College Biology final exam review

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science
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concentrated effort to understand the natural world and how it works, physical evidence that can be observed, pursuit of the truth about the natural world
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biology
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the scientific study of life
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amoeba
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single cell organism
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cells #1 in characteristics of life
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structural functional unit of life all living things are made of one or more cells all cells come from pre-exisiting cells
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what are the characteristics of life?
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cells organization energy use homeostasis growth and development reproduction excretion movement sensitivity adaptability
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viruses
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not composed of cells but are said to be “living” one excepton to cell theory
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prokaryotic cells
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bacterial cells no nucleus
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eukaryotic cells
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everything thats not a bacteria
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organization #2 in characteristics of life
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complex organizational patterns are found in all living organisims, arrange themselves on very small levels
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4 catagories of animal tissues
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epithelial muscle nervous connective
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epithelial tissues
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covers/ linning
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muscle tissues
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movement
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nervous tissues
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transmittion of impulses – neurons
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connective tissues
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help hold one thing to another
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organ systems
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integumentary muscular skeletal nervous digestive respiratory circulatory excretory reproductive endocrine lymphatic
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two different ways organisms can be organized
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taxonomically ecologically
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taxonomically organized would be… (highest to lowest)
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domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species
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species is…?
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a group or population with the actual or potential ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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taxonomical organization of humans (highest to lowest)
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eukarya- domain animalia- kingdom chordata- phylum mammalia- class primates- order hominidae- family homo- genus homo sapiens- species
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ecologically organized would be… (smallest to largest)
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species populations communities ecosystems biomes biosphere
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population
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members of a particular species
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communities
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all populations that live in one place
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ecosystems
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a community plus all the components
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biomes
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group of ecosystems that are equal to each other around the world
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biosphere
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the ecosystem comprising the entire earth and the living organisms that inhabit it
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energy use #3 in characteristics of life
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all organisms use energy relates to both nutrition and cellular respiration
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nutrition
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the process of taking in food and using it for energy, growth, and good health
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metabolism
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sum of all chemical activity
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the metabolic process may be…?
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anabolic or catabolic
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anabolic
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building up energy is used
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catabolic
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breaking down energy is released
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autotrophs
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Organisms that are able to make their own food
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types of autotrophs
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photoautotrophs- produces food using light CO2+ H2O chemoautotrophs- produces food using a chemical reaction
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heterotrophs
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organisms that get their nutrients by feeding off nutrients produced by others
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types of heterotrophs
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chemoheterotrophs- breaks down food by using a chemical reaction photoheterotrophs- breaks down food by using light
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homeostasis
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steady state condition, stimulus and response
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bios is the greek word for?
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life
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the scientific name for the common species of earthworm is
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annelida
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a catabolic activity is
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digestion of protiens
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the genetic “suitability” of an organism for a particular environment or task is termed
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adaptation
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any change in tne environment to which an organism responds is termed
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stimulus
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the sum of chemical activity of an organism is termed
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metabolisim
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you are a member of the phylum Chordata, subphylum
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Vertebrata
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the blood vessels near exposed or poorly insulated skin constrict in cold weather. This helps the body conserve heat. This invouluntary behavor is an example of?
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stimulus and response
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the correct order for the hiearchy of biological organization is…
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molecule- organelle- cell- tissue- organ- organ system- organism- population- community- ecosystem
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in the system of classification used to catagorize living things, phyla are divided into?
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kingdoms
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a biological community is composed of…
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all the different species of organisms living together in one ecosystem
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the survival of advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is?
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variation due to new genetic combinations
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cyanobacteria have the ability to absorb sunlight and use its energy to convert CO2 + H2O into organic compounds such as C6H12O6. because of this ability they are
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photoheterotrophs
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the type of tissue that make linnings for organs or cavities in the body is?
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epithelial tissue
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a predictable directional resopnse in animals to certain stimuli such as water current, gravity, and physical contact is termed?
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taxis
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the digestion of protiens into amino acids, and the reassembling of amino acids into the specific protiens needed by the body for growth and development is an example of?
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entropy
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a tropical rainforest in South America and a tropical rainforest in Asia are part of the same
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biome
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in a neuron, an axon carries the impulse
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away from the cell body
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sweat glands and oil glands are accessory components of the
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integumentary system
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the study of fishes is
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ichthology
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the study of protistans, bateria, and other tiny organisms would be best included in
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microbiology
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smuts, mushrooms, molds, rusts, and yeasts belong in the domain__, kingdom__
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Eukarya…Fungi
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herpetology would not include which of the following: snakes frogs rats lizards
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rats
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porifera
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sponge
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arthropoda
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lobster
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cnidaria
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sea anemone
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echinodermata
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starfish
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chordata
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amphioxus
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annelida
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earthworm
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nematoda
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canine heartworm
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ctenophora
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combjelly
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placodermi
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is a vertebrate class that is extinct
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the resistence of matter to any change in its position or motion is
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inertia
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matter which cannot be broken down into two or more simpler forms is called an
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element
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this subatomic particle has a mass of1amu and and electrical charge of 1+
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proton
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this subatomic particle has a mass of 0 amu and an electrical charge of 1-
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electron
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this subatomic particle as a mass of 1 amu and no electrical charge
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neutron
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an atom which has lost an electron is best described as a
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cation
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which of the following would be most apt to form an anion? calcium iron helium fluorine
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fluorine
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the arsenide ion is an
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anion
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how many energy levels are in an atom of barium?
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6
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an element is matter in which all atoms have the same
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atomic number
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the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom of phosphorus is
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5
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one atom has 56 protons and 81 electrons. a second atom has 56 protons and 83 electrons. these are best decribed as
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ions
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an alpha particle is structurally the same thing as a
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helium nucleus
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the hydrogen to oxygen bond in a water molecule is a__bond
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polar covalent
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the study of the relationship between an organism and both tits biotic and abiotic environment is
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ecology
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the smallest part of an element that retains all the properties of that element is the
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atom
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the tendency of an atom to attract the pair of electrons in a bond between itself and the atom of another element is called
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electronegativity
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when the chlorine bonds with calcium, it forms__bonds
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ionic
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the number of stable isotopes is __ than the number of radioisoptopes
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much less than
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researchers studying the effects of toxic wastes knew that animals were poisoned by the heavy metel cadmium, but they wanted to know where cadmium accumulated in the body. they could find out by:
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tracing the movement of cadmium radioisotopes in test animals
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researchers were studying a radioisotope of selenium in the livers of a population of whitetail dear. the purpose of their study was probably
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to determine the biochemical pathways of selenium in liver function
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kinosternidae
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the family of the musk turtle
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1.which is most polar? 2.which is least polar? 3.which is toxic waste produced in cells? A) O B) H C) H D) S E) O=O / | | / H H N H— C —Cl H H / | H H H
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1.A) 2.C) 3.B)
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what is a trace element in the human body?
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iodine
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atoms of different barium isotopes
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have different numbers of electrons
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when the protonn number and electron number are unequal, the atom molecule
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can form ionic bonds
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hydrogen bonding is most often seen
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when hydrogen is covalently bonded to nitrogen and oxygen
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this formula represents an amino acid
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H2NC5H9O2
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changing the number of __ would change an atom into an atom of a different element
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protons in an atom
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Rana is…
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the genus of the bullfrog
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a sodium ion has a mass number of 23. its atomic number is 11, and its charge is 1+. how many electrons does it have?
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10
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an acid is a substance that
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donates hydrogen ions into solutions
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fluorine atoms tend to take electronsfrom any atoms that come near. as a result, fluorine atoms:
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tend to form ionic bonds
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which atom is most likely to become an anion? A)argon B)sodium C)calcium D)chlorine
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D)chlorine
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atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by living organisms because:
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carbon has the potential to form moleculeswhich can be straight, branched, or ringed
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we belong to the Phylum
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Chordata
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no amino acid by itself can speed reactions between other molecules, but when amino acids are joined together to make an enzyme, this new strcture can speed up reactions. this is a type of phenomenon is an illustration of
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emergent properties
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water provides thermal stability for organisms because
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water has a high specific heat
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give the correct order for revealing increasing complexity in living systems
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molecule, cell, tissue, organ
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having hair and mammary glands allows for inclusion in the
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class Mammalia
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Match 1.herpetolgy (A)lightning bugs 2.ornithology (B)great white sharks 3.entomolgy (C)turtles 4.ichthyology (D)grasses 5.mirco biology (E)bald eagles 6.botany (F)bacteria
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1.C 2.E 3.A 4.B 5.F 6.D
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the group of organic molecules composed of C,H,and O, with the H:O ratio 2:1 is the
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carbohydrates
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Match: 1.Porifera (A)earthworm 2.Arthropoda (B)combjelly 3.Cnidaria (C)lobster 4.Echinodermata (D)canine heartworm 5.Chordata (E)sea anemone 6.Annelida (F)starfish 7.Nematoda (G)sponge 8.Ctenophora (H)amphioxus
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1.G 2.C 3.E 4.F 5.H 6.A 7.D 8.B
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an atom of lead-209 formed from the alpha particle decay of a radioisotope. what was that isotope
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polonium-213
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Is CCL4 an organic molecule?
