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Chemistry – Inorganic Chemistry Essay

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Define Chemistry
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is the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
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Difference between microscopic and macroscopic
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Macroscopic you can see further zoomed in but the microscopic you can you more detailed.
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Relationship between pure chemistry and applied chemistry.
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pure research can lead directly to an application, but an appliation can exist before reasearch is done to explain how it works
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Describe the main difference between inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry.
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Organic chemistry is the study of chemicals that contain carbon. Inorganic chemistry is the study of chemicals that do not contain carbon.
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Analytical Chemistry
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the study of the chemistry of matter and the development of tools used to measure properties of matter.
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Physical Chemistry
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the branch of chemistry that applies physics to the study of chemistry. Commonly this includes the applications of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics to chemistry.
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Biochemistry
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the study of chemical processes that occur inside of living organisms.
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Matter
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anything that has mass and takes up space.
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Identify the steps of the scientific method.
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Ask a Question Do Background Research Construct a Hypothesis Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion Communicate Your Results
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Independent Variable
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changed by the scientist.
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Dependent Variable.
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is what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment.
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Extensive Property
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changes when the size of the sample changes. Examples are mass, volume, length, and total charge.
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Intensive Property
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doesn’t change when you take away some of the sample.
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Describe the three states of matter.
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Solid, Liquid, and Gas
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Mixture
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A substance made by mixing other substances together.
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Differences between mixtures and pure substances
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Pure substances are further broken down into elements and compounds. Mixtures are physically combined structures that can be separated into their original components.
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Describe severals ways of separting mixtures
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Filtration Evaportation Distilation
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Elements
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a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei
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Compounds
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Made up of more than one element
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Identify the chemical properties of a substance
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Flammability, Combustion
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Chemical change
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Properties actually changing
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Difference between chemical change and physical change
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Chemical change is the properties actually changing while physical its only changing visually
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Identify the seven base units of the International System of Units.
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Meter, Kilogram, Second, Kelvin, Mole, Candela, Ampere
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Use various visual clues to identify whether a chemical reaction is taking place
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transfer of energy, change in color, production of gas, formation of a precipitate.
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The commonly used metric prefixes.
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Giga – 1,000,000,000 Mega – 1,000,000 Kilo – 1,000 Hectro – 100 Deka – 10 Deci – 1/10 Centi – 1/100 Milli – 1/1,000 Micro – 1/1,000,000 Nano – 1/1,000,000,000 Pico – 1/1,000,000,000,000
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Convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales.
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C = K – 273 K = C + 273
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Mass
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A measure of how much matter is in an object.
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Density
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physical property of matter
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Accuracy
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Closeness to target or value
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Precision
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Closeness together in attempts
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Percent error
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(What you got) – (what you were supposed to get) x 100 divided by (whay you were supposed to get)
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the law of conservation of mass
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matter can be changed from one form into another, mixtures can be separated or made, and pure substances can be decomposed, but the total amount of mass remains constant.
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the law of definite proportions
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a chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass.
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the law of multiple proportions.
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when two elements combine with each other to form more than one compound, the weights of one element that combine with a fixed weight of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers.
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Describe John Dalton’s atomic theory.
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All matter is composed of indivisible particles called atoms All atoms of a given element are identical; atoms of different elements have different properties.
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Protons
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in the center of the atom
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Neutrons
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In the center of the atom
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Electrons
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electrons and protons are opposite so they attract.
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J.J Thompson contributions to the atomic theory
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He discovered that the ray, which emanated from the negative electrode, was deflected by the negative pole of an electric field. He determined the ray was composed of negatively charged particles that all atoms must have. He also hypothesized that since atoms have a neutral charge, they must contain some positive charge as well
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Robert Millikan contributions to the atomic theory
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oil drop experiment verified that single electrons are negative and the mass was 1/1840 the mass of a hydrogen atom.
