College Biology final exam review – Flashcards

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science
answer
concentrated effort to understand the natural world and how it works, physical evidence that can be observed, pursuit of the truth about the natural world
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biology
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the scientific study of life
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amoeba
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single cell organism
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cells #1 in characteristics of life
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structural functional unit of life all living things are made of one or more cells all cells come from pre-exisiting cells
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what are the characteristics of life?
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cells organization energy use homeostasis growth and development reproduction excretion movement sensitivity adaptability
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viruses
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not composed of cells but are said to be "living" one excepton to cell theory
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prokaryotic cells
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bacterial cells no nucleus
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eukaryotic cells
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everything thats not a bacteria
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organization #2 in characteristics of life
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complex organizational patterns are found in all living organisims, arrange themselves on very small levels
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4 catagories of animal tissues
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epithelial muscle nervous connective
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epithelial tissues
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covers/ linning
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muscle tissues
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movement
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nervous tissues
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transmittion of impulses - neurons
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connective tissues
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help hold one thing to another
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organ systems
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integumentary muscular skeletal nervous digestive respiratory circulatory excretory reproductive endocrine lymphatic
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two different ways organisms can be organized
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taxonomically ecologically
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taxonomically organized would be... (highest to lowest)
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domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species
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species is...?
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a group or population with the actual or potential ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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taxonomical organization of humans (highest to lowest)
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eukarya- domain animalia- kingdom chordata- phylum mammalia- class primates- order hominidae- family homo- genus homo sapiens- species
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ecologically organized would be... (smallest to largest)
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species populations communities ecosystems biomes biosphere
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population
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members of a particular species
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communities
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all populations that live in one place
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ecosystems
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a community plus all the components
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biomes
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group of ecosystems that are equal to each other around the world
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biosphere
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the ecosystem comprising the entire earth and the living organisms that inhabit it
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energy use #3 in characteristics of life
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all organisms use energy relates to both nutrition and cellular respiration
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nutrition
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the process of taking in food and using it for energy, growth, and good health
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metabolism
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sum of all chemical activity
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the metabolic process may be...?
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anabolic or catabolic
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anabolic
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building up energy is used
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catabolic
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breaking down energy is released
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autotrophs
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Organisms that are able to make their own food
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types of autotrophs
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photoautotrophs- produces food using light CO2+ H2O chemoautotrophs- produces food using a chemical reaction
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heterotrophs
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organisms that get their nutrients by feeding off nutrients produced by others
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types of heterotrophs
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chemoheterotrophs- breaks down food by using a chemical reaction photoheterotrophs- breaks down food by using light
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homeostasis
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steady state condition, stimulus and response
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bios is the greek word for?
answer
life
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the scientific name for the common species of earthworm is
answer
annelida
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a catabolic activity is
answer
digestion of protiens
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the genetic "suitability" of an organism for a particular environment or task is termed
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adaptation
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any change in tne environment to which an organism responds is termed
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stimulus
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the sum of chemical activity of an organism is termed
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metabolisim
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you are a member of the phylum Chordata, subphylum
answer
Vertebrata
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the blood vessels near exposed or poorly insulated skin constrict in cold weather. This helps the body conserve heat. This invouluntary behavor is an example of?
answer
stimulus and response
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the correct order for the hiearchy of biological organization is...
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molecule- organelle- cell- tissue- organ- organ system- organism- population- community- ecosystem
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in the system of classification used to catagorize living things, phyla are divided into?
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kingdoms
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a biological community is composed of...
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all the different species of organisms living together in one ecosystem
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the survival of advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is?
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variation due to new genetic combinations
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cyanobacteria have the ability to absorb sunlight and use its energy to convert CO2 + H2O into organic compounds such as C6H12O6. because of this ability they are
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photoheterotrophs
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the type of tissue that make linnings for organs or cavities in the body is?
answer
epithelial tissue
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a predictable directional resopnse in animals to certain stimuli such as water current, gravity, and physical contact is termed?
answer
taxis
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the digestion of protiens into amino acids, and the reassembling of amino acids into the specific protiens needed by the body for growth and development is an example of?
