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Comm Chapter 4, 5, 6, 7

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Why is it important to understand the physiological factors involved in emotions?
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Physiological cues offer a significant clue to your emotions after you become aware of them
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Not all physical changes that accompany emotions are internal. Feelings are often apparent by observable changes. We call these
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Nonverbal reactions
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Some physiological components of fear are a racing heart, perspiration, tense muscles, and elevated blood pressure. . . Which emotion we experience comes primarily from _
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Which label we give to the symptoms
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What is reappraisal?
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Rethinking the meaning of emotionally charged events
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Which statement below best describes the connection between personality and emotion?
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Extroverted people tend to feel more positive emotions
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When we suggest that culture has an influence on our experiences of emotions, what do we mean?
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The best predictor of the ability to detect and interpret emotional expressions is which of the following?
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Biological sex
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Research on emotional expression suggests that there is atlas some truth in the cultural stereotype of:
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The unexpressive male and the more expressive female
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The term emotion labor refers to situations in which it is appropriate or necessary to _
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Manage and suppress your emotions
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Which statement below best describes the connection between feelings about self-disclosure and the expression of emotions in mainstream US culture?
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The risks involved in self-disclosure cause many people to choose not to express their emotions very often
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The process by which emotions are transferred from one person to another is called
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Emotional contagion
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It is very important that we _ in order to give ourselves the best chances for managing our emotions
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Recognize our feelings
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Which statement below best characterizes the way that people usually describe their emotions?
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Most people do not have the emotional vocabularies needed to describe precisely how they are feeling
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Sometimes, we communicate in indirect ways. For example, “I’m lonesome” might be “I guess there isn’t much happening this weekend, so if you’re not busy, why don’t you drop by.” This is an example of
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Expressing feelings in a coded manner
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Which of the following is a counterfeit expression of emotions?
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“I feel like going to a show”
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When we feel multiple emotions, the best course of action is often to share _
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All of our feelings
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When is usually the best time to express strong negative feelings?
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When you have cooled off and the other person has time to discuss them with you
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Instead of saying, “You’re making me angry,” say, “I’m getting angry. . .
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Accepting responsibility for your feelings
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Which statement describes the best way to convey an emotionally laden message
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The most appropriate channel of communication will vary depending on the message and the situation
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Although feeling and expressing many emotions adds to the quality of interpersonal relationships, not all feelings are beneficial. Which feeling below is most likely to be constructive?
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Irritation
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How are facilitative emotions different from debilitative emotions?
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Facilitative emotions contribute to effective functioning, whereas debilitative emotions detract from effective functioning
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A certain amount of anger or irritation can be constructive because it often provides the stimulus that leads you to improve the unsatisfying conditions. . .
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Intensity
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Feeling depressed for a while after the breakup of a relationship or the loss of a job is natural. However, spending the rest of your life grieving over your loss would accomplish nothing. What is the difference between these two emotions?
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Duration
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Erica feels very nervous in competitive situations ever since a humiliating experience she had during a high school basketball game. This situation provides an example of Erica’s _ affecting her feelings.
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Emotional memory
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During the process of self-talk, we _
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Interpret events and communications in ways that determine our feelings
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Which fallacy involves basing a belief on a very limited amount of evidence?
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The fallacy of overgeneralization
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Which fallacy involves believing that we feel emotions because of the actions of others rather than because of our own self-talk?
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The fallacy of causation
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In human language, the connection between signs and the things that represent is _
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Symbolic
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Our authors suggest that language is rather like:
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Plumbing: we tend to pay the most attention to it when something goes wrong
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_ reflect the ways in which users of a language assign meaning to a particular linguistic symbol, usually a word
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Semantic rules
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Semantic misunderstandings arise when people
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Assign different meanings to the same words
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_ consists of statements that have more than one commonly accepted definition
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Equivocal language
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The humorous headline Family Catches Fire Just in Time is an example of _
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Equivocation
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“Relative words” gain their meaning by
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Comparison
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“Karen is patient.” “You can always count on Wes.” Statements that contain or imply the word “is” lead to the mistaken assumption that people are consistent and unchanging — an incorrect belief known as _
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Static evaluation
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What do syntactic rules govern?
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The grammar of language
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In ambiguous situations, we rely on _ to decide how to interpret messages in a given context.
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Pragmatic rules
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Choosing a name for a child _
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Is more than just a simple means of identification
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What do communication researchers call the process of adapting one’s speech style to match that of others?
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Convergence
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A teenager using current slang to distance herself from her parents’ generation provides an example of which linguistic phenomenon?
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Divergence
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“Excuse me, sir. I hate to say this, but I… uh… I guess I won’t be able to turn in the assignment on time….
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Powerless speech mannerisms
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Which type of language seems to describe something but actually provides the speaker’s attitude toward it?
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Emotive language
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One of the major differences between “i” and “you” language is that _
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“I” language forces the speaker to take responsibility for his or her message
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Which statement below best describes the benefits and drawbacks of using “we” language?
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An advantage of “we” language is that it is inclusive, but a drawback is that it can be seen as presumptuous
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According to language and gender research, _ to discuss personal appearance, sex, and dating in same-sex conversations.
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Both men and women were equally likely
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Which statement below best summarizes the reason(s) why men and women communicate, at least in the dominant culture of North America?
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Both men and women use language to build and maintain social relationships
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Which statement below accurately describes the connection between genre and asking questions?
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Women tend to ask more questions in mixed-sex conversations
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Several research reviews have found that the ways women and men communication are _
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Much more similar than different
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The American manufacturers of Pet milk unknowingly introduced their product in French-speaking market without realizing that the word pet in French means “to break wing.”…
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Inattention to the impact of culture on language
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Low-context cultures generally value using language to _
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Express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as clearly and directly as possible
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High-context cultures value using language to
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Maintain social harmony
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The verbal communication styles used around the world differ in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
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Whether they are symbolic or not
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What does the term linguistics refer to?
