Chapters 9-11, 20-22, and 27-28

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Primary Sources
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Original or firsthand research, such as interviews and surveys conducted by the speaker (diaries, photographs)
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Secondary Sources
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Information gathered by others (published facts and statistics, texts, documents, and any other secondhand information)
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Mix It Up with Both Primary and Secondary Sources
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– Primary sources can build trust and engage audience members emotionally – Secondary audience help listeners put the topic in perspective
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Locate Secondary Sources
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Books, newspapers and periodicals, government publications, digital collections, reference works, and weblogs and social news sites
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Books
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Provide detail and perspective and can serve as an excellent source of supporting material (Books in Print)
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Periodical
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A regularly published magazine or journal–include all types of supporting material (Time; Newsweek; refereed journals; general-interest magazines; Infotrac Online; General OneFile; Academic Search Premier)
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Reference Works
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Encyclopedias, almanacs, biographical resources, books of quotations, poetry collections, and atlases
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Encyclopedias
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A reference work that summarizes knowledge found in original form elsewhere and provides an overview of subjects
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General vs. Specialized encyclopedias
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– General encyclopedias attempt to cover all important subject areas of knowledge – Specialized encyclopedias delve deeply into one subject area, such as religion, science, art, sports, or engineering
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Almanacs and fact books
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A reference work that contains facts and statistics in many categories or on a given topic, including those that are related to historical, social, political, and religious subjects
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Atlas
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A collection of maps, text, and accompanying charts and tables
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Recording and Citing Books
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– Locate: title, author, publisher, city of publication, year of publication, page number – Oral: According to …’s book …, …
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Recording and Citing Articles from Periodicals
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– Locate: author, article title, periodical title, date of publication, page number – Oral: According to …’s article “…,” in the (Month year) issue of …, …
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Blog
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Short for “Weblog,” an online personal journal
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Social news site
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Web sites dedicated to specific kinds of news or entertainment
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Conduct Interviews
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– Prepare questions for the interview – Word questions carefully–avoid vagueness, leading questions, aim for neutral questions – Establish a spirit of collaboration–summarize topic – Use active listening strategies–paraphrase, ask for clarification and elaboration
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Conduct Surveys
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Effective source of support for speech topics focused on attitudes and behavior of people in your immediate environment
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Evaluate Sources for Trustworthiness
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– What is author’s background? – How credible is the publication? – How reliable are the data, especially the statistical information? – How recent is the reference?
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Record References as You Go
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Maintain a working bibliography to avoid losing track of sources
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Use a Library Portal to Access Credible Sources
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– Full-text databases – General reference works – Books and monographs – Archives and special collections – Digital collections – Video collections
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Library Portal
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An entry point to a large collection of research and reference information that has been selected and reviewed by librarians.
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deep Web
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The large portion of the Web that general search engines cannot access because the information is licensed and/or fee-based
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Use library portal to access
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– Journal articles (Academic Search Complete; Academic OneFile; Academic Search Premier; LexisNexis Academic) – Books – Popular magazines (General OneFile; Info Trac)
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Information
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Data set in a context for relevance
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Propaganda
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Information represented in such a way as to provoke a desired response.
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Misinformation
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Information that is false (ex: urban legend–fabricated story passed along by unsuspecting people)
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Disinformation
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The deliberate falsification of information
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Evaluating Web Sources
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Examine the domain; look for an “about” link that describes the organization; identify the creator of the info; check for a date that indicates when page was uploaded or updated; check if site documents its sources; evaluate info for bias
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Domain
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The suffix at the end of a Web address that describes the nature of the Web site
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Distinguish among Types of Search Engines
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– Spiders and crawlers used to scan billions of documents – General search engines (Google and Yahoo) Specialized search engines: conduct narrow, but deeper searches in particular field – Blog-specific search engines
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Subject (Web) directory–AKA subject guide
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A searchable database of Web sites organized by categories (ex: Yahoo! Directory)
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Use Search Engines and Subject Directories for Different Purposes
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– Subject directories are most useful for learning about and narrowing a general topic – Search engines are useful when you need to find emerging info that may not appear in subject directory
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Recording and Citing Web Sources
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– Local: author of work, title of work, title of the web site, date of publication or last update, site address (URL) – Oral: In an article of….posted on Web site…, (person) notes…
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Beware of Commercial Factors
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Be alert to unwanted commercial influences on your search results
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Paid Placement
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The practice of paying a fee to a search engine company to guarantee a higher ranking within its search results.
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Paid Inclusion
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The practice of paying a fee to a search engine company for inclusion in its index of possible results, without a guarantee of ranking.
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Conduct Smart Searches
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– Create effective keywords (most effective) – Search by subject heading – Use advanced search
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Create Effective Keywords
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– Use more rather than fewer words – Use quotation marks – Use Boolean operators – Use nesting – Use truncation – Consult the Search Tips section
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Keywords
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Words and phrases that describe the main concepts of topics.
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Search by Subject Heading
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– Identifying the correct heading is the key to an effective subject search – The most precise way to locate information in library databases is searching by subject headings
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Subject Heading
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A word or phrase chosen by information specialists to describe and group related materials in a library catalog, database, or subject directory.
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Use Advanced Search
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Advanced searches include: keywords, language, country, file format, domain, and date
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Record Internet Sources
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Be sure to keep track of your speech sources in written bibliography
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When you credit speech sources you demonstrate…
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– Quality and range or research – Reliable sources – Avoid plagiarism and gain credibility – Enhance your own authority – Enables listeners to locate your sources
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Oral Citation
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A means of crediting the source of speech material derived fro other people’s works or ideas.
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Alert Listeners to Key Source Information
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– The author or origin of the source – The type of source – The title or a description of the source – The date of the source
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Establish the Source’s Trustworthiness
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A source that is reliable IS NOT ALWAYS accurate!!–because of this, it is always better to offer a variety of sources, rather than a single source to support a major point
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Source Reliability
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The qualities that determine the value of a source, such as the author’s background and reputation, the reputation of a publication, the source of data, and how recent the reference is
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Source Qualifier
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A brief description of the source’s qualifications
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Demonstrating Your Sources’ Reliability and Credibility
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Note the credentials, identify the institution, and reveal how they were derived and put them into context
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Avoid a Mechanical Delivery
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– Strategies to avoid a mechanical delivery: vary the wording, and lead with the claim
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Consider Audience Perception of Sources
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Not every trustworthy source is necessarily appropriate for every audience
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Overview of Source Types with Sample Oral Citations
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Including a source qualifier can make the difference between winning or losing acceptance for your supporting material
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Source Types
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Books, reference works, print articles, online-only magazine, newspaper, journal, organization web site, weblog, television or radio program, online video, testimony, interview and other personal communication
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Credit Sources in Presentation Aids
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When reproducing copyrighted material, clearly label it with a copyright symbol
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Properly Citing Quoted, Paraphrased, and Summarized Information
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Information can be cited as direct quotation, paraphrase, of summary.
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**Presentation aids help listeners process and retain info, convey info in time-saving fashion, and enhance image of professionalism
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**We learn better from words and pictures than from words alone–Multimedia Effect
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Select an Appropriate Aid
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– Props and models – Pictures – Graphs and charts – Audio, video, and multimedia
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Presentation Aids
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Objects, models, pictures, graphs, charts, video, audio, or multimedia used to illustrate speech points
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Prop
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Any live or inanimate object used by a speaker as a presentation aid.
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Model
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A 3D, scale-size representation of an object such as a building
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Props and Models
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When using this, keep prop or model hidden until you are ready to use it; make sure its big enough for everyone to see; practice your speech using prop or model
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Pictures
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– Pictures are 2D representations – Diagram visually explains how something works Maps help listeners visualize geographic areas
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Graph
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A graphical representation of numerical data.
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Chart
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A method of representing data and their relationship to other data in a meaningful form.
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Flowchart
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A diagram that shows step-by-step the progression through a procedure, relationship, or process.
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Table
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A systematic grouping of data or numerical information in column form.