answer
entropy
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a tropical rainforest in South America and a tropical rainforest in Asia are part of the same
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biome
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in a neuron, an axon carries the impulse
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away from the cell body
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sweat glands and oil glands are accessory components of the
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integumentary system
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the study of fishes is
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ichthology
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the study of protistans, bateria, and other tiny organisms would be best included in
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microbiology
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smuts, mushrooms, molds, rusts, and yeasts belong in the domain__, kingdom__
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Eukarya...Fungi
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herpetology would not include which of the following: snakes frogs rats lizards
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rats
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porifera
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sponge
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arthropoda
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lobster
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cnidaria
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sea anemone
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echinodermata
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starfish
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chordata
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amphioxus
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annelida
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earthworm
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nematoda
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canine heartworm
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ctenophora
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combjelly
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placodermi
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is a vertebrate class that is extinct
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the resistence of matter to any change in its position or motion is
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inertia
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matter which cannot be broken down into two or more simpler forms is called an
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element
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this subatomic particle has a mass of1amu and and electrical charge of 1+
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proton
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this subatomic particle has a mass of 0 amu and an electrical charge of 1-
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electron
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this subatomic particle as a mass of 1 amu and no electrical charge
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neutron
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an atom which has lost an electron is best described as a
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cation
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which of the following would be most apt to form an anion? calcium iron helium fluorine
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fluorine
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the arsenide ion is an
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anion
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how many energy levels are in an atom of barium?
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6
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an element is matter in which all atoms have the same
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atomic number
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the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom of phosphorus is
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5
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one atom has 56 protons and 81 electrons. a second atom has 56 protons and 83 electrons. these are best decribed as
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ions
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an alpha particle is structurally the same thing as a
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helium nucleus
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the hydrogen to oxygen bond in a water molecule is a__bond
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polar covalent
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the study of the relationship between an organism and both tits biotic and abiotic environment is
answer
ecology
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the smallest part of an element that retains all the properties of that element is the
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atom
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the tendency of an atom to attract the pair of electrons in a bond between itself and the atom of another element is called
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electronegativity
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when the chlorine bonds with calcium, it forms__bonds
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ionic
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the number of stable isotopes is __ than the number of radioisoptopes
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much less than
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researchers studying the effects of toxic wastes knew that animals were poisoned by the heavy metel cadmium, but they wanted to know where cadmium accumulated in the body. they could find out by:
answer
tracing the movement of cadmium radioisotopes in test animals
question
researchers were studying a radioisotope of selenium in the livers of a population of whitetail dear. the purpose of their study was probably
answer
to determine the biochemical pathways of selenium in liver function
question
kinosternidae
answer
the family of the musk turtle
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1.which is most polar? 2.which is least polar? 3.which is toxic waste produced in cells? A) O B) H C) H D) S E) O=O / | | / H H N H--- C ---Cl H H / | H H H
answer
1.A) 2.C) 3.B)
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what is a trace element in the human body?
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iodine
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atoms of different barium isotopes
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have different numbers of electrons
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when the protonn number and electron number are unequal, the atom molecule
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can form ionic bonds
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hydrogen bonding is most often seen
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when hydrogen is covalently bonded to nitrogen and oxygen
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this formula represents an amino acid
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H2NC5H9O2
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changing the number of __ would change an atom into an atom of a different element
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protons in an atom
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Rana is...
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the genus of the bullfrog
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a sodium ion has a mass number of 23. its atomic number is 11, and its charge is 1+. how many electrons does it have?
answer
10
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an acid is a substance that
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donates hydrogen ions into solutions
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fluorine atoms tend to take electronsfrom any atoms that come near. as a result, fluorine atoms:
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tend to form ionic bonds
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which atom is most likely to become an anion? A)argon B)sodium C)calcium D)chlorine
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D)chlorine
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atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by living organisms because:
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carbon has the potential to form moleculeswhich can be straight, branched, or ringed
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we belong to the Phylum
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Chordata
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no amino acid by itself can speed reactions between other molecules, but when amino acids are joined together to make an enzyme, this new strcture can speed up reactions. this is a type of phenomenon is an illustration of
answer
emergent properties
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water provides thermal stability for organisms because
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water has a high specific heat
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give the correct order for revealing increasing complexity in living systems
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molecule, cell, tissue, organ
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having hair and mammary glands allows for inclusion in the
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class Mammalia
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Match 1.herpetolgy (A)lightning bugs 2.ornithology (B)great white sharks 3.entomolgy (C)turtles 4.ichthyology (D)grasses 5.mirco biology (E)bald eagles 6.botany (F)bacteria
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1.C 2.E 3.A 4.B 5.F 6.D
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the group of organic molecules composed of C,H,and O, with the H:O ratio 2:1 is the
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carbohydrates
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Match: 1.Porifera (A)earthworm 2.Arthropoda (B)combjelly 3.Cnidaria (C)lobster 4.Echinodermata (D)canine heartworm 5.Chordata (E)sea anemone 6.Annelida (F)starfish 7.Nematoda (G)sponge 8.Ctenophora (H)amphioxus
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1.G 2.C 3.E 4.F 5.H 6.A 7.D 8.B
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an atom of lead-209 formed from the alpha particle decay of a radioisotope. what was that isotope
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polonium-213
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Is CCL4 an organic molecule?
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No
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anabolism is to catabolosm as __ is to __
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condensation reaction...hydrolysis
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sugars such as C5H10O5 and C4H10O4 are primarily used...
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for energy and structurally
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chitin is to cellulose as __ is to __
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fungi...plants
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deoxyribose is to __ as ribose is to __
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DNA...RNA
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starch is digestible while cellulose is indigestible. this is explained by the fact that:
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the sugars in cellulose bond together differently than in starch, giving cellulose a different shape
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in various places a protein molecule may twist or fold into severe distortion caused by R group interactions. This is called __ and the coils or folds are held in place by __
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tertiary structure...covalent bonds
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a hydrophilic amino acid R group would be found where in a protein
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on the outside of the folded chain, in the water
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the overall three-dimensinonal shape of a protein composed of several polypeptides is called the
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quaternary structure
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the primary structure is most likely to be affected when a protein is...
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denatured
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a glucose molecule is to startch as
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a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid
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a shortage of sulfur in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture
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proteins
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the biological function of a molecule is most directly related to
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the shape of the molecule
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starch is a __ made of many __
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polymer...glucose molecules
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in terms of energy storage, animal is to plant as
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glycogen is to starch
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the amount of heat enerhy needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of substance 1 degree celsius is termed
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specific heat
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what is an indigestible polysaccharide
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cellulose
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the building blocks of protein molecules are called
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amino acids
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in various places a protein molecule may coil or fold a double helix or a pleted sheet. this is called __ and the coils or folds are held in place by __
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secondary structure...hydrogen bonds
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a hydrophobic amino acid R group would be found where in a protein
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on the inside of the folded chain, away from the water
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pentose sugars are
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structural components of the nucleic acids
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chitin is
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a carbohydrate that contain a nitrogenous component
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disulfide linkages and hydrphobic R group interactions are associated with __ structure in proteins
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tertiary
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glycoproteins are important because they serve as __ for the cells
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receptor molecules
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a common feture of starch and glycogen is that moleules of both
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are polymers of glucose
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consider the reaction A+B ---> AB though not shown, in biological systems, this reaction would involve
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dehydration synthesis
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phospholipid molecules in a membrane are arranged with their __ on the outside and their __ on the inside
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hydrophilic heads...hydrophobic tails
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what best describes the general structure of a cell membrane
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protein and other molecules embedded in two layers of phospholipid
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the bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a dipeptide requires
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the release of a water molecule
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a sample of DNA contains 23.8% adenine nucleotides. what is the percent of thymine nucleotides?
