COM 112 final

Research indicates that the average person can detect deception approximately what percentage of the time?
Select one:
a. 25%
b. 40%
c. 55%
d. 73%
c. 55%

According to the distinctions between men and women’s linguistic styles, men are more likely to:
Select one:
a. use modifiers to reflect the intensity of their statements
b. talk in shorter phrases
c. rely on the use of inclusive pronouns like “we”
d. withhold opinions
b. talk in shorter phrases

When Jon and Ernesto met in their English class, they were both hesitant to share much about their personal lives. As the semester progressed and they became better friends, they felt comfortable sharing more and more with each other. Which element of self-disclosure is reflected in their relationship?
Select one:
a. self-disclosure varies in breadth and depth
b. self-disclosure must be intentional
c. self-disclosure follows a process
d. self-disclosure varies among relationships
c. self-disclosure follows a process

According to your text, the perception-making process consists of three stages. Which of the following is NOT among them?
Select one:
a. interpretation
b. attribution
c. organization
d. selection
b. attribution

According to research, an increase in which of the following nonverbal behaviors is indicative of deception?
Select one:
a. forward leans
b. genuine smiles
c. vocal fluency
d. blinking
d. blinking

Which of the following statements about people with high self-esteem is NOT true?
Select one:
a. They score higher on standardized tests
b. They are comfortable initiating relationships
c. They have higher emotional intelligence
d. They are more likely to end a relationship that is in trouble
a. They score higher on standardized tests

Your subjective evaluation of yourself is known as:
Select one:
a. self-evaluation
b. self-esteem
c. self-concept
d. self-image
b. self-esteem

We have a tendency to discount first impressions as untrustworthy.
Select one:
True
False
False

Samantha was a fantastic softball player, but she rarely took credit for her success. Every time a reporter from the school paper would ask her for a quote, Samantha would say, “I just got lucky today,” or, “Their pitcher just gave me something I could hit.” Which of these likely factors into Samantha’s personality?
Select one:
a. internal locus
b. external locus
c. negative attribution
d. self-serving bias
b. external locus

Your own understanding of who you are as a person comprises your:
Select one:
a. face
b. image
c. reference group
d. self-concept
d. self-concept

Deception done for the right reasons is not really deception.
Select one:
True
False
False

Biological sex is genetically determined whereas gender roles are socially constructed.
Select one:
True
False
True

Jason went to a party with several of his friends last weekend. While he was there, he made several inappropriate comments and did not notice that people were offended by what he was saying. Afterwards, several people at the party commented to Jason’s friends that they were surprised and upset by his behavior. Which of the following statements is likely true of Jason?
Select one:
a. Jason has low self-esteem.
b. Jason is a low self-monitor.
c. Jason has a poor self-concept.
d. Jason does not engage in self-fulfilling prophecies.
b. Jason is a low self-monitor

Which of the following linguistic patterns is associated with powerful speech?
Select one:
a. disclaimers
b. hedges
c. offering opinions
d. asking questions
c. offering opinions

Among adults, which of the following is true about touch behavior?
Select one:
a. women touch men more than men touch women
b. opposite-sex touch is more common than same-sex touch
c. in same-sex pairs, men touch each other just as much as women do
d. none of the above statements is true
b. opposite-sex touch is more common than same-sex touch

Frank’s grandfather loved to fish. Every time he came back from the lake, he described catching and releasing a bigger and bigger fish. We can infer from this story that Frank’s grandfather likely engaged in:
Select one:
a. commission
b. equivocation
c. falsification
d. exaggeration
d. exaggeration

Idealizing a romantic partner at the beginning of a new relationship is a common example of the __________ bias.
Select one:
a. delusional
b. romantic
c. positivity
d. confirmatory
c. positivity

Idioms and gestures are examples of
Select one:
a. communication codes
b. cultural truisms
c. cultural speech development
d. communication power-distance
a. communication codes

A group of students who attend the same high school and all belong to the school’s computer club would be an example of what?
Select one:
a. cultural norming
b. enculturation
c. a co-culture
d. cultural adaptation
c. a co-culture

Studies involving communication between infants and caregivers have reliably demonstrated that
Select one:
a. Without sufficient interaction, infants will likely develop severe mental illness later in life.
b. Human interaction, specifically touch, is critical for development and health.
c. Infants’ language acquisition occurs whether or not their caregivers communicate with them.
d. Only a child’s biological parents are able to influence his or her social development.
b. Human interaction, specifically touch, is critical for development and health.

Which concept of culture includes judgments about how good, desirable, or beautiful something is?
Select one:
a. symbols
b. values
c. norms
d. language
b. values

According to social penetration theory, the __________ dimension concerns the number of topics disclosed whereas the __________ dimension concerns the level of detail in topics disclosed.
Select one:
a. breadth, depth
b. depth, breadth
c. range, penetration
d. penetration, range
a. breadth, depth

The self-serving bias is a form of self delusion.
Select one:
True
False
True

Very specific communication codes such as those used by doctors and dentists are known as
Select one:
a. idiomatic expressions
b. specialized codes
c. jargon
d. clichés
c. jargon

Your text discussed several potential risks of self-disclosure. Which of the following was not among them?
Select one:
a. violating privacy boundaries
b. obligating others
c. rejection
d. damaging personal health
d. damaging personal health

Having empathy means feeling sorry for someone else.
Select one:
True
False
False

Deception has several characteristics; which of the following is NOT among them?
Select one:
a. The sender must believe the information is false.
b. The receiver must believe the information is true.
c. The information must be transmitted knowingly.
d. The sender must intend to create a false belief in the receiver.
b. The receiver must believe the information is true.

