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CMM101 – Flashcard Essay

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According to your textbook, the three major goals of public speaking are to
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Inform, persuade, entertain
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* Please discuss the similarities between conversation and public speaking
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1. Organizing your thoughts logically 2. Tailoring you message to your audience 3. Telling a story for maximum impact 4. Adapting to listener feedback 5. Share same goal
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* What are the three primary differences between public speaking and conversation?
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1. Public speaking is more highly structured 2. Public speaking requires more formal language 3. Public speaking requires a different method of delivery
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* List as many measures as you can take to help control your nervousness when giving a speech
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1. Prepare, prepare, prepare 2. Prepare orally and on your feet 3. Develop your own fan club 4. Time your speeches 5. Get to know your audience and physical setting early 6. Focus on your audience when speaking using subjective self awareness, and avoid objective self awareness 7. Avoid visual subject 8. Answer the “What do I do with my hands?” question when preparing 9. Don’t expect perfection 10. Think positively
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Because a listener’s _______ can never be exactly the sane as a speaker’s, the meaning of a message will never be exactly the same to a listener as to a speaker
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Frame of reference
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The messages sent by listeners to a speaker are called
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Feedback
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Concern by a listener about lawn mower noise outside the room, an upcoming test, or a sick relative are all examples of
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Interference
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_____ lets you know how your message is being received by your audience
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Feedback
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The belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures is termed
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Ethnocentrism
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* Identify 12 tips for using cards effectively on your handout
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1. Never write your entire speech 2. Use white index cards. 3. Write on only one side of the card 4. Number the cards 5. Avoid holding cards with both hands 6. Fewer cards are better 7. Write legibly 8. Follow a visual framework of your outline 9. Avoid writing too many sentences 10. Give yourself cues for delivery 11. Don’t use homemade cards 12. Cards are not prepared in class.
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_____ is the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs
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Ethics
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According to the ancient Roman rhetorician Quintilian, the ideal of ethical speechmaking is the _____ person speaking ____
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good / well
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* The five guidelines in your textbook for ethical public speaking are:
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1. Make sure your goals are ethically sound 2. Be fully prepared for each speech 3. Be honest in what you say 4. Avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language 5. Put ethical principles into practice
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Representing someone else’s information in a speech or paper as though it were your own is called
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plagiarism
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The three types of plagiarism discussed in your text are
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Global plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism and incremental plagiarism
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____ plagiarism occurs when a speaker steals a speech entirely from another source nd passes it off as his or her own
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Global
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* List the three guidelines presented in your textbook for ethical listening
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1. Be courteous and attentive 2. Avoid prejudging the speaker 3. Maintain the free and open expression of ideas
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Define the three types of plagiarism
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1. Global plagiarism is lifting a speech entirely from a single source 2. Patchwork plagiarism involves stitching a speech together by coping from a few sources 3. Incremental plagiarism occurs when a speaker fails to give credit for specific quotations and paraphrases that are borrowed from other people
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Even when we listen carefully, we usually grasp only about _____ percent of a speaker’s message
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50
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People spend more time _____ than in any other communication activity
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Listening
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According to your textbook, when you listen to evluate a speaker’s message for purpose of accepting it or rejecting it, you are engaged in _____ listening
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Critical
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According to your textbook, when you listen primarily for pleasure or enjoyment, you are engaged in ____ listening
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appreciative
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According to your textbook, when you listen to provide emotional support for the speaker, you are engaged in ___ listening
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Empathic
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According to your textbook, when you listen primarily to understand the message of a speaker, you are engaged in _____ listening
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comprehensive
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Although we speak at a rate of 125 to 150 words a minutes, the brain can process information at a rate of ___
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400 to 800 words a minute
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The four causes of poor listening discussed in your textbook are:
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1. Not concentrating 2. Listening too hard 3. Jumping to conclusions 4. Focusing on delivery and personal appearance
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*Provide some of the suggestions for becoming a better listener
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1. Take listening seriously 2. Be an active listener 3. Resist distractions 4. Don’t be diverted by appearance or delivery 5. Suspend judgment 6. Focus your listening 7. Develop note-taking skills 8. To paraphrase what the speaker says
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When focusing your listening, you should listen for
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main points, evidence, technique
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Regardless of your topic, a speech usually has three main part
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introduction, body, conclusion
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* The organizational pattern in which the main points follow a time pattern is called a
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chronological order
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* The popular method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent (somewhat balanced) subtopics is called a
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topical order
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Words, phrases or sentences that indicate when a speaker has finished on thought and is moving on to another are called
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transition
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* The type of delivery style (primarily used in this class) that requires students to carefully prepare a speech from a speaking outline and present from a brief set of notes is called
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extemporaneous speech / speaking
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What are three techniques recommended in the text to help you when you are having trouble choosing a speech topic?