answer
23.8%
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a protein is to an amino acid as __ is to__
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nucleic acid...nucleotide
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on the basis of the principle of base pairing you would expect the % of __ to be = to the % of __
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A...T
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palm oil + coconut oil are more like animal fats than other plant oils., because they __ than other plant oils, they can contribute to cardiovascular disease
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contain fewer double bonds
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lipids differ from other large biological molecules in that they
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are not truly polymers
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a a phospholipid is __ at the phosphate group, and __ at the hydrocarbon tails
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polar and hydrophilic...nonpolar and hydrophobic
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deoxyribose is to __ as ribose is to __
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thymine...uracil
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the 5 main catagories of macromoleules in a cell are
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RNA, DNA, proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides
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the characteristics that all typical lipids have in common are
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they are are hydrophobic
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a shortage of phosporus in the soil would make it difficult for a plant to make
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DNA
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HDL is a type of __ that is __ for the body
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cholesterol...good
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anabolism is to catabolism as __ is to __
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reduction...oxidation
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chitin is to cellulose as the __ is to the __
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fungal cell wall...plant cell wall
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deoxyribose is to __ as ribose is to __
answer
DNA...RNA
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disulfide likages and the hydrophobic R group interactions aew associated with __ structure in proteins
answer
primary
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a sample of DNA contains 23.8% adenine nucleotides. what is the % of guanine nucleotides
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26.2%
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LDL is the type of __ that is __ for the body
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cholesterol...bad
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nitrogen fixing bacteria
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convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia or nitrates which can be utilized by plants
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peptidoglycans are to chitin as __is to __
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the fungal cell wall...bacterial cell wall
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nitrogen fixing bacteria are __ with/to the plant in which they live
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mutualistic
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the typical size or eukaryotic cells ranges from __ to _
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10...100um
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best way to observe living cells is with the use of the
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light microscope
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to enter or leave a cell, substances must pass throught the
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plasma membrane
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a cell has a mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth and rought ER, and other parts. based on this info it could not be
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a bacterium
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a gene is that portion of a
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DNA molecule which codees for the synthesis of a polypeptide
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what organelle is leat closely asssociated with the endomembrane system?
answer
mitochondrion
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ribosomes are manufactured
answer
in the nucleolus
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in a hydrolysis reaction, ___, and in this process water is __
answer
a polymer breaks up to form monomers...consumed
question
archaebacteria
answer
bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen
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question
science
answer
concentrated effort to understand the natural world and how it works, physical evidence that can be observed, pursuit of the truth about the natural world
question
biology
answer
the scientific study of life
question
amoeba
answer
single cell organism
question
cells #1 in characteristics of life
answer
structural functional unit of life all living things are made of one or more cells all cells come from pre-exisiting cells
question
what are the characteristics of life?
answer
cells organization energy use homeostasis growth and development reproduction excretion movement sensitivity adaptability
question
viruses
answer
not composed of cells but are said to be "living" one excepton to cell theory
question
prokaryotic cells
answer
bacterial cells no nucleus
question
eukaryotic cells
answer
everything thats not a bacteria
question
organization #2 in characteristics of life
answer
complex organizational patterns are found in all living organisims, arrange themselves on very small levels
question
4 catagories of animal tissues
answer
epithelial muscle nervous connective
question
epithelial tissues
answer
covers/ linning
question
muscle tissues
answer
movement
question
nervous tissues
answer
transmittion of impulses - neurons
question
connective tissues
answer
help hold one thing to another
question
organ systems
answer
integumentary muscular skeletal nervous digestive respiratory circulatory excretory reproductive endocrine lymphatic
question
two different ways organisms can be organized
answer
taxonomically ecologically
question
taxonomically organized would be... (highest to lowest)
answer
domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species
question
species is...?
answer
a group or population with the actual or potential ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
question
taxonomical organization of humans (highest to lowest)
answer
eukarya- domain animalia- kingdom chordata- phylum mammalia- class primates- order hominidae- family homo- genus homo sapiens- species
question
ecologically organized would be... (smallest to largest)
answer
species populations communities ecosystems biomes biosphere
question
population
answer
members of a particular species
question
communities
answer
all populations that live in one place
question
ecosystems
answer
a community plus all the components
question
biomes
answer
group of ecosystems that are equal to each other around the world
question
biosphere
answer
the ecosystem comprising the entire earth and the living organisms that inhabit it
question
energy use #3 in characteristics of life
answer
all organisms use energy relates to both nutrition and cellular respiration
question
nutrition
answer
the process of taking in food and using it for energy, growth, and good health
question
metabolism
answer
sum of all chemical activity
question
the metabolic process may be...?
