Chpt 7: Deviance & Social Control

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Techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
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social control
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Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
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sanctions
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The ultimate formal sanction is the:
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death penalty
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Social control is enforced by 4 areas:
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family, peers, companies, government
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The ____ defines the governmental social control.
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law
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Sanctions can be ____ or _____.
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formal, informal
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Going along with peers who have no special right to direct behavior. This term was used by ______.
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conformity, Milgram
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Compliance with higher authorities in hierarchical structure.
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obedience
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In the ______ Experiment, the experimenter instructed people to administer increasingly painful electric shocks to a subject. About 2/3 (65%) fell in the category of \”______ subjects\”. The key to obedience was the experimenter’s _____ _____ as a \”scientist\”.
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Milgram, obedient, social role
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In the modern world we view authority as _____ and more ______ than the individual.
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larger, important.
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People use _____ social control casually to enforce norms. ex: smiles, laughter, ridicule
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informal
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_____ social control is carried out by authorized agents. ex: police, employers
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formal
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Sometimes ______social control can undermine ______social control, encouraging people to violate social norms. ex: peer pressure on binge drinking in college.
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informal, formal
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Some norms are so important to a society that they are formalized into _____.
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laws.
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Governmental social control is also known as ____.
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law
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The legal order reflects the ______ of those in a position to exercise authority.
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values
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Sociologists see the creation of laws as a _____process. Law is not a static body of rules, but reflects continually changing standards of what is _____ and ______.
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social, right, wrong
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Travis Hirschi came up with the _____theory which suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society’s norms.
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control
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The Control Theory is not always supported. People can think it through. Note the following: 1) People are _____, so they decide whether or not to engage in an act by weighing the potential outcome. 2) deviance can be _______. 3) most people would engage in deviance and crime if they could __ ____ ____ ____. 4) social controls are _______. 5) _______are more prone to deviant behavior.
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1) rational 2) rewarding 3) get away with it 4) insufficient 5) adolecents
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Exhibiting behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society. ex: alcoholics, gamblers, mentally ill
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deviance
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Deviance involves the violation of ____norms, which may/may not be formalized into law.
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group
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Deviance is hardly objective or set in stone. It is subject to social definition within a particular _____ and at a particular _____. Deviance is ______. Changes w/ the times, people, etc… Those with greater ______define what is acceptable.
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society, time. relative power
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______deviance is to stand up for people’s rights. ex: whistle blower. deviance is not always negative.
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positive.
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Who coined the term \”stigma\”?
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Goffman
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The labels society uses to devalue member of certain social groups. ex: redheads, short people
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stigma
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______ _______ (cell phones, voicemail, internet) can redefine social interactions and standards of behavior related to them. ex: pirating of music is considered criminal, but not all people ____it that way.
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technological innovations. see
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Sociological Perspectives on Deviance: Functionalist Perspective: In _______view, the punishments established within a culture help define acceptable _______and contribute to ______.
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Durkheim’s behavior stability
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Sociological Perspectives on Deviance: Functionalist Perspective: Loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective. People can become more aggressive or ________.
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anomie depressed
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Sociological Perspectives on Deviance: Functionalist Perspective: Merton’s Theory of Deviance. How people adapt in certain ways by conforming to or by deviating from cultural expectations is called: Deviance is a _______created behavior rather than the result of momentary impulses.
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anomie theory of deviance socially
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Sociological Perspectives on Deviance: Mertons anomie theory of deviance 5 basic forms of adaption are: 1) ____-adhearing to/following social norms. (opposite of deviance). 2) ____-alternative or illegitimate means to meet goals. 3) ____-rejects material goals of conventional society, but still follows rules. (work is way of life) 4) ____-drops out of convential society.(joins convent/cult) 5) ____-protests against convention. (militia)
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1) Conformist 2) Innovator 3) Ritualist 4) Retreatist 5) Rebel
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Sociological Perspectives on Deviance: Interactionist Perspective: Humans learn how to behave in social situations, whether properly or improperly is called: ______ _______ coined by: ________. ex: one learns criminal behavior by ________with others.