Explain in detail the 4 attachment styles and give an example of how you have seen someone’s attachment style impact your relationship.
The 4 attatchment styles are secure, which involes a positive view of self and others, preocupied, which involves positive view of others, and negative view on self. The next, is dismissive, which involves positive view of self, and negative view on others. The last is fearful avoidance, which is a negative view of self, and a negative view of others. My own attatchment style, dismissive, actually impacts my relationships with others. I am very goal-oriented and i do feel that relationships just get in the way sometimes. I have to focus and complete my own plans before i begin to worry about a relationship.

You liked most everything about your new roommate when you first met, but when you found out she smokes, that overshadowed all of her good qualities in your mind. What perception-making process are you displaying here?
Select one:
a. primacy effect
b. negativity bias
c. stereotyping
d. egocentrism
b. negativity bias

This model considers both people in a conversation to be senders and receivers simultaneously:
Select one:
a. action
b. transaction
c. interaction
d. none of these
transaction

When competent communicators discover that their perceptions were inaccurate, they will respond by:
Select one:
a. seeking more information
b. considering alternative perceptions
c. revising their perceptions accordingly
d. all of these
d. all of these

Your self-concept is made up of the perceptions you have about who you are as a person.
Select one:
True
False
True

Competent communication must be both effective and appropriate.
Select one:
True
False
True

When lying to a stranger, one will usually be more successful doing so in a face-to-face conversation than in an email message.
Select one:
True
False
True

Human interaction is critical for the health of both infants and adults.
Select one:
True
False
True

Organization is the process of assigning meaning to something you have perceived.
Select one:
True
False
False

An explanation for why something occurred is called a(n):
Select one:
a. interpretation
b. selection
c. attribution
d. perceptual set
c. attribution

On average, men express more opinions than women do.
Select one:
True
False
True

A sign in the library that reads “No Talking Allowed” would constitute an example of what?
Select one:
a. perceptual filter
b. relational dimension
c. explicit rule
d. unintentional communication
c. explicit rule

Lack of effective communication is the most commonly cited reason for relationship failure.
Select one:
True
False
True

Which of the following forms of deception is an act of dissimulation?
Select one:
a. exaggeration
b. falsification
c. sarcasm
d. equivocation
d. equivocation

When his girlfriend asks if he really loves her, Ramon gives her a vague, ambiguous response. What form of deception is he attempting?
Select one:
a. fibbing
b. equivocation
c. exaggeration
d. falsification
b. equivocation

According to the norm of reciprocity, people expect the level of disclosures in their personal relationships to be relatively equivalent.
Select one:
True
False
True

How are interpretations different from facts?
Select one:
a. Interpretations are objective, whereas facts are subjective.
b. Facts speak to what occurred, whereas interpretations speak to the meaning of what occurred.
c. Interpretations are the same as descriptions, whereas facts are more similar to attributions.
d. They aren’t different; facts and interpretations are the same.
b. Facts speak to what occurred, whereas interpretations speak to the meaning of what occurred.

What term is used to describe anything that interferes with the accurate decoding of a message?
Select one:
a. channel
b. noise
c. feedback
d. context
b. noise

People from different cultures sometimes experience difficulty in understanding one another because they think differently.
Select one:
True
False
True

Research has shown that genetics have little or no influence on personality.
Select one:
True
False
False

Research suggests that women are more likely than men to use self-references, such as “me” or “I”.
Select one:
True
False
False

In the United States, most people understand that they are expected to form a line and wait for their turn. That is an example of what type of rule?
Select one:
a. a culture-bound rule
b. an explicit rule
c. an implicit rule
d. an orderly rule
c. an implicit rule

According to the text, your self-concept is influenced by all of the following except:
Select one:
a. personality and biology
b. culture and gender roles
c. reflected appraisal
d. impression evaluation
d. impression evaluation

The ability to take another person’s perspective, and to think and feel as that person does, is called what?
Select one:
a. ethics
b. sympathy
c. empathy
d. self-awareness
c. empathy

What is meant by the phrase “deception can serve as a social lubricant?”
Select one:
a. People commonly engage in deception to get what they want from other people.
b. People commonly engage in deception to avoid hurting others’ feelings.
c. People commonly engage in deception in order to impress others.
d. People commonly engage in deception in order to increase their number of friends.
b. People commonly engage in deception to avoid hurting others’ feelings.

Describe your own culture (or a co-culture you belong to) in terms of whether it is individualistic or collectivistic, high-context or low-context, and high-power-distance or low-power-distance. Use concrete examples. Next, provide a brief critique of each of those characteristics of your culture. What do you find to be positive about it? Negative about it?
My culture would probably something along the lines of where i work. I work at Chick-Fil-A, and I have been working with chick fila since 2008. Chickfila is a collectivistic job because we are all a team. it is a high context job, in my opinion, because there are many ways to get things done. it is probably a mix between the low/high-power stance because many people make decisions but there is still an overall boss. This culture is pretty positive, with the christian aspect of business, we always look out for everyone, including the customers.
Masculine&feminine culture
monochronic or polychronic

Men are more likely than women to initiate touch with other adults, but women are more likely than men to initiate touch with children.
Select one:
True
False
True

According to the textbook, which of the following is NOT considered one of the defining elements of culture?
Select one:
a. values
b. symbols
c. language
d. ethnicity
d. ethnicity

Most people in the United States believe they are above-average communicators.
Select one:
True
False
True

Regarding sex differences in verbal behavior, which of the following is true, according to your text?
Select one:
a. women are not more talkative than men
b. women interrupt more than men do
c. men use more disclaimers and hedges than women do
d. women ask fewer questions than men do
a. women are not more talkative than men

In a low-context culture, people are expected to be direct and say what they mean.
Select one:
True
False
True

When we evaluate our own merits with respect to certain reference groups, we are engaging in a process known as:
Select one:
a. self-esteem maintenance
b. social comparison
c. the looking-glass self
d. impression formation
b. social comparison

Low self-monitors are more likely than high self-monitors to appear unsophisticated or socially awkward.
Select one:
True
False
True

What of the following could be an example of the Othello error?
Select one:
a. A listener is so suspicious that he or she doubts someone else’s truthful statement.
b. People tend to look for deception in bad news more than in good news.
c. People tend to look for deception in good news more than in bad news.
d. A listener is so trusting of another that he or she does not evaluate the truthfulness of the person’s statements.
a. A listener is so suspicious that he or she doubts someone else’s truthful statement.

Culture is the shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another.
Select one:
True
False
True

Researchers use this term to describe how aware people are of their own behaviors:
Select one:
a. cognitive complexity
b. self-monitoring
c. adaptability
d. self-disclosure
b. self-monitoring

As defined in the textbook, communication can help us grow spiritually in all of the following areas except:
Select one:
a. developing a sense of our values
b. articulating morals (beliefs about right and wrong)
c. discouraging the spirituality of others
d. finding a meaning for life
c. discouraging the spirituality of others

Many factors affect the likelihood that we will notice a certain object in our environment. Which of the following does not lead to increased attention?
Select one:
a. plainness
b. unusualness
c. repetition
d. intensity
a. plainness

A verbal phrase whose meaning is purely figurative, such as “shake a leg” or “kick the bucket,” is called what?
Select one:
a. oxymoron
b. idiom
c. pun
d. idiosyncrasy
b. idiom

Pupil dilation usually decreases when people are being deceptive.
Select one:
True
False
False

When you see someone dressed in very tight, dark clothing with spiky hair and eyeliner, you infer that this person is into emo punk rock. Your impression is based on which set of cues?
Select one:
a. demographic
b. sociocultural
c. socioeconomic
d. psychographic
b. sociocultural

Which of the following techniques will NOT help people improve their empathic skills?
Select one:
a. listening non-judgmentally to the speaker
b. acknowledging the speaker’s feelings
c. encouraging the speaker to focus on what he or she still has, instead of what was lost
d. communicating support to the speaker nonverbally
c. encouraging the speaker to focus on what he or she still has, instead of what was lost

The word set has nearly 200 discrete meanings in the English language. Imprecise use of set illustrates which of the following statements about language?
Select one:
a. Language is often confusing because of multiple connotations.
b. Language can be unclear because of multiple meanings for the same word.
c. Languages around the world do not have a clear definition of referents for words.
d. Language symbols are arbitrary and hard to define.
b. Language can be unclear because of multiple meanings for the same word.

Words that evoke strongly positive or negative connotations are known collectively as:
Select one:
a. emotion language
b. trigger words
c. loaded language
d. hot-button words
c. loaded language

When one member of a group spreads his or her emotional state to the others, ___________ has taken place.
Select one:
a. emotional expressiveness
b. a sympathetic emotional response
c. emotional synchrony
d. emotional contagion
d. emotional contagion

Which of the following examples illustrates the idea of reclaiming a phrase?
Select one:
a. Politicians limiting their use of the word “poor” when describing citizens of lower economic status.
b. Homosexual men referring to one another as “queer.”
c. A white speaker using only the term “African American” when referring to black audience members.
d. The NAACP holding a ceremonial funeral for the “n-word.”
b. Homosexual men referring to one another as “queer.”

People who can accurately identify which emotion they’re feeling are best equipped to manage their emotions in productive ways.
Select one:
True
False
True

Saying that someone has been “let go” instead of “fired” is an example of which language behavior?
Select one:
a. hate speech
b. slang
c. euphemism
d. profanity
c. euphemism

Information overload can impair our ability to listen effectively.
Select one:
True
False
True

The study of how people use movement is called what?
Select one:
a. haptics
b. kinesics
c. oculesics
d. proxemics
b. kinesics

Why do people tend to believe nonverbal messages even when they contradict verbal messages?
Select one:
a. Nonverbal behaviors are completely involuntary and reflect people’s true states.
b. People will only attempt to control their nonverbal behavior when they are lying.
c. It is harder for most people to control their nonverbal communication than their verbal communication.
d. All of these are true.
c. It is harder for most people to control their nonverbal communication than their verbal communication.

Your textbook identifies several ways that speakers can use nonverbal communication to increase the persuasiveness of their statements. Which of the following nonverbal behaviors is not in line with these prescriptions?
Select one:
a. speaking softly, slowly, and calmly
b. matching someone else’s nonverbal behavior
c. casually touching someone on the arm
d. maintaining eye contact with someone while speaking
a. speaking softly, slowly, and calmly

The literal, “dictionary” definition of a word is its __________ meaning.
Select one:
a. denotative
b. connotative
c. abstract
d. referent
a. denotative

According to Edward T. Hall, this range of this type of distance is approximately 1½ to 4 feet:
Select one:
a. intimate distance
b. personal distance
c. social distance
d. public distance
b. personal distance

Which of the following statements would be true according to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
Select one:
a. If a culture does not have a word for an emotion, its members will not be able to experience that emotion.
b. Regardless of the language that individuals from different cultures might speak, people see the world in basically the same way.
c. The culture that you are raised in determines the languages you will speak in your lifetime.
d. The distinction between nouns and verbs does not exist in most languages.
a. If a culture does not have a word for an emotion, its members will not be able to experience that emotion.

During a phone conversation, you are able to infer something about the speaker’s mood and personality by listening to his or her vocal cues. That fact illustrates which of the following claims about nonverbal communication?
Select one:
a. Nonverbal communication is usually believed over verbal communication.
b. Nonverbal communication is present in most forms of interpersonal communication.
c. Nonverbal communication conveys more meaning than verbal communication.
d. Nonverbal communication metacommunicates.
Feedback
b. Nonverbal communication is present in most forms of interpersonal communication.

Most research strongly supports the common notion that beauty is in the eye of the beholder.
Select one:
True
False
False

According to the text, the face is used primarily to communicate all of the following except:
Select one:
a. identity
b. emotion
c. attractiveness
d. intellect
d. intellect

The study of touch behavior is known as:
Select one:
a. haptics
b. oculesics
c. proxemics
d. kinesics
a. haptics

The face communicates more information than any other nonverbal channel.
Select one:
True
False
True

When Jesse first met Nicolette, he extended his hand and said warmly, “Nice to meet you.” In response, Nicolette sighed, rolled her eyes, and simply said, “Yah,” in a very sarcastic tone. Jesse inferred that Nicolette was not excited about meeting him based on her reaction. Which rule of language did Jesse likely base his decision on?
Select one:
a. phonological rule
b. syntactic rule
c. semantic rule
d. pragmatic rule
d. pragmatic rule

Emotions are always triggered from outside events.
Select one:
True
False
True

The action tendency for this emotion is to hide or disappear from others:
Select one:
a. anger
b. disgust
c. shame
d. fear
c. shame

Which of the following phrases is an example of doublespeak?
Select one:
a. sleep together
b. kick the bucket
c. jumbo shrimp
d. collateral damage
d. collateral damage

Which type of listening response includes the use of head nods, facial expressions, and short utterances such as “uh-huh” that signal your interest to the speaker?
Select one:
a. pseudolistening
b. engaging
c. supporting
d. backchanneling
d. backchanneling

The tendency to assume that attractive people have other positive qualities is called what?
Select one:
a. positive prototyping
b. character assumption
c. principle of facial primacy
d. halo effect
d. halo effect

This persuasion strategy takes advantage of the speaker’s credibility:
Select one:
a. appeal to logos
b. appeal to ethos
c. appeal to pathos
d. none of the above
b. appeal to ethos

An allness claim is one in which the speaker intentionally misleads the hearer by arguing that everyone else agrees with his or her position.
Select one:
True
False
False

This type of language rule deals with the correct pronunciation of words:
Select one:
a. phonological
b. syntactic
c. semantic
d. pragmatic
a. phonological

Dan is an atheist with a keen interest in politics. Whenever Dan is watching a debate and one of the candidates mentions his or her belief or interest in God, he stops listening to that candidate. Sometimes, he’ll even change his vote if a candidate he likes mentions God too frequently. Which of the following listening barriers describes Dan?
Select one:
a. rebuttal tendency
b. closed-mindedness
c. attack listening
d. information overload
b. closed-mindedness

The vividness effect is the tendency of dramatic, shocking events to distort our perceptions of reality.
Select one:
True
False
True

Venting is a positive way of releasing your anger.
Select one:
True
False
False

Which of the following items was not identified in your textbook as a demographic characteristic?
Select one:
a. age
b. ethnic background
c. sexual orientation
d. socioeconomic status
d. socioeconomic status

Profanity is highly context-specific.
Select one:
True
False
True

Which of the following statements about listening is true, according to your text?
Select one:
a. Listening is an innate ability.
b. People spend more time listening than speaking.
c. Everyone who listens to a message hears the same thing.
d. Hearing is the same as listening.
b. People spend more time listening than speaking.

Which of the following claims about facial expressions of emotion is not true?
Select one:
a. Extroverts tend to be better than introverts at interpreting nonverbal expressions of emotion.
b. Women are generally better than men at understanding facial displays of emotion.
c. Happiness is the easiest facial expression to decode.
d. Facial expressions are second only to vocal behaviors in their ability to express emotion
d. Facial expressions are second only to vocal behaviors in their ability to express emotion

Based on your observations of the TED video on listening and using course terms: How did the speaker discuss the different Types/
Ways of Listening?