answer
anabolic or catabolic
question
anabolic
answer
building up energy is used
question
catabolic
answer
breaking down energy is released
question
autotrophs
answer
Organisms that are able to make their own food
question
types of autotrophs
answer
photoautotrophs- produces food using light CO2+ H2O chemoautotrophs- produces food using a chemical reaction
question
heterotrophs
answer
organisms that get their nutrients by feeding off nutrients produced by others
question
types of heterotrophs
answer
chemoheterotrophs- breaks down food by using a chemical reaction photoheterotrophs- breaks down food by using light
question
homeostasis
answer
steady state condition, stimulus and response
question
bios is the greek word for?
answer
life
question
the scientific name for the common species of earthworm is
answer
annelida
question
a catabolic activity is
answer
digestion of protiens
question
the genetic "suitability" of an organism for a particular environment or task is termed
answer
adaptation
question
any change in tne environment to which an organism responds is termed
answer
stimulus
question
the sum of chemical activity of an organism is termed
answer
metabolisim
question
you are a member of the phylum Chordata, subphylum
answer
Vertebrata
question
the blood vessels near exposed or poorly insulated skin constrict in cold weather. This helps the body conserve heat. This invouluntary behavor is an example of?
answer
stimulus and response
question
the correct order for the hiearchy of biological organization is...
answer
molecule- organelle- cell- tissue- organ- organ system- organism- population- community- ecosystem
question
in the system of classification used to catagorize living things, phyla are divided into?
answer
kingdoms
question
a biological community is composed of...
answer
all the different species of organisms living together in one ecosystem
question
the survival of advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is?
answer
variation due to new genetic combinations
question
cyanobacteria have the ability to absorb sunlight and use its energy to convert CO2 + H2O into organic compounds such as C6H12O6. because of this ability they are
answer
photoheterotrophs
question
the type of tissue that make linnings for organs or cavities in the body is?
answer
epithelial tissue
question
a predictable directional resopnse in animals to certain stimuli such as water current, gravity, and physical contact is termed?
answer
taxis
question
the digestion of protiens into amino acids, and the reassembling of amino acids into the specific protiens needed by the body for growth and development is an example of?
answer
entropy
question
a tropical rainforest in South America and a tropical rainforest in Asia are part of the same
answer
biome
question
in a neuron, an axon carries the impulse
answer
away from the cell body
question
sweat glands and oil glands are accessory components of the
answer
integumentary system
question
the study of fishes is
answer
ichthology
question
the study of protistans, bateria, and other tiny organisms would be best included in
answer
microbiology
question
smuts, mushrooms, molds, rusts, and yeasts belong in the domain__, kingdom__
answer
Eukarya...Fungi
question
herpetology would not include which of the following: snakes frogs rats lizards
answer
rats
question
porifera
answer
sponge
question
arthropoda
answer
lobster
question
cnidaria
answer
sea anemone
question
echinodermata
answer
starfish
question
chordata
answer
amphioxus
question
annelida
answer
earthworm
question
nematoda
answer
canine heartworm
question
ctenophora
answer
combjelly
question
placodermi
answer
is a vertebrate class that is extinct
question
the resistence of matter to any change in its position or motion is
answer
inertia
question
matter which cannot be broken down into two or more simpler forms is called an
answer
element
question
this subatomic particle has a mass of1amu and and electrical charge of 1+
answer
proton
question
this subatomic particle has a mass of 0 amu and an electrical charge of 1-
answer
electron
question
this subatomic particle as a mass of 1 amu and no electrical charge
answer
neutron
question
an atom which has lost an electron is best described as a
answer
cation
question
which of the following would be most apt to form an anion? calcium iron helium fluorine
answer
fluorine
question
the arsenide ion is an
answer
anion
question
how many energy levels are in an atom of barium?
