Com10 Final

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Which of the following statements best describes the effect that communication has on our physical well-being?
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A lack of communication and social relationships can cause a range of physical and mental illnesses.
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What distinguishes interpersonal communication in a qualitative approach?
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a. treating each person in the interaction as unique individuals
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What are the three features that distinguish interpersonal communication from less personal communication?
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a. uniqueness, irreplaceability, and interdependence
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Martin Buber states that \”I-It\” and \”I-Thou\” represent two ways in which humans can relate to one another. What is the difference between these two types of relationships?
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b.\”I-It\” relationships are stable, predictable, and detached
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Which of the following is NOT a principle of communication?
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c. Communication is reversible.
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The authors write that one of the misconceptions of communication is that people think meanings are in words. What they mean is that:
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. words that make perfect sense to you can be interpreted in entirely different ways by others.
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What is one of the challenges involved in online communication?
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People may face more consequences for rash online messages since such messages may be permanent.
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Communicating successfully with people from other cultures requires ________ .
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knowing the rules of specific cultures, having the desire to communicate successfully, being mindful of your own behavior and the behavior of others
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Social scientists use the word haptics to describe the study of which aspect of nonverbal communication?
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touching
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Social scientists use the term paralanguage to describe ________ .
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d. nonverbal vocal messages
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The area of nonverbal communication known as kinesics involves ________ .
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body position and movemen
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German, Swiss, and U.S. cultures are monochronic, which means ________ .
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c. they emphasize punctuality and more rigid scheduling
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________ are usually more nonverbally expressive, and they are better at recognizing others’ nonverbal behavior.
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Females
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One of the truths about nonverbal communication is that ________ .
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it is ambiguous
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When a person’s nonverbal communication does not match his or her verbal message, we ________
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b. tend to believe the nonverbal message
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One of the biggest problems arising from the lack of nonverbal cues in texting, instant messaging, and emailing is ________ .
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d. the tendency for jokes to be misinterpreted as serious statements
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Nonverbal communication can serve a variety of functions; however, it is primarily ________ .
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a. relational
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What is the best way to avoid nonverbal communication?
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none
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Which of the following statements is true of nonverbal communication?
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Being skilled at nonverbal communication is linked to popularity, attractiveness, and socio-emotional well-being.
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Which type of relationship is likely to have the highest level of self-disclosure?
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d. female-female relationships
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How do self-disclosure practices in collectivist cultures like Japan differ from those found in individualistic cultures like the United States?
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Members of collectivist cultures tend to self-disclose more negative aspects of themselves and others from their in-group whereas members of individualistic cultures tend to self-disclose more positive aspects.
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Studies of cultural differences related to intimacy suggest that the differences that have existed between Western and Eastern cultures ________ .
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. may be fast disappearing
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Studies show that relational intimacy may develop ________ through computer-mediated communication than in face-to-face communication.
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b. more quickly
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Which statement below accurately describes an aspect of attachment theory?
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Children who develop secure bonds with their family members tend to be more confident communicators and have more effective relationships.
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Which statement about family roles is true?
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Communication problems in families often arise when people communicate in ways that do not fit their expected family role.
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Families with a high conversation orientation interact ________ .
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d. often and see communication as rewarding
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For many males, the most meaningful part of their same-sex friendships is ________ .
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shared activities
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Research shows that social media ________ .
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is more often used to maintain or revive existing friendships rather than forge new ones
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Which statement below about forgiveness is true?
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b. Remembering times you have needed forgiveness can help you forgive others.
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Our authors define listening in the context of interpersonal communication as the process of ________ .
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b. making sense of others’ spoken messages
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Hearing, as opposed to listening, is the process in which ________ .
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a. sound waves strike the eardrum and the vibrations are transmitted to the brain
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When we move beyond hearing and start to listen, researchers note that we process information in two very different ways. Which terms do social scientists use to describe these ways of processing information?
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a. mindful and mindless
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Which statement below best describes mindful listening?
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d. It involves consciously and carefully paying attention to a message.
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What portion of a message do most people remember immediately after hearing it?
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d. 50%
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Janet appears to be an attentive listener because she looks you in the eye, nods, and smiles while you talk; however, the show of attention is a polite façade because her mind is somewhere else. Janet’s behavior suggests she is which kind of listener?
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a pseudolistener
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When listeners respond only to the parts of your remarks that interest them, rejecting everything else, they are engaged in ________ .
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selective listening
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The teenager who perceives her parents’ questions about her friends and activities as distrustful snooping uses which of the following types of ineffective listening?
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defensive listening
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_______ (sometimes called \”conversational narcissists\”) try to turn the topic of conversations to themselves instead of showing interest in the speaker.
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Stage-hogs
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People who are ________ respond to the superficial content in a message but miss the more important emotional information that may not be expressed directly.
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insensitive listeners
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There are times when other people want to hear more than a reflection of how they feel and would like to know how you feel. Which type of listening response involves this activity?
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supporting
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According to research, advice is actually unhelpful as often as it is helpful. Which statement below gives a good tip for how to use advising as a listening response?
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Give advice on a topic with which you have had successful experience in the past and offer the advice in a sensitive manner.
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We develop self-concepts that match the way we think others see us in a process called ________ .
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reflected appraisal
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Each of us forms our self-image through the process of social comparison. Social comparison involves
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a. evaluating ourselves by comparing ourselves with others.
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The tendency to seek out and attend to information that conforms to an existing self-concept has been labeled ________ .
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d. cognitive conservatism
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How does being a part of a collectivist culture affect one’s identity?
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b. People in collectivist cultures shape their identities based on group membership.
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Which statement below accurately describes the impact that culture has on communication style?
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d. People in individualist cultures tend to prefer direct communication whereas people in collectivist cultures tend to prefer indirect approaches.
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When your expectations of an event cause you to behave in a way that make your expectations come true, you have experienced ________ .
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a self-fulfilling prophecy
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Which of the following options is NOT a major reason why we manage our identities?
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d. to terminate social relationships
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Each of us has a repertoire of faces–a cast of characters–and part of being a competent communicator is choosing the best face for the situation. The authors argue that we should choose each face based on ________ .
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effectiveness
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Which statement below best describes self-disclosure?
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c. There are both benefits and risks associated with self-disclosure.
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How much control do we have over our personality traits?
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a. We have a great deal of control over them.
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What are gender roles?
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the socially approved ways for males and females to behave
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When we tend to judge ourselves in the most generous terms possible, we are engaged in which of the following options?
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d. self-serving bias
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The tendency to form an overall positive impression of a person on the basis of one positive characteristic is called ________ .
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d. the halo effect
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One common tendency in perception is to assume that others ________
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are similar to us
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In what kind of culture does the straightforward approach of perception checking have the best chance of working?
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low-context
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With ________ , you view the other person’s situation from your point of view. With ________ , you view it from the other person’s perspective.
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sympathy; empathy
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Increasing our cognitive complexity helps us be better communicators because it will help us ________ .
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a. have more empathy for others
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Age, health, fatigue, hunger, and biological cycles are examples of which type of influence on perception?
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a. physiological
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Communication theorists use the term(s) ________ to describe the determination of causes and effects in a series of interactions.
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a. punctuation
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You see new aspects of a roommate’s personality when you start working at her company and observe her in her role as an employee for the first time. Which influence on perception is at play here?
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access to information
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A big part of sense-making occurs between and among people as they influence one another’s perceptions and try to achieve a shared perspective. This process is known as ________ .
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negotiation
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We often categorize people on the basis of easily recognized characteristics. But when generalizations lose touch with reality, they lead to ________ — exaggerated generalizations associated with a categorizing system.
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c. stereotyping
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Why is it important to understand the physiological factors involved in emotions?
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Physiological cues can offer a significant clue to your emotions after you become aware of them.
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Some physiological components of fear are a racing heart, perspiration, tense muscles, and elevated blood pressure. Interestingly enough, these symptoms are similar to the physical changes that accompany excitement, joy, and other emotions. Which emotion we experience comes primarily from
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which label we give to the symptoms
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Which statement below best describes the connection between personality and emotion?
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Extroverted people tend to feel more positive emotions.
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When we suggest that culture has an influence on our experiences of emotions, what do we mean?
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While people around the world generally experience the same emotions, the same events can generate quite different feelings in different cultures
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Which statement below best characterizes the way that people usually describe their emotions?
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Most people do not have the emotional vocabularies needed to describe precisely how they are feeling.
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Sometimes, we communicate in indirect ways. For example, \”I’m lonesome\” might be \”I guess there isn’t much happening this weekend, so if you’re not busy, why don’t you drop by.\” This is an example of ________ .
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expressing feelings in a coded manner
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Instead of saying, \”You’re making me angry,\” say, \”I’m getting angry.\” Instead of saying, \”You hurt my feelings,\” say, \”I feel hurt when you do that.\” These are examples of ________ .
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accepting responsibility for your feelings
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How are facilitative emotions different from debilitative emotions?
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Facilitative emotions contribute to effective functioning, whereas debilitative emotions detract from effective functioning.
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During the process of self-talk, we ________ .
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d. interpret events and communications in ways that determine our feelings
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Which fallacy involves basing a belief on a very limited amount of evidence?
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the fallacy of overgeneralization
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Which fallacy involves believing that we feel emotions because of the actions of others rather than because of our own self-talk?
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the fallacy of causation
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In human language, the connection between signs and the things they represent is ________ .
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symbolic
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Semantic misunderstandings arise when people ________ .
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assign different meanings to the same words
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________ consists of statements that have more than one commonly accepted definition.
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Equivocal language
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\”Karen is patient.\” \”You can always count on Wes.\” Statements that contain or imply the word \”is\” lead to the mistaken assumption that people are consistent and unchanging — an incorrect belief known as ________ .
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static evaluation
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In ambiguous situations, we rely on ________ to decide how to interpret messages in a given context.
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pragmatic rules
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Which type of language seems to describe something but actually provides the speaker’s attitude toward it?
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emotive language
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Which statement below best summarizes the reason(s) why men and women communicate, at least in the dominant cultures of North America?
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Both men and women use language to build and maintain social relationships
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Low-context cultures generally value using language to ________
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express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as clearly and directly as possible
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High-context cultures value using language to ________ .
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maintain social harmony
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Which option below is a classic example of linguistic relativism?
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Eskimos have many words for what English speakers simply call \”snow.\”
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What is the term that refers to the emotional tone of a relationship? It doesn’t involve specific activities as much as the way people feel about each other as they carry out those activities.
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communication climate
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Michael: \”I’m kind of worried about my grandmother’s health. She’s been losing so much weight.\” Sonja: \”Yeah, I don’t think she’s eating enough, and at the rate we’re going, pretty soon we won’t be eating enough either—we really need to go grocery shopping.\” What type of disconfirming communication does this example illustrate?
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a tangential response
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Alice: \”Would you like to go see a movie with me on Friday night?\” Bill: \”Uh, maybe.\” Alice: \”OK, well, do you want to call me Thursday to let me know if you’re free?\” Bill: \”Uh, that might work. See you later.\” What type of disconfirming communication does this interaction illustrate?
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d. an ambiguous response
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Listening to the ideas and feelings of others is an important part of ________ .
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acknowledgement
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Most people become irritated at judgmental statements, which they are likely to interpret as indicating a lack of regard. The supportive counterpart to this evaluative behavior is ________ .
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description
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When a sender seems to be imposing a solution on the receiver with little regard for the receiver’s needs or interests, s/he is engaging in which defense-provoking communication?
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control
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One type of defensive behavior, called neutrality, involves reacting with indifference to the feelings of others. What is the supportive counterpart to this defensive behavior?
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empathy
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What is involved with provisionalism?
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acknowledging that you may not always be righ
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A method for speaking your mind in a clear, direct, yet nonthreatening, assertive way that expresses your needs, thoughts, and feelings clearly and directly without judging or dictating to others is labeled the ________ .
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\”assertive message format\”
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When using the assertive message format, you should ________ .
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express yourself according to your own conversational style
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Every relationship has conflict and that is alright because:
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conflict can be healthy for the relationship, you can learn to address conflict in constructive ways, conflict is natural.
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Over twenty years of research shows that both happy and unhappy marriages have conflicts but that they manage conflict in very different ways. The difference between happy and unhappy couples is that ________ .
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unhappy couples argue in destructive ways
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The ________ conflict style involves creating a lose-lose situation
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avoiding
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Which of the five conflict styles involves a win-lose situation?
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competing
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Which conflict style creates a win-win situation?
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collaborating
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What is the difference between the complementary conflict style and the symmetrical conflict style?
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In the complementary style, both partners use different but reinforcing behaviors; in the symmetrical style, both partners use the same behaviors.
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Men and women often approach conflicts differently. Even in childhood, ________ .
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males are more likely to be aggressive, demanding, and competitive, whereas females are more likely to be cooperative
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What is probably the most important cultural factor in shaping attitudes toward conflict?
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d. individualism versus collectivism
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Another important cultural factor shaping attitudes toward conflict is high- and low-context cultural styles. What is the difference between them?
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Low-context cultures place a premium on being direct and literal during conflict.
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There are many times when a person isn’t in the right frame of mind to face a conflict, perhaps owing to fatigue, being in too much of a hurry to take the necessary time, being upset over another problem, or not feeling well. What is the best way to handle conflicts in these situations?
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Make a date for a more agreeable time
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In a conflict situation, the process of identifying and defining a conflict, generating a number of possible solutions, evaluating those solutions, and then deciding on the best solution is called ________ .
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the negotiation of a solution

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