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No
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anabolism is to catabolosm as __ is to __
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condensation reaction…hydrolysis
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sugars such as C5H10O5 and C4H10O4 are primarily used…
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for energy and structurally
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chitin is to cellulose as __ is to __
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fungi…plants
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deoxyribose is to __ as ribose is to __
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DNA…RNA
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starch is digestible while cellulose is indigestible. this is explained by the fact that:
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the sugars in cellulose bond together differently than in starch, giving cellulose a different shape
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in various places a protein molecule may twist or fold into severe distortion caused by R group interactions. This is called __ and the coils or folds are held in place by __
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tertiary structure…covalent bonds
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a hydrophilic amino acid R group would be found where in a protein
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on the outside of the folded chain, in the water
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the overall three-dimensinonal shape of a protein composed of several polypeptides is called the
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quaternary structure
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the primary structure is most likely to be affected when a protein is…
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denatured
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a glucose molecule is to startch as
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a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid
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a shortage of sulfur in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture
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proteins
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the biological function of a molecule is most directly related to
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the shape of the molecule
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starch is a __ made of many __
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polymer…glucose molecules
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in terms of energy storage, animal is to plant as
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glycogen is to starch
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the amount of heat enerhy needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of substance 1 degree celsius is termed
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specific heat
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what is an indigestible polysaccharide
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cellulose
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the building blocks of protein molecules are called
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amino acids
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in various places a protein molecule may coil or fold a double helix or a pleted sheet. this is called __ and the coils or folds are held in place by __
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secondary structure…hydrogen bonds
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a hydrophobic amino acid R group would be found where in a protein
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on the inside of the folded chain, away from the water
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pentose sugars are
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structural components of the nucleic acids
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chitin is
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a carbohydrate that contain a nitrogenous component
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disulfide linkages and hydrphobic R group interactions are associated with __ structure in proteins
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tertiary
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glycoproteins are important because they serve as __ for the cells
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receptor molecules
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a common feture of starch and glycogen is that moleules of both
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are polymers of glucose
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consider the reaction A+B —> AB though not shown, in biological systems, this reaction would involve
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dehydration synthesis
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phospholipid molecules in a membrane are arranged with their __ on the outside and their __ on the inside
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hydrophilic heads…hydrophobic tails
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what best describes the general structure of a cell membrane
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protein and other molecules embedded in two layers of phospholipid
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the bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a dipeptide requires
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the release of a water molecule
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a sample of DNA contains 23.8% adenine nucleotides. what is the percent of thymine nucleotides?
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23.8%
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a protein is to an amino acid as __ is to__
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nucleic acid…nucleotide
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on the basis of the principle of base pairing you would expect the % of __ to be = to the % of __
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A…T
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palm oil + coconut oil are more like animal fats than other plant oils., because they __ than other plant oils, they can contribute to cardiovascular disease
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contain fewer double bonds
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lipids differ from other large biological molecules in that they
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are not truly polymers
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a a phospholipid is __ at the phosphate group, and __ at the hydrocarbon tails
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polar and hydrophilic…nonpolar and hydrophobic
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deoxyribose is to __ as ribose is to __
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thymine…uracil
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the 5 main catagories of macromoleules in a cell are
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RNA, DNA, proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides
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the characteristics that all typical lipids have in common are
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they are are hydrophobic
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a shortage of phosporus in the soil would make it difficult for a plant to make
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DNA
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HDL is a type of __ that is __ for the body
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cholesterol…good
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anabolism is to catabolism as __ is to __
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reduction…oxidation
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chitin is to cellulose as the __ is to the __
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fungal cell wall…plant cell wall
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deoxyribose is to __ as ribose is to __
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DNA…RNA
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disulfide likages and the hydrophobic R group interactions aew associated with __ structure in proteins
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primary
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a sample of DNA contains 23.8% adenine nucleotides. what is the % of guanine nucleotides
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26.2%
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LDL is the type of __ that is __ for the body
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cholesterol…bad
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nitrogen fixing bacteria
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convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia or nitrates which can be utilized by plants
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peptidoglycans are to chitin as __is to __
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the fungal cell wall…bacterial cell wall
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nitrogen fixing bacteria are __ with/to the plant in which they live
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mutualistic
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the typical size or eukaryotic cells ranges from __ to _
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10…100um
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best way to observe living cells is with the use of the
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light microscope
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to enter or leave a cell, substances must pass throught the
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plasma membrane
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a cell has a mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth and rought ER, and other parts. based on this info it could not be
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a bacterium
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a gene is that portion of a
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DNA molecule which codees for the synthesis of a polypeptide
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what organelle is leat closely asssociated with the endomembrane system?
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mitochondrion
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ribosomes are manufactured
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in the nucleolus
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in a hydrolysis reaction, ___, and in this process water is __
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a polymer breaks up to form monomers…consumed
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archaebacteria
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bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen

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