answer
6
question
an element is matter in which all atoms have the same
answer
atomic number
question
the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom of phosphorus is
answer
5
question
one atom has 56 protons and 81 electrons. a second atom has 56 protons and 83 electrons. these are best decribed as
answer
ions
question
an alpha particle is structurally the same thing as a
answer
helium nucleus
question
the hydrogen to oxygen bond in a water molecule is a__bond
answer
polar covalent
question
the study of the relationship between an organism and both tits biotic and abiotic environment is
answer
ecology
question
the smallest part of an element that retains all the properties of that element is the
answer
atom
question
the tendency of an atom to attract the pair of electrons in a bond between itself and the atom of another element is called
answer
electronegativity
question
when the chlorine bonds with calcium, it forms__bonds
answer
ionic
question
the number of stable isotopes is __ than the number of radioisoptopes
answer
much less than
question
researchers studying the effects of toxic wastes knew that animals were poisoned by the heavy metel cadmium, but they wanted to know where cadmium accumulated in the body. they could find out by:
answer
tracing the movement of cadmium radioisotopes in test animals
question
researchers were studying a radioisotope of selenium in the livers of a population of whitetail dear. the purpose of their study was probably
answer
to determine the biochemical pathways of selenium in liver function
question
kinosternidae
answer
the family of the musk turtle
question
1.which is most polar? 2.which is least polar? 3.which is toxic waste produced in cells? A) O B) H C) H D) S E) O=O / | | / H H N H--- C ---Cl H H / | H H H
answer
1.A) 2.C) 3.B)
question
what is a trace element in the human body?
answer
iodine
question
atoms of different barium isotopes
answer
have different numbers of electrons
question
when the protonn number and electron number are unequal, the atom molecule
answer
can form ionic bonds
question
hydrogen bonding is most often seen
answer
when hydrogen is covalently bonded to nitrogen and oxygen
question
this formula represents an amino acid
answer
H2NC5H9O2
question
changing the number of __ would change an atom into an atom of a different element
answer
protons in an atom
question
Rana is...
answer
the genus of the bullfrog
question
a sodium ion has a mass number of 23. its atomic number is 11, and its charge is 1+. how many electrons does it have?
answer
10
question
an acid is a substance that
answer
donates hydrogen ions into solutions
question
fluorine atoms tend to take electronsfrom any atoms that come near. as a result, fluorine atoms:
answer
tend to form ionic bonds
question
which atom is most likely to become an anion? A)argon B)sodium C)calcium D)chlorine
answer
D)chlorine
question
atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by living organisms because:
answer
carbon has the potential to form moleculeswhich can be straight, branched, or ringed
question
we belong to the Phylum
answer
Chordata
question
no amino acid by itself can speed reactions between other molecules, but when amino acids are joined together to make an enzyme, this new strcture can speed up reactions. this is a type of phenomenon is an illustration of
answer
emergent properties
question
water provides thermal stability for organisms because
answer
water has a high specific heat
question
give the correct order for revealing increasing complexity in living systems
answer
molecule, cell, tissue, organ
question
having hair and mammary glands allows for inclusion in the
answer
class Mammalia
question
Match 1.herpetolgy (A)lightning bugs 2.ornithology (B)great white sharks 3.entomolgy (C)turtles 4.ichthyology (D)grasses 5.mirco biology (E)bald eagles 6.botany (F)bacteria
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1.C 2.E 3.A 4.B 5.F 6.D
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the group of organic molecules composed of C,H,and O, with the H:O ratio 2:1 is the
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carbohydrates
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Match: 1.Porifera (A)earthworm 2.Arthropoda (B)combjelly 3.Cnidaria (C)lobster 4.Echinodermata (D)canine heartworm 5.Chordata (E)sea anemone 6.Annelida (F)starfish 7.Nematoda (G)sponge 8.Ctenophora (H)amphioxus
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1.G 2.C 3.E 4.F 5.H 6.A 7.D 8.B
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an atom of lead-209 formed from the alpha particle decay of a radioisotope. what was that isotope
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polonium-213
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Is CCL4 an organic molecule?
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No
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anabolism is to catabolosm as __ is to __
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condensation reaction...hydrolysis
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sugars such as C5H10O5 and C4H10O4 are primarily used...
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for energy and structurally
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chitin is to cellulose as __ is to __
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fungi...plants
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deoxyribose is to __ as ribose is to __
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DNA...RNA
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starch is digestible while cellulose is indigestible. this is explained by the fact that:
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the sugars in cellulose bond together differently than in starch, giving cellulose a different shape
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in various places a protein molecule may twist or fold into severe distortion caused by R group interactions. This is called __ and the coils or folds are held in place by __
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tertiary structure...covalent bonds
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a hydrophilic amino acid R group would be found where in a protein
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on the outside of the folded chain, in the water
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the overall three-dimensinonal shape of a protein composed of several polypeptides is called the
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quaternary structure
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the primary structure is most likely to be affected when a protein is...
