Chemistry Topic 7: Properties of Solutions

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Solutions are defined as
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Homogenous mixtures of two or more pure substances in the same physical state
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Solutions can not be
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Separated by filtration or sedimentation
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Solute
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Substance being dissolved
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Solvent
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Substance that dissolves the solute
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Soluble
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Will dissolve in
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Insoluble
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Won’t dissolve in
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Miscible
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Two gasses or two liquids that form a solution
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Immiscible
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Two gases or liquids that will NOT form a solution
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Suspension
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Appears uniform while being stirred, but settle over time Not a solution
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Aqueous solution
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When water is the solvent
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Ionic compounds are dissolved by
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Dislocation where water surrounds the separated ions
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Molecular compounds interact with, but do not
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Water Dissociate (most)
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Electrolyte
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Is a substance that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water
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Solubility is
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A measure of how much solute will dissolve in a certain amount of a solvent at a given temperature
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Polar substances tend to dissolve
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Polar solvents
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No polar substances tend to dissolve
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Non polar solvents
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Water molecules are
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Polar
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Ionic solvents tend to dissolve in
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Polar solvents
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Non polar solute Non polar solvent
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Soluble
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Non polar solute Polar solvent
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Insoluble
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Polar solute Non polar solvent
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Insoluble
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Polar solute Polar solvent
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Soluble
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Ionic solute Non polar solvent
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Insoluble
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Ionic solute Polar solvent
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Soluble
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For most solids, as temperature increases, solubility
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Increases
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For most gases, as temperature increases, solubility
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Decreases
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Solids dissolve best when
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Heated Stirred Ground into small particles
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Gases dissolve best when
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The solution is cold Pressure is high
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Unsaturated
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Less than the maximum amount of solute for that temperature is dissolved in the solvent
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Saturated
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Solvent holds as much solute as possible at that temperature
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Supersaturated
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A solution has dissolved more solute than it can theoretically hold under given conditions
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Saturation = Crystallization
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Equilibrium
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All points on the curve
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Saturated
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All points below the curve
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Unsaturated
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All points above the curve
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Supersaturated
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Gases on solubility curve table
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SO2 NH3 HCl
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Concentrated
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Large amount of solute in a small amount of solvent
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Dilute
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Small amount of solute in a large amount of solvent
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Most concentrated compounds are
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Soluble
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Least concentrated compounds are
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Insoluble
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Percent by mass formula
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Percent mass = (mass of solute / mass of solution) X 100 – mass of solution = mass of solute + mass of solvent
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Colligative Properties
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Depend only of the # of of solute particles and not their identity
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Examples of Colligative properties
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Vapor pressure decreases Boiling point increases Freezing pint decreases
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Ionic solutes produce two or more
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Ion particles in a solution
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Ionic solutes affect the Colligative properties so that they are
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Proportionally more than molecular solutes
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Vapor is
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The gas state of a substance that is liquid at room temperature
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When the vapor pressure decreases, the boiling point
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Decreases
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When the vapor pressure increases, the boiling point
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Increases
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The vapor pressure of a solution is lower than that of
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A pure solvent

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