Which of the following emotions is derived from the product of your overall evaluation of another person?
Select one:
a. liking
b. love
c. interest
d. affection
a. liking

_______________ is a condition in which people lack the ability to understand, describe, and process emotions.
Select one:
a. neuroticism
b. emotional processing deficit disorder
c. emotional underexpression
d. alexithymia
d. alexithymia

A(n) _________________ is a memory aid that helps people recall important information.
Select one:
a. memory enhancement device
b. mnemonic device
c. recall device
d. alliteration device
b. mnemonic device

Contemporary research suggests that approximately this percentage of meaning is transmitted nonverbally:
Select one:
a. 30-35%
b. 45-50%
c. 65-70%
d. 90-95%
c. 65-70%

During a counseling session with his wife, Edith, Harris frequently rolled his eyes, made rude and condescending remarks, and openly mocked Edith in front of their counselor. Harris’s emotional state could best be described as:
Select one:
a. hostile
b. arrogant
c. contemptuous
d. disrespectful
d. disrespectful

This is the active process of making meaning out of another person’s spoken message:
Select one:
a. hearing
b. acknowledging
c. evaluating
d. listening
d. listening

When Rachel saw her neighbor Harold in the hallway, he quickly flagged her down and began to speak with her. Throughout their conversation, Harold maintained steady eye contact, spoke very quickly, laughed frequently, and stood closer to Rachel than he usually would. Harold’s nonverbal cues indicate that:
Select one:
a. he was nervous or uncomfortable
b. he was engaging in deception
c. he was excited
d. he was content
c. he was excited

Slang can serve an important social function by helping people distinguish between those who do and do not belong to their social networks.
Select one:
True
False
True

An I-statement claims ownership of what one is feeling or thinking, whereas a you-statement shifts that responsibility to the other person.
Select one:
True
False
True

Which of the following vocal behaviors is a dimension of nonverbal communication?
Select one:
a. tone of voice
b. rate of speech
c. loudness
d. all of these
d. all of these

According to your text, this could qualify as noise:
Select one:
a. loud music
b. feeling hungry
c. being too hot
d. all of the above
d. all of the above

Which of the following statements about slang is not true?
Select one:
a. Slang is closely related to jargon.
b. Slang can help people identify individuals that belong to their social network.
c. Slang is neither inherently good nor inherently bad.
d. Slang is an exception to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
d. Slang is an exception to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Using you-statements to describe your emotions is problematic because:
Select one:
a. it provides specific prescriptions for change
b. it fails to acknowledge the part you play in determining your feelings
c. it involves blaming yourself for your emotions
d. it doesn’t allow you to separate emotions from actions
b. it fails to acknowledge the part you play in determining your feelings

Which of the following is not one of the criticisms that have been levied against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
Select one:
a. It is unclear whether language produces thought or thought produces language.
b. Children who grow up in a bilingual family experience a great deal of cognitive dissonance because of the conflicting languages.
c. Just because a culture doesn’t have a word to describe an experience doesn’t mean they don’t have that experience.
d. People who have cognitive deficiencies for learning language can still engage in thought, despite their language limitations.
b. Children who grow up in a bilingual family experience a great deal of cognitive dissonance because of the conflicting languages.

According to your text, which of the following statements correctly represents the two parts of interpretation?
Select one:
a. Focus on the subjective meaning of the speaker’s message and gauge the truthfulness of his or her claim.
b. Understand the point of view the speaker represents and assign a mental interpretation of his or her statement based on that understanding.
c. Pay attention to all of the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages and signal your interpretation back to the speaker.
d. Interpret the speaker’s message carefully and remember your interpretation for future interactions with the speaker.
c. Pay attention to all of the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages and signal your interpretation back to the speaker.

Which of the following emotions has a neutral valence?
Select one:
a. surprise
b. happiness
c. contentment
d. positivity
a. surprise

Regarding the relationship between jealousy and envy, which of the following is true?
Select one:
a. Jealousy is focused on material things, whereas envy is focused on relationships.
b. Envy involves wanting something that another person has.
c. Jealousy is a primary emotion; envy is a secondary emotion.
d. Envy and jealousy are the same emotion.
b. Envy involves wanting something that another person has.

People who score highly on this personality trait are more likely than others to experience anger, guilt, anxiety, and depression:
Select one:
a. extroversion
b. psychoticism
c. neuroticism
d. agreeableness
c. neuroticism

Effectively interpreting nonverbal communication includes all of the following except:
Select one:
a. sensitivity to others’ nonverbal messages
b. trying to decipher the correct meaning of nonverbal behavior
c. looking past cultural differences to understand the meaning
d. asking for clarification when necessary
c. looking past cultural differences to understand the meaning

Which of the following linguistic features was NOT identified in the textbook as affecting a speaker’s credibility?
Select one:
a. use of clichés
b. a speaker’s dialect
c. incorrect diction
d. equivocal statements
c. incorrect diction

Which of the following statements about facial or vocal expressions of emotions is factually incorrect?
Select one:
a. Infants are unable to respond to pleasant stimuli before they are 12 months old.
b. Facial expressions of emotion are fairly consistent across cultures.
c. Disgust, boredom, and grief are typically accompanied by a lower vocal pitch.
d. People tend to speak faster when they are scared.
a. Infants are unable to respond to pleasant stimuli before they are 12 months old.

To an American, the phrase, “How are you today?” sounds correct whereas the phrase “Today you are how?” sounds incorrect. The second phrase violates which rule of language?
Select one:
a. phonological
b. syntactical
c. semantic
d. pragmatic
b. syntactical

Listening non-judgmentally is important for effective critical listening.
Select one:
True
False
False

Define and give examples of Ekman and Friesen’s five display rules of emotions.

Empathic listening means feeling sorry for someone else.
Select one:
True
False
False

Verbal communication includes both spoken and written language.
Select one:
True
False
True

Rachel finished her oral exam in her Spanish class and her teacher, Señora Lopez, evaluated her performance. Although Rachel did well on the exam and most of Señora Lopez’s comments were positive, Rachel only focused on the negative critiques and felt very bad about her performance. Rachel just engaged in which of the following behaviors?
Select one:
a. pseudolistening
b. content-oriented listening
c. selective attention
d. negative attention bias
c. selective attention

Which of the following statements about smoking is the best example of an appeal to pathos?
Select one:
a. When you add it all up, smoking costs a person almost $7,000 a year.
b. Smoking is the number one cause of emphysema.
c. Most employers can legally discriminate against smokers.
d. Think about how many lives you’re ruining by continuing to smoke.
d. Think about how many lives you’re ruining by continuing to smoke.

Arousal is an increase in energy.
Select one:
True
False
True

This aspect of facial attractiveness refers to the relative size of facial features, such as the nose or ears:
Select one:
a. symmetry
b. rhinoplasty
c. proportionality
d. asymmetry
c. proportionality

This theory predicts that the more we learn about someone, the more we like that person:
Select one:
a. social exchange theory
b. uncertainty reduction theory
c. attraction theory
d. equity theory
b. uncertainty reduction theory

People in this type of culture think of the unequal distribution of power as normal or even desirable:
Select one:
a. high-content
b. low-context
c. high power-distance
d. low power-distance
c. high power-distance

In the _____________ stage of friendship, people begin to drift apart and might lose contact with one another.
Select one:
a. nascent friendship
b. waning friendship
c. declining friendship
d. drifting friendship
b. waning friendship

Which color of love has the most realistic expection of romance?
Select one:
a. Ludus
b. Agape
c. Pragma
d. Storge
c. Pragma

All of the following tips are useful for managing a conflict online except:
Select one:
a. avoid responding right away
b. always respond using the same communication medium
c. clarify comments or statements that aren’t clear
d. use emoticons to express your emotional state
b. always respond using the same communication medium

Which of the following is an example of passive aggression, as it is defined in the text?
Select one:
a. Tara is hurt when her brother forgets her birthday, so she deliberately “forgets” his.
b. Parker is angry with his mother so he ignores her calls and e-mail messages.
c. Bonnie doesn’t want to go to her neighbor’s party, so she takes so long to get ready for it that the party is over by the time she’s done.
d. All of these.
d. All of these.

Frank and Samantha just received a large inheritance when Samantha’s grandmother passed away. Samantha said she wanted to use the money to build a room addition onto their house. Frank said he wanted to buy a more fuel-efficient car. Which of the following is true about this situation?
Select one:
a. This is an example of conflict because it involves an expressed struggle.
b. This is an example of conflict because it involves scarce resources.
c. This is an example of conflict because it involves incompatible goals.
d. All of these are true.
d. All of these are true.

Which of the following reasons is most commonly cited for ending a friendship due to changes in life circumstances?
Select one:
a. having a child
b. moving away
c. getting married
d. experiencing an illness in the family
b. moving away

Friendship rules are almost always explicit, rather than implicit.
Select one:
True
False
F

Single-parent families can include biological children, step-children, and/or adopted children.
Select one:
True
False
T

When forming friendships, people find several forms of similarity to be attractive. According to research, which of the following is true?
Select one:
a. Cognitive similarity is not influential at any stage of friendship formation.
b. Attitude similarity is the strongest predictor of initial attraction.
c. People generally see attitude similarity as a bad thing.
d. Similarity in personalities is the strongest predictor of initial attraction.
b. Attitude similarity is the strongest predictor of initial attraction.

Most new relationships end at which stage of Knapp’s stage model?
Select one:
a. initiating
b. experimenting
c. intensifying
d. integrating
b. experimenting

When you feel very passionate about an issue and you do not want to compromise, which conflict management style is appropriate?
Select one:
a. avoiding
b. collaboration
c. compete
d. accomodation
c. compete

Traditional gender socialization encourages men to use accommodating conflict management strategies.
Select one:
True
False
F

Dialectical tensions are rare in most intimate relationships.
Select one:
True
False
F

Which of the following statements about same-sex partners is true?
Select one:
a. Some of them enter into formal relationships known as domestic partnerships.
b. Communication in sex-same partnerships resembles that in opposite-sex partnerships.
c. Satisfaction levels in same-sex partnerships are equal to those in opposite-sex partnerships.
d. All of these are true.
d. All of these are true.

During conflict episodes, someone playing this family role tends to agree with whatever is said in order to keep others from getting angry:
Select one:
a. computer
b. distracter
c. placater
d. blamer
c. placater Correct

Which of the following is not one of the health benefits of marriage identified in your textbook?
Select one:
a. Married people live longer.
b. Married people tend to be healthier.
c. Married people have better sexual health.
d. Married people are less likely to abuse alcohol and drugs.
c. Married people have better sexual health.

Even though Maria is committed to Bill, she finds herself engaged in affair after affair. Which color of love best describes Maria’s color of love?
Select one:
a. Mania
b. Storge
c. Ludas
d. Eros
c. Ludas

Pick a friend of yours with whom you’ve had a relationship for at least three months. Identify this friend and provide a brief description of your relationship. Next, evaluate your relationship in terms of social exchange theory. Make sure to include as many parts of the theory as you can.
My friend that i met this year when coming to state is a really good guy. I work with him at Chick Fil A and he shares many of the same values i do. We joke and laugh and have many of the same interests. In relation to the social-exchange theory, i would say that having him as my friend is both beneficial and joyful. He helps me out when i need it and i help him out when he needs it. Basically, the rewards of this friendship greatly outweigh the costs that i put into it. It is very beneficial to continue my friendship with him.