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denatured
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a glucose molecule is to startch as
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a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid
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a shortage of sulfur in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture
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proteins
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the biological function of a molecule is most directly related to
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the shape of the molecule
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starch is a __ made of many __
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polymer...glucose molecules
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in terms of energy storage, animal is to plant as
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glycogen is to starch
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the amount of heat enerhy needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of substance 1 degree celsius is termed
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specific heat
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what is an indigestible polysaccharide
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cellulose
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the building blocks of protein molecules are called
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amino acids
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in various places a protein molecule may coil or fold a double helix or a pleted sheet. this is called __ and the coils or folds are held in place by __
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secondary structure...hydrogen bonds
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a hydrophobic amino acid R group would be found where in a protein
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on the inside of the folded chain, away from the water
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pentose sugars are
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structural components of the nucleic acids
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chitin is
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a carbohydrate that contain a nitrogenous component
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disulfide linkages and hydrphobic R group interactions are associated with __ structure in proteins
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tertiary
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glycoproteins are important because they serve as __ for the cells
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receptor molecules
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a common feture of starch and glycogen is that moleules of both
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are polymers of glucose
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consider the reaction A+B ---> AB though not shown, in biological systems, this reaction would involve
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dehydration synthesis
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phospholipid molecules in a membrane are arranged with their __ on the outside and their __ on the inside
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hydrophilic heads...hydrophobic tails
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what best describes the general structure of a cell membrane
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protein and other molecules embedded in two layers of phospholipid
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the bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a dipeptide requires
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the release of a water molecule
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a sample of DNA contains 23.8% adenine nucleotides. what is the percent of thymine nucleotides?
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23.8%
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a protein is to an amino acid as __ is to__
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nucleic acid...nucleotide
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on the basis of the principle of base pairing you would expect the % of __ to be = to the % of __
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A...T
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palm oil + coconut oil are more like animal fats than other plant oils., because they __ than other plant oils, they can contribute to cardiovascular disease
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contain fewer double bonds
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lipids differ from other large biological molecules in that they
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are not truly polymers
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a a phospholipid is __ at the phosphate group, and __ at the hydrocarbon tails
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polar and hydrophilic...nonpolar and hydrophobic
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deoxyribose is to __ as ribose is to __
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thymine...uracil
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the 5 main catagories of macromoleules in a cell are
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RNA, DNA, proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides
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the characteristics that all typical lipids have in common are
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they are are hydrophobic
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a shortage of phosporus in the soil would make it difficult for a plant to make
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DNA
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HDL is a type of __ that is __ for the body
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cholesterol...good
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anabolism is to catabolism as __ is to __
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reduction...oxidation
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chitin is to cellulose as the __ is to the __
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fungal cell wall...plant cell wall
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deoxyribose is to __ as ribose is to __
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DNA...RNA
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disulfide likages and the hydrophobic R group interactions aew associated with __ structure in proteins
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primary
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a sample of DNA contains 23.8% adenine nucleotides. what is the % of guanine nucleotides
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26.2%
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LDL is the type of __ that is __ for the body
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cholesterol...bad
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nitrogen fixing bacteria
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convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia or nitrates which can be utilized by plants
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peptidoglycans are to chitin as __is to __
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the fungal cell wall...bacterial cell wall
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nitrogen fixing bacteria are __ with/to the plant in which they live
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mutualistic
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the typical size or eukaryotic cells ranges from __ to _
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10...100um
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best way to observe living cells is with the use of the
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light microscope
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to enter or leave a cell, substances must pass throught the
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plasma membrane
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a cell has a mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth and rought ER, and other parts. based on this info it could not be
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a bacterium
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a gene is that portion of a
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DNA molecule which codees for the synthesis of a polypeptide
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what organelle is leat closely asssociated with the endomembrane system?
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mitochondrion
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ribosomes are manufactured
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in the nucleolus
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in a hydrolysis reaction, ___, and in this process water is __
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a polymer breaks up to form monomers...consumed
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archaebacteria
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bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen