
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D, 193
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“General Marlatt of the Joint Chiefs of Staff states that diplomatic solutions have failed in western Africa and that military intervention is necessary.” Which criterion of adequate testimony is most likely to be violated? A. Does the authority have access to the necessary information? B. Is the authority qualified to interpret the data? C. Is the person an acknowledged expert on this subject? D. Is the person free of bias and self interest? E. All of these answers are correct.
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D, (because he is a military rep.) I think?
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“According to the Center for Disease Control, Herpes Simplex Virus-1 transmission are up 230 percent from 2007 in people ages 17-21 and there is a strong correlation with sharing cups playing party games.” Before using this statistic, which of the following tests should be run to test the accuracy? A. Who collected the data? B. Why were the data collected? C. When were the data collected? D. How were the data collected? E. None of the above; the statistic is accurate.
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D, my best guess. I think several could be correct? (191)
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“Paste is what you get when you mix flour and water.” This is an example of what sort of definition? A. Operational definition B. Definition by negation C. Definition by example D. Etymological definition E. None of these answers are correct.
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A. 186
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Speakers should test the credibility of the authorities they quote by asking which of the following questions: A. Does the authority have access to the necessary information? B. Is the authority qualified to interpret data? C. Is the person acknowledged as an expert on this subject? D. Is the authority figure free of bias and self-interest? E. All of these answers are correct and should be considered.
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E, 195
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Definition by ________________ is useful for controversial or vague terms where an arbiter must decide among plausible alternatives. A. Authority B. Example C. Negation D. History
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A, 187
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A logical definition has two steps. First, it places the concept to be defined into a category, then it: A. explains how the category was drawn from an older culture. B. explains how conceptual terms are measured. C. clarifies the abstract notion by providing a well-rounded picture *D. explains the characteristics that distinguish that concept from all other members of the category.
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D, 185
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When you use examples for explanation, it is essential that the examples are: A. factual, unbiased and verifiable. B. clear, relevant and varied. C. exciting, interesting and appealing. D. hypothetical, fictional and logical.
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B, 188
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A warrant links evidence to an argument’s claim and is the reasoning that would allow your listeners to accept your conclusion.
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T, 202
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There is only one way to interpret any piece of evidence.
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F, 202
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A speaker using induction is trying to lead an audience to a conclusion by demonstrating relationships between established premises.
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T, 204 (Check? not exact words..)
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One fallacy in your speech will make all other claims suspect.
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T, 219
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A figurative analogy can often be a more powerful form of reasoning than a literal analogy.
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F,, 219
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“My sister is a lousy driver, which leads me to believe that most women are lousy drivers.” This is an example of a fallacy of the absurd extreme.
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F, 220
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The president of a company was asked whether her decision to implement mandatory drug testing for all employees was in the company’s best interest. She replied, “Anything I do is in the company’s best interest.” This is an example of circular reasoning.
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T, Almost positive 🙂 220
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Reasoning is simply explaining ideas and listing the reasons around your main points.
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F, (it’s the interpretation of your evidence) 204
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What type of reasoning would you be using when your argument consists of combining a series of observations to lead to a probable conclusion? A. Causal reasoning B. Deductive reasoning C. Inductive reasoning D. Reasoning by analogy E. None of these answers are correct.
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A, I think?210
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One would be using a deductive pattern of reasoning when: A. The argument consists of combining a series of observations to lead to a probable conclusion. B. The argument consists of demonstrating how the relationship between established premises leads to a necessary conclusion. C. The argument consists of demonstrating how one event results from another. D. The argument consists of drawing conclusions about unknown events based on what one knows about similar events. E. Both B and D
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E, I think? 209
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“75% of the population of the United States are said to use sensing to perceive on the Myers-Briggs psychometric questionnaire. Therefore, it is very likely that your perceiving result may also be sensing” is a type of _______ reasoning. A. inductive B. deductive C. causal D. analogous E. None of these answers are correct.
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D, I think 217
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To say that children that watch the most television exhibit the most violence; therefore, television makes children violent is an example of which fallacy? A. Ad hominem B. Hasty generalization C. Extending an argument to the absurd D. Faulty reversal of an if-then statement E. None of these answers are correct.
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B, 222
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“America! Love it or leave it” is an example of: A. Confusing sequence with cause B. False dichotomy C. Circular reasoning D. Attacking the person rather than the argument E. None of these answers are correct.
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B, 221
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To prove a causal relationship, you must test for which of the following except: A. Do the alleged cause and the alleged effect influence each other? B. Do the alleged cause and the alleged effect occur together? C. Do the alleged cause and the alleged effect vary together? D. All of these answers are correct and are tests to prove a causal relationship.
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A, 213
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Jerry Falwell, on September 14, 2011, made a statement blaming “pagans, abortionists, feminists, gays and lesbians” for the terrorist attack World Trade Center (for which he later issued a formal apology). Falwell’s statement is an example of _____ reasoning. A. inductive B. deductive C. causal D. analogous E. None of these answers are correct.
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E, He didn’t support his claims with any evidence, no reasoning was used
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To prove a causal relationship, you must show: A. both concurrent presence and concurrent absence of the cause and effect. B. concurrent presence only of the cause and effect. C. concurrent absence only of the cause and effect. D. both the cause and effect. E. None of these answers are correct.
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A, 213
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In the cases of multiple causation, you attributing the effect to a single cause will: A. need to be supported with evidence. B. cause you to lose credibility with the audience. C. be warranted, provided that it passes the cause-and-effect tests outlined in the text. D. be completely inaccurate.
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B, 214
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Oral and written styles use the same components and so are interchangeable.
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F, 232
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Spoken language uses features like rhythm and meter to aid a listener’s memory.
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T, 233
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All non-standard language usage is sub-standard; you should also strive to speak properly.
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F, 236 There is no standard
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Although what people think about and how they express their thoughts varies from culture to culture, the way people think appears to be universal.
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F, 234 We all think differently
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There is no standard style to use in speaking; different audiences and topics require different approaches.
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T, 236
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Oral style differs from written style in that it uses shorter sentences.
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T, 232
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It is never appropriate to use jargon or slang in a speech.
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F, 237
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Personification is a stylistic device which brings objects or ideas to life by imbuing them with human qualities.
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T, 240
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A speaker is said to be using hyperbole when she deliberately overstates a point in a way that is more fanciful than misleading.
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T, 241
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Saying the same sound in a sustained sequence is called antithesis.
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F, (antithesis contrasts two ideas) 242
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Words like freedom, love, and justice should be used liberally because everyone understands them.
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F, 235
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.Using phrases like “at the end of the day” and “as good as it gets” are pleasantly descriptive and easy for audience to recall.
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F, they are not anymore
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The phrase, “If I’ve told you once, I’ve told you a million times,” is an example of: A. Alliteration B. Metaphor C. Personification D. Hyperbole E. Quantification
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D, 241
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Oral style differs from written style in that it: A. Is less redundant B. Uses shorter sentences C. Uses fewer personal pronouns D. Uses fewer contractions E. All of these answers are correct.
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B, 232
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If the same consonant sound starts a series of syllables, you have: A. Repetition B. Hyperbole C. Alliteration D. Simile E. Parallel structure
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C, 242
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One way to vary the rhythm of your sentences to increase variety and decrease audience boredom is to ___. A. Use parallelism B. Repeat key phrases C. Incorporate “sing songiness” D. Vary the length and structure of your sentences E. None of these answers are correct.
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D, 243
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The use of the generic “he” or “man” or “mankind” to refer to all human beings should be replaced with _____ to exemplify inclusive language. A. humanity B. people C. humankind D. All of the above are examples of inclusive language.
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D, 239
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The respectful and inclusive way to refer to members of non-dominant racial and ethnic groups is: A. As people of color B. As minorities C. To learn how they wish to be designated D. As multicultural E. By no title that sets them apart from European Americans
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C, 238
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If you cannot find a specific example to support your point, it is better to say “someone” or “something” than to use a hypothetical example or character.
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F, 250
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Incorporating techniques of effective storytelling is one way to convert momentary attention to a more sustained interest in your topic.
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T, 254-255
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A common misconception is that once you have grabbed your listeners’ attention with a snappy introduction, their attention is yours until you relinquish it at the end of the speech.
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T, 248
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When integrating humor into your speech you should make sure it is appropriate to your personality and to the situation.
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T, 252
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Audience participation can now happen through response technology such as clickers or text messaging.
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T, 251
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It is better to rely exclusively on one supporting strategy with which you are comfortable.
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F, 252
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Which of the following is not an attention-getting technique? A. Conflict B. “The Vital” C. Reality D. Analogy E. Proximity
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D, 249
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Being specific and concrete refers to which attention factor? A. “The Vital” B. Reality C. Conflict D. Novelty E. Proximity
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B, 249
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All of the following are audience participation techniques except: A. Show of hands B. Ask for questions C. Handouts D. Ask for examples
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C, 251
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Good storytelling techniques include: A. Using a variety of voices B. Elements of suspense, conflict, climax and denouement C. The use of “once upon a time” to start D. None of these answers are correct.
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B, 255
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T F 1.Presenting a balanced view of pros and cons can add to your image of trustworthiness.
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T 259
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T F 2. Your image before the speech and your speaker image can be considered your personal “brand.”
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T 260
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T F 3.Establishing credibility during your speech is more important than your perceived credibility prior to your speech.
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T 261 (not positive about this one)
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T F 4.When you are invited to speak outside the classroom, you should be modest when asked for information for advance publicity.
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F 260
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T F 5. Overly emotional delivery is effective to show audience that you are concerned and passionate about your topic.
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F 263
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T F 6.Effective delivery during your speech can increase your credibility.
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T 263
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T F 7.What you say and how you say it are the only ways to influence an audience.
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F 264
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T F 8.Credibility is that combination of perceived qualities that makes listeners predisposed to believe you.
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T 264
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T F 9. A shaky voice and some fumbling do not affect your credibility because everyone gets nervous speaking in public.
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F 263
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T F 10.Even if your audience already knows or remembers your qualifications from a previous speech, you should still present your credentials.
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T 261
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10. When you mention that you are a Certified Public Accountant in your speech on taxes, you are attempting to bolster your credibility on the dimension of A. Competence B. Trustworthiness C. Concern D. None of these answers are correct. E. All of these answers are correct.