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cultural transmission Sutherland, interacting
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Sociological Perspectives on Deviance: Interactionist Perspective: Process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to the violation of rules is called: coined by: __________. also applies to noncriminal (smoking, truancy).
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differential association, Sutherland
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Sociological Perspectives on Deviance: Interactionist Perspective: Increases in crime and deviance can be attributed to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions (family, school, church, government) is called: coined by: ________
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social disorganization theory Zimbardo
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Which theory seems to \”blame the victim\”?
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social disorganization theory
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social disorganization theory: stopping the little things can stop the _______. The ______ _____ theory applies to \”run down \” neighborhoods and comes from the social disorganization theory.
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escalation Broken Window
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The ______Theory (coined by _____) attempts to explain why some people are viewed as deviants while others are not; also known as the ______ ______ ______.
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Labeling, Becker societal-reaction approach
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Response to an act, not the behavior, determines deviance is known as the :
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societal-reaction approach
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Deviance is the product of the culture we live in. This is the: _____ _______perspective.
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socialist constructionist
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Socialist constructionists focus specifically on the _____ ______process that creates the deviant identity.
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decision-making
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People with power protect their own interests and define deviance to suit their needs is the ______theory. 1) rests on larger structural analysis of inequalities based on ____, _____, & _____. 2) powerful impose labels on less ______. 3) powerful use money/influence to _____punishment.
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conflict class, race, & gender powerful escape
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Crime & Race: Blacks are overrepresented in the : 1) ____ rates 2) ____rates 3) _____population Differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups is called:
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1) arrest 2) conviction 3) prison differential justice
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Feminist Perspective: ____ and _____-Lind argue existing approaches to deviance & crime were developed with only ____in mind. Society tends to treat women in ______fashion (traditional gender roles).
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Adler, Chesney-Lind, men stereotypical
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Feminist Perspective: Cultural views/attitudes toward women influence how they are _____ and _____.
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preceived and labeled.
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Violation of crimial law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties is called:
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crime
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List the Index Crimes published by the ____. a) List 4 violent b) list 4 property
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FBI a) murder, rape, robbery, assault b) burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft, arson
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The crime index is disproportionately devoted to ______crimes.
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property
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The willing exchange amoung adults of widely desires, but illegal, goods and services is called :
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victimless crimes
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A person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation. Also called:
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professional criminal, or career criminal
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the work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activites.
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organized crime
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Illegal acts committed in the course of business activities by respectable people: The use of high technology to allow criminals to carry out crimes. Also called :
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white-collar crime, technology-based crime or computer crime.
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crime that occurs across multiple national borders.
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transnational crime.
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Punishment: Goals of Incarceration 1) ______-owes debt to society 2) ______-peoples less inclined to commit crime if they know they’ll get caught. 3) ______-keep criminals out of society. 4) ______-prisoners can be taught how to become functional members of society. * Inmates that participate in education are __% less likely to be incarcerated.
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1) retribution 2) deterrence 3) protection 4) rehabilitation 23%
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Alternative Forms of Punishment: 1) ______ ______: death penalty 2) \”___ ____\” prison. acess to work-out facility, tv, etc… 3) rehabilitation and _________.
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1) capital punishment 2) no-frills 3) reintegration
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____commit more violent crimes and property crimes.
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men
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______crime dominates the world of illegal business just as large corps. dominate conventinal bus. Serves as a means for upward ______ to escape poverty.
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organized mobility
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It is only possible to track crimes that are ______to law enforcement agencies.
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reported
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Surveys of ordinary people, not police officers, to determine whether they have been victims of crimes are called __________surveys.
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victimization
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Violent crimes are much more ______in the u.s. than western europe.
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common
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What percentage of u.s. households have some type to firearm?
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42%
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Sociologist’s classify crimes in terms of how they are _______and how society views the _____.
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committed, offenses
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_____people are more likely to commit crimes than older people. ages __-__ most crime prone. Also, _____people are more likely to commit crimes and more likely to be _____.
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younger 15-19 poorer, victims

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