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The notion that the worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by its language
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Which option below is a classic example of linguistic relativism
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Eskimos have many words for what English speakers simply call “snow”
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Which of the following statements is true of nonverbal communication?
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Being skilled at nonverbal communication is linked to popularity, attractiveness, and socio-emotional well-being
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What is the best way to avoid nonverbal communication?
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None of these choices is correct; all behavior communicates a message
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Nonverbal communication can serve a variety of functions; however, it is primarily
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Relational
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One of the biggest problems arising from the lack of nonverbal cues in texting, instant messaging, and emailing is _
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The tendency for jokes to be misinterpreted as serious statements
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Which of the following is NOT a major role filled by nonverbal communication?
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Regulating our emotions
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What does it mean for nonverbal communication to be complementing?
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It reinforces what has been expressed verbally
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Nonverbal communication serves a number of functions. Among them is an accenting function. In this function, nonverbal communication _
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Emphasizes what has been expressed verbally
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What does it mean for nonverbal communication to regulate conversation?
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It influences the flow of interaction
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When a person’s nonverbal communication does not match his or her verbal message, we
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Tend to believe the nonverbal message
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Inadvertent signals of deception are often referred to as
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Leakage
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One of the truths about nonverbal communication is that
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It is ambiguous
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_ are usually more nonverbally expressive, and they are better at recognizing others’ nonverbal behavior
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Females
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Which nonverbal behavior has wildly different meanings in different cultures?
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Forming a circle by touching the tip of your index finger to the tip of your thumb
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German, Swiss, and US cultures are monochromic, which means _
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They emphasize punctuality and more rigid scheduling
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Despite many cultural differences, some nonverbal behaviors have the same meanings around the world. For example _ is universally understood
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Smiling
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The area of nonverbal communication known as kinesics involves _
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Body position and movement
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Which type of nonverbal behavior is probably the LEAST ambiguous?
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Posture
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Which type of gesture involves unconscious body movements made in response to the environment?
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Adaptors
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What is an illustrator?
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A gesture that accompanies speech but has no meaning on its own
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Which of the following gestures is the best example of a North American emblem
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Nodding your head to mean “yes”
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A facial expression that lasts for only a second is called a(n)
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Micro expression
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Social scientists use the term paralanguage to describe
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Nonverbal vocal messages
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Social scientists use the word haptic to describe the study of which aspect of nonverbal communication?
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Touching
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Whether or not we’re aware of the fact, how we look sends messages to others. The two dimensions of appearance are _
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Physical attractiveness and clothing
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Proxemics is the study of the way people and animals use
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Space
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What are the four distances that most North Americans use in their everyday lives as described by anthropologist Edward T. Hall?
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Intimate, personal, social, public
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Social scientists use the term chronemics to describe the study of how humans use and structure which aspect of life?
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Time
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Our authors define listening in the context or interpersonal communication as the process of _
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Making sense of others’ spoken messages
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Hearing, as opposed to listening, is the process in which _
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Sound waves strike the eardrum and the vibrations are transmitted to the brain
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When we move beyond hearing and start to listen, researchers note that we process information in two very different ways. Which terms do social scientists use to describe these ways of processing information?
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Mindful and mindless
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Which statement below best describes mindful listening?
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It involves consciously and carefully paying attention to a message
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Listening is a process that consists of the following elements:
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Hearing, attending, understanding, responding, and remembering
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Which factors have the largest influence on hearing?
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Background noise and physiological factors
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Whereas hearing is physiological process, _ is a psychological one and is part of the process of selection
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attending
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What does the term listen fidelity refer to?
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How well the message that a listener understands matches the message that the speaker intended to convey
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Giving observable feedback to the speaker is a part of which step in the listening process?
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Responding
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What portion of a message do most people remember immediately after hearing it?
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50%
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Whenever a topic arises that listeners would rather not deal with, those who engage in _ simply fail to hear or acknowledge it
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Insulated listening
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Janet appears to be an attentive listener because she looks at you in the eye
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Pseudolistener
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When listeners respond only to the parts of your remarks that interest them, rejecting everything else, they are engaged in _
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Selective listening
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The teenager who perceives her parents’ questions about her friends and activities are distrustful snooping uses which of the following types of ineffective listening?
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Defensive listening
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_ listen carefully to you, but only because they’re collecting information that they’ll use to attack what you say.
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Ambushers
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_ (sometimes called “conversational narcissists”) try to turn the topic of conversation to themselves instead of showing interest in the speaker.
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Stage-hogs
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People who are _ respond to the superficial content in a message but miss the more important emotional information that may not be expressed directly
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Insensitive listeners
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Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons your authors list for why we don’t listen better?
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Too few opportunities to communicate
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Which of the following is NOT good advice for how to be a better listener?
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Try to evaluate the message and the speaker as quickly as possible
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In some cases, the best response a listener can give is a small nudge to keep the speaker talking. This is called _
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Prompting
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Which type of listening response has been called “the most popular piece of language” and is helpful for both the speaker and the listener?
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Questioning
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What is a counterfeit question?
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A question designed to send a message
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Which of the following types of listening responses involves restating the message you thought the speaker just sent in your own words without adding anything new?
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Paraphrasing
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There are times when other people want to hear more than a reflection of how they feel and would like to know how you feel. Which type of listening response involves this activity?
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Supporting
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In _, the listener offers an interpretation of a speaker’s message.
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A analyzing response
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“That’s and good idea”…
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judging
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According to research, advice is actually unhelpful as often as it is helpful.
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Give advice on a topic with which you have have successful experience in the past and offer the advice in a sensitive manner.