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Ernest Rutherford contributions to the atomic theory
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discovery of the nucleus and its positive charge. •He used a particle accelerator to shoot positively •His experiments were called the “Gold Foil” Experiments. •He announced the concept of the nuclear atom in 1919.
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Describe the structure of the nuclear atom.
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The nucleus contains protons and neutrons. Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
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Define atomic number.
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the number of protons, and therefore also the total positive charge
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Define mass number.
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the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus.
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how do isotopes differ from one another
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Isotopes differ from one another in the number of neutrons they possess.
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Designating isotopes by various methods
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The first method is the mass number is written with a hyphen after the name of the element (uranium-235). The second method shows the composition of a nucleus as the isotope’s nuclear symbol.
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Describe the relationships between speed, wavelength, and frequency of light.
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The higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength. Because all light waves move through a vacuum at the same speed, the number of wave crests passing by a given point in one second depends on the wavelength. That number, also known as the frequency, will be larger for a short-wavelength wave than for a long-wavelength wave.
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Photoelectric effect and how it is related to the wave-particle duality of light.
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the phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from the surface of a metal when light strikes it
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Bohr model of the atom.
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Electron in atoms move around nucleus only in certain allowed circular orbits
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de Broglie wave equation
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λ=h/(mv) v=velocity, λ in meters
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How the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and Schrödinger’s wave equation led to the idea of atomic orbitals.
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Together they describe the orbitals of the atom. the common representations of the orbitals are drawn at the limit where elections spend 95% of their time, and heienbergs uncertainty principle says at any one time, you can either know the speed of an electron or it’s position, so between schrodinger and Heisenberg we get a cloudy area describing where electrons are found. … The orbitals
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four quantum numbers
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S,P,D,F
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Aufbau principle
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Electrons fill energy levels and orbitals from the lowest energy to the highest energy
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Pauli Exclusion Principle
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Each orbital can hold two electrons with oposite spins
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Hund’s Rule
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Electrons will occupy orbitals singlularly before filling them in pairs
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Noble Gas Notation
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1. Put symbol for noble gas from the previous row in brackets. 2. Start at the beginning of the row where the element is located. 3. Move to the right, writing down any sublevels (blocks) that you move through.
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How did Mendeleev organized his periodic table.
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By similiar properties.
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The improvements that Moseley made to Mendeleev’s table.
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organized by atomic mass
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Periodic law.
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the law that the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
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Periods
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Numbered row on periodic table
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Groups
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Numbered Column on periodic table
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Metals
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an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds.
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Nonmetals
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›Nonmetals gain electrons to form negative ions
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Metalloids
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›Exhibit the properties of both metals and nonmetals. ›Include only 7 elements: Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, & At
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Relationship between orbitals and energy sub levels
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orbitals fill up sublevels
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Alkali metals
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are the chemical elements found in Group 1 of the periodic table. The alkali metals include: lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium.
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Alkaline earth metals
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are six chemical elements in column (group) 2 of the Periodic table. They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).
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Halogens
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are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
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Noble gases
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Group 18 They are the most stable due to having the maximum number of valence electrons their outer shell can hold. Therefore, they rarely react with other elements since they are already stable.
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Transition elements
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are those elements having a partially filled d or f subshell in any common oxidation state.
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Periodic trends for atomic radius
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Periodic trends indicate that atomic radius increases up a group and from left to right across a period
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Describe how ions are formed
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when atoms lose or gain electrons
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Periodic trends for electronegativity
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as one moves from left to right across a period in the periodic table, the electronegativity increases due to the stronger attraction that the atoms obtain as the nuclear charge increases.
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Distinguish between inorganic and organic chemistry
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Organic contains carbon while inorganic does not
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Molecular formula
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an expression of the number and type of atoms that are present in a single molecule of a substance
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An ionic compound given its formula
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NaCl
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Difference between an ionic compound and a molecular compound
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Ionic compounds are formed by the transfer of electrons while molecular compounds are formed by the sharing of electrons.
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Name a molecular compound
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SO2 is called sulfur dioxide