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A 261
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11. Being well-organized and composed during your speech refers to which dimension of credibility? A. Dynamism B. Competence C. Trustworthiness D. Charisma E. Concern
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C 262
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12. A speaker who does not acknowledge the limitations of his or her data and opinions lacks which dimension of credibility? A. Dynamism B. Competence C. Trustworthiness D. Charisma E. Concern
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C 262
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13. A speaker who stresses the audience’s needs throughout her speech and whose delivery is warm and friendly, will most likely be perceived as a speaker with what quality? A. Dynamism B. Competence C. Trustworthiness D. Charisma E. Concern
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A 263 (not sure about this one)
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14. A speaker can build credibility prior to his speech by: A. Helping the person introducing her set a favorable tone. B. Providing the contact person with adequate information about her qualifications. C. Being aware of her image in all dealings with the group prior to the speech. D. All of these answers are correct and are ways a speaker can build credibility.
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D 261-262
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15. The first step to improving credibility is to _____. A. inspire confidence B. be warm, charming and likeable C. thoroughly research and prepare for the speech D. assess your speaking image E. None of these answers are correct.
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D 259
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T F 1.Strong emotional appeals are usually more effective than moderate appeals.
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F 265
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T F 2. Negative emotions, particularly fear appeals, are generally more effective than using positive emotions as motivators.
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F 265
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T F 3.If fun-seeker is the universal value dimension that represents the majority of your audience members, then you should appeal to their values of being in tune with nature and social tolerance.
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F 269
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T F 4.People will generally seek to satisfy their need for security before satisfying their need for status.
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T 267
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T F 5.When planning your use of emotional appeals, it is counterproductive to aim too high and unethical to aim too low on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
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T 267
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T F 6.Culture has a strong influence, shaping values through families, schools, media and peers.
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T 268
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T F 7.Sound arguments are effective only if the underlying premise reflects the dominant value of the audience.
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T 268
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T F 8.Identifying values in your own culture is extremely easy.
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T 268 (I think?)
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9. If the audience values beauty, freedom, creativity and music, it is likely that they are represented by the ______ universal value dimension. A. striver B. fun-seeker C. creative D. devout E. altruist
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C 269
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10. A person’s judgment or choices is also called ____. A. A need B. An emotion C. An opinion D. A value E. A cultural creed
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D 268
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11. Values that are influenced by and shared with groups and individuals that are the most significant to a person are called: A. Peripheral values B. Integral values C. Authority values D. Core values E. None of these answers are correct.
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C 270
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12. The most useful information for a speaker to have about an audience member’s values would be: A. A list of that person’s values B. An understanding of that person’s priorities among competing values C. A list of the dominant values of the culture as a whole D. A list of the groups the individual belongs to E. A list of the person’s best friends and their core values
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A 271
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13. In Joanie’s speech, she questions the legality of intercepting communications among suspected terrorists and the President’s authority to call for this type of monitoring without a warrant. She argues that liberty should be upheld over security. Joanie is trying to motivate the audience by: A. Making a sound argument B. Bringing up controversial topics C. Linking the issue of the speech to a value of the audience D. Appealing to a sense of community E. Jumping on the “bandwagon”
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c 272
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14. Relate your speech to the values of your listeners by: A. Incorporating appeals to the general values of the culture B. Identifying and relating to the core values of your audience C. Forging strong, logical links between the issues of your speech and the values of the audience D. Using motivational appeals to broaden your listeners’ sense of history and community E. All of these answers are correct.
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C 272
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T F 1.To explain a concept clearly, begin with simple examples and move toward more complex ones.
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T 276
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T F 2.The first thing listeners do when confronted with information overload is to tune out.
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F (276- tuning out happens last
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T F 3.It is not advisable to use one example and elaborate on this one example throughout an entire speech.
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F 278
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T F 4.If a point is very important, a speaker should use another channel in addition to the spoken word to get it across.
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T 279
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T F 5. A speaker’s message will be clearer if he/she sends it through several channels.
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T 279
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T F 6. According to the authors of your text, being repetitive and/or redundant irritates the audience.
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F 279
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T F 7.Signposts are an effective way to remind the audience of where you are going and where you have been.
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T 277
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8. “So in looking at the A, B, Cs of CPR we’ve learned about clearing airways, and checking for breathing. That’s A and B, now let’s go on to C.” This illustrates which principle of clear explanation? A. Use emphasis cues B. Use signposts C. Use examples D. Use analogies E. All of these answers are correct.
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B 277
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9. “Let me say this again. It’s so important. First frame the shot, second, focus the camera, then and only then, snap the picture. Don’t put the cart before the horse.” Which principle of clear explanation is present? A. Use enumeration B. Use analogies C. Use emphasis cues D. Use repetition E. All of these answers are correct.
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E 277
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10. Which of the following does not serve as an organizer to enhance comprehension? A. Acronyms B. Previews C. Summaries D. Extended exposition E. All of the above are organizers
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C 280
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11. “Giving a speech without giving the audience some sense of the big picture is like trying to put together a jigsaw puzzle without looking at the picture on the box.” Your authors used _______________ to help you understand this principle. A. Emphasis cue B. Previews C. Analogy D. Familiar to unfamiliar E. Enumeration
answer

C 280
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12. Which of the following is not a way to make information more easily understood? A. Avoid information overload B. Move from the familiar to the unfamiliar C. Provide a conceptual framework D. Use singular channels and modes E. Move from the simple to the complex
answer

D 280
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13. “This is a very important point” is an example of: A. An emphasis cue B. An introduction C. Enumeration D. An attention getter E. A signpost
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A 278
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T F 1. A persuasive speech has four possible goals: adoption, continuance, avoidance, and deterrence.
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T 283
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T F 2.In any persuasive speech, it is important to determine if you are trying to change the audience’s minds or action.
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T 283
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T F 3. A proposition of fact advocates verifiable facts that cannot be refuted.
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F 284
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T F 4.Persuasion begins with clearly understanding your audience and the persuasive objective.
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T 285
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T F 5. Arranging your arguments from strongest to weakest employs the primacy principle and is called the climax format.
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F 296
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T F 6.To argue a proposition of policy, you will probably also have to argue propositions of fact and propositions of value.
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T 284
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T F 7. Drawing on pre-established “stock” issues is ineffective as it makes the persuasion too broad and generic.
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F 286
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T F 8.To persuade your audience, it is impractical to rely on how data and claims are linked.
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T 283
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T F 9.The proposition, “It is possible to transform Mars so that it can be inhabitable by humans,” is an example of a proposition of fact.
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T 284
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T F 10. The proposition, “Security is preferable over privacy,” is a proposition of policy.
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T 284
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T F 11.The proposition, “‘The United States Federal Government should reform Social Security,” is a proposition of value.
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F 284
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T F 12. As a general rule, place your strongest points first or last.
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T 296
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T F 13. Stressing common ground is especially important if you are speaking to an unfavorable audience.
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T 291
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14. The statement, “Everyone should eat a diet low in saturated fats and engage in regular exercise to avoid potential problems linked with obesity,” primarily focuses on which of the following persuasive goals: A. Adoption B. Discontinuance C. Avoidance D. Deterrence E. None of these answers are correct.
answer

A 283
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15. All of the following are steps to respond to or refute a point except _____. A. State the opposing view fairly and concisely B. State your position on that argument C. Question the logic of opposing argument D. Document and develop your own position E. Summarize and show how the two positions compare
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B 406 (Not sure on this one)
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16. “The federal government has an obligation to end poverty” is an example of a proposition of: A. Inference B. Value C. Policy D. Fact E. None of these answers are correct.
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B 284
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17. Which of the following is a proposition of policy? A. It is unethical to advertise cigarettes on billboards within two miles of an elementary or junior high B. American College should lower fees for undergraduate students. C. The death penalty is immoral. D. Television violence leads to aggressive behavior in children. E. All of these answers are propositions of policy.
answer

E 284
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18. A major task in speaking to a favorable audience is the creation of personal involvement, which the authors indicate should be done through: A. Creating commitment and intellectual agreement. B. Touching on core values. C. Stressing common ground D. Being specific about how their lives are affected. E. None of these answers are correct.
answer

C 291
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19. The authors of your textbook indicate all of the following are reasons why an audience may be neutral to your position except: A. They are uninterested in your position. B. They are undecided about your position. C. They are uninformed about your position. D. These are all reasons for audience neutrality. E. None of these answers are correct.
answer

D 290
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20. Which of the following is not recommended for dealing with an unfavorable audience? A. Use plenty of evidence. B. Use plenty of emotional appeals. C. Stress common ground. D. Build your credibility. E. Adjust your purpose to a moderate goal.
answer

B 292
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21. The goal of stressing common ground with an unfavorable audience is to: A. Identify common concerns B. Minimize disagreement C. Create the basis for communication to occur D. Establish credibility E. None of these answers are correct.
answer

B 292
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22. Which of the following is not recommended by your text for use when refuting opposing arguments? A. State the opposing view fairly and concisely. B. State your position on that argument. C. Document and develop your own position. D. Acknowledge the faults in your argument. E. Summarize the impact of your argument and show how the two positions compare.
answer

B 406 (Not sure on this one, and its a double?)
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23. The last step of the motivated sequence is: A. Need B. Satisfaction C. Action D. Visualization E. Attention
answer

C 294
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24. Regardless of what framework is used, persuasion begins when you______. A. deliver the speech B. choose the topic C. understand the audience’s attitude toward the topic D. incorporate ethos, pathos and logos E. All of the above.
answer

C 292