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1. Topics you know a lot about 2. Topics you want to know more about 3. Brainstorming for topics
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When your general purpose is to ___, you act as a teacher or lecturer
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inform
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When you general purpose is to ___, you act as a partisan or an advocate
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persuade
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The ____ reveals precisely what the speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech
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specific purpose
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“To persuade my audience that irradiation of food is not harmful for three major reasons” is an example of a
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specific purpose
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SPECIFIC
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1. Is it focused and as clear as possible? Can I sign-post it? 2. Is it devoid of figurative language and general terms? 3. Is the scope of the topic too broad, vague or general? 4. Is it something I can accomplish in the time alloted?
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PURPOSE
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1. Does the purpose satisfy the assignment? Is the general purpose consistent with the specific purpose statement? 2. Does it contain only one purpose? 3. Is it relevant for my audience? 4. Does my purpose serve my audience 5. Is the purpose ethical?
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STATEMENT
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1. If the “to inform my audience” is removed, does it contain a complete idea? 2. Is it a complete statement and not a question? 3. Is it too trivial? 4. Is it too technical?
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The _____ usually encapsulates the main points of your speech in a single sentence
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central idea
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* What are the seven requirements of a sign-posted preview statement?
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1. Includes all the main ideas 2. It is sign-posted 3. Incorporates “we” language 4. Uses various words for talk 5. Delivered preview at a slower rate 6. The order the main ideas are listed should match the coverage order 7. It should precede the body of the speech.
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Because listeners are _____, they typically approach speeches by asking “Why is this important to me?”
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egocentric
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Age, gender, religion, group membership, ethnic or cultural background are among the factors to be considered in ____ audience analysis
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demographic
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According to your textbook, the five major factors to consider in situational audience analysis are:
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1. Size 2. Physical setting 3. Disposition toward the topic 4. Disposition toward the speaker 5. Disposition toward the occasion
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As a general rule, the larger your audience, the more ____ your presentation should be
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formal
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The three most important factors to consider when determining an audience’s disposition toward a speaker’s topic are the audience’s …
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interest. knowledge, attitude
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When used in an audience-analysis questionnaire, _____ questions are valuable because they produce clear, unambiguous answers
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fixed-alternative
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The major advantage of using ____ questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they help reveal the strength of a respondent’s attitudes or feelings
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scale
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In constructing an audience analysis questionnaire, you should use ____ questions when you want to give respondents maximum leeway in answering
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open ended
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The card catalog contains three cards for each book in the library:
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the author card, the title card, the subject card
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When going to the library, don’t waste time wandering aimlessly in the library, ask for assistance from the…
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librarians
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The key to finding a book on the shelves is the …
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call number
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The right ___ can save you hours of time by putting at your fingertips a wealth of information that may be difficult to locate through the library catalogue
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reference work
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The best-known collections of quotations is
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Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations
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The standard reference source published by the United States government for numerical information on American life is
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www.census.gov – United States Census Bureau
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* Before the interview you should complete these five steps:
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1. Define the purpose of the interview 2. Decide whom to interview 3. Arrange the interview 4. Decide whether to record the interview 5. Prepare your questions.
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* During the interview make sure you take these steps:
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1. Dress appropriately and be on time 2. Repeat the purpose of the interview 3. Set up the recorder, if you are using one. 4. Keep the interview on track 5. Listen carefully 6. Don’t overstay your welcome
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* After the interview, make certain you…
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1. Review your notes as soon as possible 2. Transcribe your notes
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When doing research, you should fill out a _____ whenever you discover the title of a book or article that looks as if it might contain helpful information for your speech.
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preliminary bibliography
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Do-loop
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Intrapersonal self-fulfilling prophecies that expand from a never-ending cycle of self-reflectiveness. Example: If I think I’m bad at Math before the test, so I already set a low score for myself.
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Subjective self-awareness
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Focus outward to the audience Example: focus on their faces and their attitude while I am speaking and forget about the speech
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Objective self-awareness
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Negative do-loops intensify when a person focuses inward Example: focus too much about doing well, or what I am wearing
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Rhetoric
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“The art of persuasion, beautiful and just” Example: After the speech, my audience believe that Coke is not good for uor health
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Ethos
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The credibility, competence, character, and ethics a speaker establishes before, during and after their presentation Example: If I am giving a speech about smoking is a bad habit, and I am going to smoke right after the speech, I will lost my ethos to my audience
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Pathos
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is considered the pathetic appeal that deals with emotion Example: Almost everybody came to the “After the fire” speech yesterday cried out because of the emotion that it brough.
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Logos
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is the logical appeal Example: when I want to make my audience believe in something, I need to have idea and logic that follow it.
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* List at least three qualities you should listen for a speaker’s evidence
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1. Accuration 2. Objectivity 3. Sufficency
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When preparing your speech, it is important to ___ your topic
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focus and develop
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If you want to write away for information about your speech topic, you should check the ___ for a list of special-interest groups and their mailing address
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encyclopedia
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The __ is the best source for learning about the historical evolution of a word in the English language.
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Oxford English Dictionary
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_____ provides brief life and career facts about noteworthy contemporary figures in the United States, whiile ___ provides similar information about important people the world over
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Who’s who / international who’s who
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______ is the best all-purpose guide to artivles published in popular magazines such as Times, Newsweek, Psychology Today,..
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The Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature