Classroom Management Rationale Essay Example
Classroom Management Rationale Essay Example

Classroom Management Rationale Essay Example

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  • Published: November 17, 2016
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Rationale for the classroom management plan- Esther Triolo Introduction: Students in early years rely on the direction of teachers in regards to their safety, curriculum learning, classroom rules and behaviour. At a grade 5 level, a teacher ideally would take on a coach/mentor role enabling students to become increasingly independent and responsible for their learning. During the short transitional phase from early childhood to adolescence, young people are establishing themselves as increasingly autonomous. (Erikson, 2012; Smith &Bentley, 2010).

However with the range of cognitive and behavioural levels as well as students with additional needs, a Classroom Management Plan (CMP) needs to support all students and not just the general level. General Classroom Management Plan Grade 5 students are extremely sensitive as they experience many changes (physical, emotional, cognitive, social and spiritual). Education is not just about peda


gogical content knowledge but engaging and supporting students as they learn and problem solve through various life challenges. (Smith & Bentley, 2010; Gardner 1995).

Although teachers need to be aware of the concrete operational stage students (Piaget, 1970), there are students at other level. Accepting student differences (in all areas of development) and teaching accordingly rather than assuming all grade 5’s have the same needs is vital. As a teacher it is necessary to ensure all students have a positive view of themselves despite their differences, feel supported and work towards strengthening all areas of their development (multiple intelligences and individual learning experiences). (Erikson, 2012; Gardner; 1995; Hattie, 2012).

Strategies to support motivation and self-regulated learning Recent practical experience supports the CMP regarding student autonomy although it is difficult to undertake. Many students cannot

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rely (for various reasons) on parent guidance in their schooling. At this forth stage of psychosocial development students desire to take more responsibility in their pursuit to fit in. (Erikson, 2012) As teachers, the role is to value all students taking into consideration their circumstances, behavioural or learning issues (e. g. trauma, family dynamics, autism, hormonal effects etc. . Teachers have specifically met with individual students to assess behavioural and academic needs as well as spending time with them. Their aim is to motivate student autonomy whilst supporting them, highlighting their capabilities and achievements. (Bandura,1994). Although this may be the best approach in theory, there were students who needed redirecting techniques or prompts as they were unable to demonstrate self-regulated autonomy. Reminding students regularly was a team effort and took time. Time which may have been better spent focusing on other areas.

Jean Piaget, when talking about cognitive development promotes the idea that a young person’s learning is an independent process. (O’Donnell, 2012) Therefore being flexible and allowing individual learning to occur is essential to minimise areas where students may feel overwhelmed or anxious. However the practicalities need further consideration and implementation into a CMP. Rules and Values Student autonomy is important also as it allows responsibility in the areas of their rights, and classroom rules. When they have ownership, they are more likely to value and accept the outcomes.

Boundaries and establishing rules however should be set for all regardless of their cognitive, emotional or social development levels. At this age, most students grasp faith and justice therefore when guided appropriately students will discover that fair positive outcomes occur according to their

right choices. (Fowler, 2006) However saying this, students do need constant reinforcement and reminding. Christian values can be found in both Christian and non-Christian schools and taught (not necessary bringing God into the picture) as the aims are to set the class up in regards to respecting and valuing all property and each other’s needs. Fowler, 2006). Upon reflection it was noted how many students required support and regular monitoring in regards to following rules, however certain teachers demonstrated this with high importance placed on student self-efficacy. Teachers were aware of the potential negative self-efficacy issues (especially with students who regularly needed their behavioural checklist signed) and addressed them appropriately. (Bandura, 1994; Roache & Lewis, 2011; Skinner, 2011). Reinforcing rules need to be regular as well as assessing their effectiveness.

A recent study compiled at La Trobe University (Roache & Lewis, 2011) showed that the coercive management style of combining punishment with aggressive and hostile behaviour could intensify misconduct and increase student distraction. The observation when a teacher used this form of punishment (yelling and taking away privileges) was that students became scared. This in turn affected their concentration levels and most likely harmed the self-efficacy Bandura talks about. (Bandura 1994). Positive and negative behavioural management Students bring along their own ‘history and context of how they learn. (Dewey,1904). Utilising their interests, past experiences and what works well with them can promote their learning as well as positively manage classroom behaviour. Setting clear tasks within their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and minimising any time for distractions will help in class management. When students are challenged to meet their right ZPD, they should remain

focused and with the support of the teacher, deepen in their learning experience and move further in their development. (Vygotsky,1987). The use of positive reinforcement as per the CMP can help support and motivate learning. (Skinner, 2011).

For example ensuring students know the rules, cues and consequences allow students to make choices that will bring about either positive or negative learning experiences. This can be a class and individual effort where learning outcomes are either individually assessed or the class efforts as a whole are recognised. It is more important to support the positive behaviours, pick up on them, and reward them in order to promote self-efficacy, however if a student or whole class do require negative reinforcement, teachers should assure them that the reinforcement is there to strengthen rather to devalue or punish. Skinner, 2011) This was difficult for students who had behavioural issues and were constantly distracting, however most teachers managed this well by reassuring students, reminding them of their capabilities and where they did behave well. (Bandura 1994). Another positive behavioural motivator for learning could include rewards such as excursions. Students can observe how real life problems/solutions are relevant to what they are learning in school. E. g. this school has a ‘chess club’ where they learn and develop trategies (using problem solving, chance and data etc. ) to use in chess. As students improve, their reward is often to travel to major chess tournaments and enter competitions. The school uses differentiating often (depending on student’s interests and needs) and should be implemented in a CMP. (Dewey, 1904). A negative note to be considered is perhaps that shyer students may not

express their interests and therefore may miss motivating opportunities or areas where differentiation could occur. Class profiles and additional needs

The Victorian institute of Teaching (VIT) has several standards in order to become a proficient teacher; one is that ‘teachers know their students’. (Standards at the Proficient Teacher Level, 2013). For example, planning the same lesson for 3 different classes still needs specific class profile considerations (e. g. students with additional needs). Teachers may be specific on where each student sits (due to behavioural issues, learning styles or pairing a student with a mentor), enlarge worksheets for sight impaired students, or bring tactile examples for kinaesthetic learners. Willingham, 2005; Dewey, 2011). Referring to class profiles alerts teachers to attention areas prior to a lesson as well as provides the means to quickly adapt teaching methods during a class session. Rechecking the class profile may take time in the beginning but will minimise distractions, utilise teacher’s knowledge of students (even their past learning experiences) and enhance their learning. (Watson, 2010) Praxis It is important to have time to reflect and assess both student outcomes as well as teaching methods ensuring all steps are taken to help meet the agreed goals.

There is evidence that upon reflection, teachers have better relationships with students and they both experience a greater sense of job fulfilment (Killen, 2006). Reflective practice is essential and often teachers rely on others observations to help adapt to alternative teaching methods or better their skills. (Hudson 1998) This is a constant practice for many teachers at this practicum, where team teaching occurs daily. Teachers are therefore in the habit of providing feedback and

observing others regularly.

This area could have its disadvantages if the communication is always negative or insensitive, therefore being clear and strong communicators is vital. Developing classroom routines It is crucial that teachers are able to effectively scaffold and facilitate in an environment where students learn and then reconstruct their own meaning from the presented curriculum content. This may occur within the class session or during another agreed time however the routines are set in place so students understand the expectations and utilises the classroom time well.

This school is flexible as it allows students to have the chance to work independently and their learning built further according to their capabilities. Regular ‘Learning Agreement times’ (LA), allow students to have their goals and tasks at hand where teachers can coach, direct and monitor them where needed. Many students have noticeably worked well due to the predictability of having a routine session like this in place. Many have overcome the negative distracting barriers and gained an interest in their learning as they have strived to seek more knowledge and truth. Fierre, 1998). There are however students who do not utilise this time and teachers may not be aware till it is too late. Classroom floor plan When reviewing a classroom floor plan it is important to think of all learning styles and to use the space as best you can. When planning, it is important to look at shared facilities as well. Students should not be confined to one particular learning space, but have access to other areas. This may indeed enhance their creativity as well as encourage students in all areas of learning

rather than just academic.

Using another classroom, specialist rooms, outdoors or even working in the corridor will create different learning experiences. Careful thought needs to be addressed and added to the CPM in regards to the extra time and organisation between other staff members. It is one thing to say all spaces should be utilised, but it require more effort and organisation. The CMP looked at rearranging seating regularly, however this school rearranged rooms at least once a day in order to change the scene and promote creativity and imagination. (Robinson, 2007).

This would be very difficult to manage if the school or staff did not cooperate, therefore this situation could only occur in schools that support this style of teaching. This school believes that ‘each type of experience requires different facilities (space, boundaries, services, surfaces, storage, acoustics, furniture and learning materials’. Classrooms should highlight this also in their layout where the arts, health, academic social, humanities, life experiences etc. are represented within a classroom/learning environmental setting.

The CMP supports this school well however would need to be modified if it were to be used at another school. Conclusion Grade 5 students are still maturing and developing in their own learning therefore teachers need to teach, mentor and manage their students accordingly. Teaching is an extremely unique and rewarding profession on the grounds that you are supporting students in their developmental stages and investing time for future opportunities. It is therefore invaluable for a teacher to be familiar with the range of developing characteristics students may have.

This will take extra time and planning therefore increasing in their workload and perhaps

teacher stress levels. Teachers should understand their class profile and aim to meet all individual needs. Constant reflection on own teaching methods needs to be regularly embedded in in order to become adaptive and flexible. The classroom space should assist in the learning environment as students feel safe and creatively inspired. This type of CPM may not suit all students. Some may find that they need their own desk space rather than moving from one space to another.

Some students may need more directive lessons rather than learning via their interests. Whatever the situation, teachers should always provide a working environment that supports, provokes and engages student’s minds in the areas of academic, life experiences, growing maturity and creativity. In all areas, careful thought and knowledge of all students should be of high priority in order to help them achieve to the best of their ability. Bibliography Theories of Human development. (2012) Erik Erikson’s theory of Development. Online researches for psychology student. Accessed 25 April 013. http://www. psychologynoteshq. com/erikerikson/ (Theories of Human Development, 2012) Erikson,E. H. (1994). Identity: Youth and Crisis: W. W. Norton & Co. Groudwater-Smith,S. ,& Bentley,I. (2010). EDU4CCE, Changing Contexts in Education: for La Trobe University. South Melbourne, Vic: Cengage. Roache, Joel and Lewis, Ramon (Rom) (2011) "Teachers’ views on the impact of classroom management on student responsibility," Australian Journal of Education: Vol. 55: Iss. 2, Article 4. ?Available at: http://research. acer. edu. au/aje/vol55/iss2/4 Watson,J. 2010,June,1st.

The Little Albert Experiment. Retrieved from http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=9hBfnXACsOI Washingtonstateuniv, 2011,Feb 4th. John Dewey: America’s philosopher of Democracy and His Importance to Education. Retrieved from http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=wMh1LYuZ3B4 Piaget, J. (1970). Piaget's

theory. Killen, R. (2006). Effective Teaching Strategies: Cengage Learning Australia. Buroojtv. 2011, Dec 7th. TED Talk: Hole in the Wall Experiment.. Retrieved from http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=Ks8D3WE-PbM Gardner, H. (1995). Reflections on Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages.

Phi Delta Kappan, 77(3), 200-03. Dewey, J. (1904). THE RELATION OF THEORY TO PRACTICE IN EDUCATION» 1». O'Donnell, A. M. (2012). Educational psychology (1st Australian ed. ). Milton, Qld. : John Wiley & Sons. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational psychologist, 28(2), 117-148. Gresham, F. M. , Watson, T. S. , & Skinner, C. H. (2001). Functional behavioral assessment: Principles, procedures, and future directions. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 156-172. Willingham, D. T. 2005). Do visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners need visual, auditory, and kinesthetic instruction. American Educator, 29(2), 31-35. Hattie,J. (2012) Visible Learning For teachers: Maximising impact on learning. London, Routledge Fowler, J. W. , & Dell, M. L. (2006). Stages of faith from infancy through adolescence: Reflections on three decades of faith development theory. The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence, 34-45. Hickling-Hudson, A. (1988). Toward Communication Praxis: Reflections on the Pedagogy of Paulo Freire and Educational Change in Grenada.

Journal of Education, 170(2), 9-38. Vygotsky, L. (1987). Zone of proximal development. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes, 52-91. Rudd (2011, February 4). John Dewey: America’s philosopher of democracy and his importance to education. Video podcast retrieved from http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=wMh1LYuZ3B4 Robinson, K. (2007, Jan 6). Do schools kill creativity. Retrieved April 26, 2013, from TED TALK: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=iG9CE55wbtY Standards at the Proficient

Teacher Level. (2013). Retrieved April 26, 2013, from Victorian Institute of Teaching:

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