Your place of work enforces the policy that indicates, If you show up for work 1 minute late you can be penalized. However, your boss often shows up late. This sitatuion is best explained by which concept.
Select one:
a. power is context specific
b. principle of scarce resources
c. principle of the least interested
d. prerogative principle
d. prerogative principle

Which of the following statements about opposite-sex friendships is NOT true?
Select one:
a. They provide men a chance to be emotionally expressive and women a chance to engage in shared activities.
b. They often contain some degree of sexual or physical attraction.
c. According to one study, about half of college students engage in sexual behavior with their opposite-sex friends.
d. They are almost always closer than same-sex friendships.
d. They are almost always closer than same-sex friendships.

According to Gottman, people engage in this behavior when they insult each other and attack each other’s self worth:
Select one:
a. contempt
b. defensiveness
c. criticism
d. stonewalling
a. contempt

When you establish a friendship with a supervisor at work, it is a good idea to establish _______________ to prevent potential problems.
Select one:
a. ground rules
b. a friendship pact
c. safe words
d. relational commitment
a. ground rules

This occurs when one partner expresses a substantially higher level of interest in the relationship than the other:
Select one:
a. obsessive relational intrusion
b. stalking
c. codependency
d. equitable relationship exchange
a. obsessive relational intrusion

An impervious response is one that ignores the person to whom you are responding.
Select one:
True
False
T

Couples tend to progress through the stages of coming together in the same time frame.
Select one:
True
False
F

______________ is the ability to manipulate, influence, or control other people or events.
Select one:
a. conflict
b. fear
c. power
d. coercion
c. power

Jordan wants to feel emotionally close to his girlfriend but he also wants to make his own decisions. Which dialectical tension is he experiencing?
Select one:
a. openness-closedness
b. revelation-concealment
c. novelty-predictability
d. autonomy-connectedness
d. autonomy-connectedness

Which of the following represents a peer relationship for you?
Select one:
a. a graduate student instructor who teaches a class you’re taking
b. your sister because you are siblings in the same family
c. your boss because he works at the same company as you do
d. your parents because you are from the same family
b. your sister because you are siblings in the same family

Which of the following is NOT an emotional reward commonly associated with close relationships?
Select one:
a. comfort
b. happiness
c. emotional continuity
d. empathy
c. emotional continuity

In the ______________ stage of friendship, people begin to think of themselves as friends and their communication becomes more personal.
Select one:
a. friendly relations
b. moves toward friendship
c. nascent friendship
d. stabilized friendship
c. nascent friendship

During which of Knapp’s stages of relationship termination do couples decrease both the quality and frequency of their interactions?
Select one:
a. differentiation
b. termination
c. circumscribing
d. stagnating
c. circumscribing

Felix had been angry with his roommate Hector for some time. Hector was always playing his music so loudly that Felix couldn’t concentrate, much less have a conversation on the telephone. Despite his anger, he hadn’t expressed his feelings to Hector. Which of the following is true of this situation?
Select one:
a. Hector and Felix are engaged in conflict because Felix’s anger is sufficient to produce conflict.
b. Hector and Felix are not engaged in conflict because the source of their conflict is not interpersonal.
c. Hector and Felix are engaged in conflict because conflict can exist “under the surface” for some time.
d. Hector and Felix are not engaged in conflict because conflict must be expressed.
d. Hector and Felix are not engaged in conflict because conflict must be expressed.

Explain in detail the 4 family communication patterns discussed in the lecture and clearly give examples of the pattern that best represents your family. Please only answer if you were in class to learn the family communication patterns.
The four family communication patterns i wrote down are Family Roles, Family Rituals, Family Secrets, and Family Stores.

This conflict-management strategy involves a high concern for the other party but a low concern for the self:
Select one:
a. collaborating
b. accommodating
c. avoiding
d. compromising
b. accommodating

To qualify as conflict, a struggle or disagreement has to be expressed.
Select one:
True
False
T

Which of the following statements about friendships is NOT true?
Select one:
a. Friendships are voluntary.
b. Friendships are governed by rules.
c. Friendships are the same in both sexes.
d. Friendships usually occur between peers.
c. Friendships are the same in both sexes.

When Kim described how her weekend plans fell apart, Dean said, “Not everything goes the way you want; that’s life.” Bret said, “I’m sorry your plans fell through; you must be disappointed.” The difference between Dean and Bret’s messages is reflected in which of Gibb’s message types?
Select one:
a. control vs. problem orientation
b. neutrality vs. empathy
c. superiority vs. equality
d. strategy vs. spontaneity
b. neutrality vs. empathy

This strategy for giving non-evaluative feedback involves asking questions that will give you more information about what the person is expecting:
Select one:
a. paraphrasing
b. probing
c. priming
d. offering support
b. probing

Which of the following is true with respect to interpersonal conflict?
Select one:
a. It involves independent parties.
b. It involves perceived scarce resources.
c. It occurs within oneself.
d. It is synonymous with disagreement.
b. It involves perceived scarce resources.

If you try hard enough, you can resolve any conflict.
Select one:
True
False
T

Stonewalling involves seeing yourself as a victim and denying responsibility for your own behaviors.
Select one:
True
False
F

In this marriage type, spouses adopt conventional gender roles and tend to avoid conflict:
Select one:
a. traditional
b. separate
c. independent
d. mixed
b. separate

When you meet Carrie, you are drawn to her as a friend because she is an excellent piano player, just like you are. That is an example of what form of attraction?
Select one:
a. social attraction
b. physical attraction
c. competence attraction
d. task attraction
d. task attraction

The goal of collaboration is to identify a “win-win” solution to a conflict.
Select one:
True
False
True

The disinhibition effect suggests that online conflicts are more likely to involve inequitable distributions of power than face-to-face conflicts.
Select one:
True
False
F

This reflects the resources we put into a relationship:
Select one:
a. interdependence
b. investment
c. commitment
d. independence
b. investment

People in arranged marriages are usually unhappy with their relationship.
Select one:
True
False
F

Which of the following statements about relationships with clients at work is correct?
Select one:
a. A good relationship with clients is the single greatest predictor of job satisfaction.
b. Companies often encourage their employees to develop close, personal friendships with their clients to help sales.
c. Having friendships with clients reduces some of the pressure or expectation related to job performance.
d. Close friendships with clients can put workers in an uncomfortable or unethical position.
d. Close friendships with clients can put workers in an uncomfortable or unethical position.

According to equity theory, it’s better to be equally benefited than to be overbenefited.
Select one:
True
False
T

The most distressed relationships are those with the most frequent conflict.
Select one:
True
False
F

Jon recently stopped a conflict with his girlfriend, Ana, and said to her, “You don’t know how to have a disagreement without losing your temper and swearing!” Ana replied, “Well at least I want to confront the issues instead of avoiding them!” Jon and Ana’s exchange is an example of:
Select one:
a. the content dimension of conflict
b. the relational dimension of conflict
c. meta-conflict
d. pseudoconflict
c. meta-conflict

Which step for managing conflict involves imangined interaction?
Select one:
a. preparation
b. resolve the problem
c. make a date to discuss the conflict
d. interpersonal confrontatoin
a. preparation

Friendships and other social relationships often involve this type of rewards:
Select one:
a. emotional
b. material
c. health
d. all of these
d. all of these

Which of the following is one of the friendship rules identified in a study by communication researchers Argyle and Henderson?
Select one:
a. Protect your friend from potential threats.
b. Don’t tell your friend information that might hurt his or her feelings.
c. Don’t be jealous of your friend’s other friends.
d. Routinely tell your friend that you care about him or her.
c. Don’t be jealous of your friend’s other friends.

Janice and Stephanie have been close friends for some time. When Stephanie recently lost her job, she couldn’t afford her rent anymore and was on the verge of homelessness. Janice invited her to stay in her guest room for as long as needed. While there, Stephanie does a little of the cooking. According to equity theory, which of the following statements about this relationship scenario is true?
Select one:
a. Stephanie is currently over-benefited in their relationship.
b. Stephanie is investing less in their relationship than Janice right now.
c. This relationship will survive a period of brief inequity as long as long-term equity is maintained.
d. All of these statements are true.
d. All of these statements are true.

Why is the discussion of routine, mundane tasks important to consider in long-term romantic relationships?
Select one:
a. Most of the communication that takes place in these relationships falls in this category.
b. How to handle these issues can become a major issue of contention.
c. The way couples handle these tasks reflects the balance of power in their relationship.
d. All of these.
d. All of these.

Elizabeth and Aaron had been married for six months when Elizabeth started to feel dissatisfied in their relationship. Although Aaron was a nice person and fun to be around, he didn’t do any of the cooking or cleaning despite the fact that both of them worked full time. Elizabeth’s dissatisfaction was likely due to the fact that:
Select one:
a. Aaron exhibited a lack of commitment in his behavior.
b. Elizabeth expected an equitable investment in household chores from Aaron.
c. Aaron was enjoying too much interdependence in their relationship.
d. Elizabeth was conflicted by her own dialectical tensions between work and home.
b. Elizabeth expected an equitable investment in household chores from Aaron.

Which of the following statements about potential health benefits of relationships is true?
Select one:
a. People with more social contacts put themselves at greater risk for illnesses like a cold.
b. People with strong social networks are more than twice as likely to survive a heart attack.
c. A lack of social relationships increases the risk of mortality, but not on the same level as smoking, heart disease, or obesity.
d. When friends share their problems with us, it increases our stress and can actually make us less healthy.
b. People with strong social networks are more than twice as likely to survive a heart attack.

According to Gottman’s couple typology, this type of couple handles disagreements in a way that is open, but discussions tend to be competitive rather than cooperative.
Select one:
a. validating
b. volatile
c. conflict-avoidant
d. hostile
b. volatile

Which type of sexual harassment includes requesting romantic or sexual favors in return for preferential treatment at work?
Select one:
a. hostile work environment
b. sexual bargaining
c. quid pro quo
d. harassing requests
c. quid pro quo

Which of the following statements about similarity is NOT true?
Select one:
a. Forming relationships with people unlike ourselves is more interesting and enjoyable.
b. Forming relationships with people like ourselves is socially validating.
c. Genetically, we are inclined to help people who are similar to ourselves.
d. Spending time with people like ourselves makes us feel better about ourselves.
a. Forming relationships with people unlike ourselves is more interesting and enjoyable.

Referent power derives from one’s admiration for, and attraction to, another.
Select one:
True
False
T

This form of power derives from the ability to punish:
Select one:
a. legitimate power
b. expert power
c. referent power
d. coercive power
d. coercive power

A relationship between a person of higher power and a person of lesser power is known as:
Select one:
a. a symmetrical relationship
b. a deficit relationship
c. a contemporary relationship
d. a complementary relationship
d. a complementary relationship

Gottman has discovered that satisfied couples maintain this ratio of positive to negative communication:
Select one:
a. 5:1
b. 8:1
c. 14:1
d. 1:1
a. 5:1