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Graphs and Charts
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Graphs (Line graph, bar graph, pie graph, and pictogram), chart, flowchart, and tables
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Types of Graphs or Charts
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– Line graph: represent trends or information over time – Bar graph: compare magnitudes or volume – Pie graph: show proportions of the total – Pictogram: show comparisons in picture form – Flowchart: to diagram processes – Table: show large amounts of info in easily viewable form
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Audio Clip
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A short recording of sounds, music, or speech
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Video
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Including movie, television, and other recording instruments
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Multimedia
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A single production that combines several media. (stills, sound, video, text, and data)
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When incorporating audio and video into presentation…
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– Use audio or video clip consistent with copyright – Cue the audio or video clip to appropriate segment – Alert audience members what they are going to hear – Reiterate relevance of audio or video clip
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LCD Panels
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A device connected to a computer used to project slides stored in the computer.
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DLP Projectors
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A projector designed for computer images that is equipped with an illumination, or light source, in its own case, thereby eliminating the need for an overhead projector.
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Overhead Transparency
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An image on a transparent background that can be viewed by projection.
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When using overhead transparencies
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– Check that the projector is in good order – Stand to the side of the projector and face the audience – Use pointer to indicate specific sections of the transparency – If writing, use a water-soluble pen and write clearly – Cover transparencies when done using them
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Flip Chart
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A large (27-34 inch) pad of paper on which a speaker can illustrate speech points.
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Posters
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A large (36″ x 50″) bold, 2D design incorporating words, shapes, and, if desired, color, placed on an opaque backing; used to convey a brief message or point forcefully and attractively
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Keep the Design Simple
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– Follow six-by-six rule – Word text in active verb form and parallel grammatical structure – Create concise titles – Allow plenty of white space (visual breathing room)
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Six-by-Six Rule
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Rule of design that suggests using no more than six words per line and six lines or bullet points per slide or other visual aid
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Beware of “Chartjunk”
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– Avoid slides jammed with too many graphs, chards, and meaningless design elements – Use fewer rather than more slides
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Use Design Elements Consistently
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– Apply same design to all aids you display in your speech – Key design elements: color, fonts, upper and lowercase letters, styling, general page layout, repeating elements
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Typeface
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A specific style of lettering, such as Arial, Times Roman, or Courier.
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Fonts
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A set of type of one size and face.
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Serif Typefaces
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A typeface that includes small flourishes, or strokes, at the top and bottom of each letter.
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Sans Serif Typefaces
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A typeface that is block-like and linear and is designed without tiny strokes or flourishes at the top and bottom of each letter.
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Select Appropriate Typeface Styles and Fonts
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– Check lettering and legibility (36 pt. major headings; 24 pt. subheadings; 18 pt. text) – Lettering stands apart from background – Use familiar typeface/easy to read – Use standard upper and lower case letters – Use one font throughout – Use boldface, underlining, italics to emphasize only
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Use Color Carefully
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– Keep the background color constant – Limit colors in most graphics to no more than 2-3 – For typeface and graphics, use colors that contrast rather than clash with or blend with the background
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Consider Subjective Interpretations of Color
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– Colors can evoke distinct associations for people, so do not summon an unintended meaning or mood. – Consider the meanings associated with certain colors may differ across cultures
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Give a Speech, Not a Slide Show
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Primary mission of a PowerPoint is to communicate through the spoken word and their physical presence.
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Develop Effective Slides
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Decide what the content of your slides should be, # of slides, and how to arrange them
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Avoid Technical Glitches
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– Check for compatibility of equipment, operating system, and software – Save all files associated with presentation – Verify that you’ve saved the files to a source – Familiarize yourself with layout and functioning before – Prepare had copy or presentation as backup
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Using Microsoft PowerPoint–Presentation Options
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– The Home tab–insert new slides, manipulating fonts and styles – The Design tab (48 predesigned templates) – Blank Slide Layout–customize color, font, type, size, organization, and graphics
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Using Microsoft PowerPoint–View Options
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– Normal View: view and edit individual slides – Slide-Sorter View: provides graphical representation of all the slides in the order they are created – Slide-Show View: actual view to use for projecting the presentation
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PowerPoint Features
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– Masters – Transitions (add motion between slides) and Animation (reveal text or graphics within a slide) Effects – Entering and Editing Text – Inserting pictures, clip art, tables and worksheets – Avoid Copyright Infringement
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Getting Ready to Deliver a PowerPoint Presentation
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– Locate power sources – Computer needs and compatibility – Internet access – Backup plan – Audio
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Small Groups
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A collection of between three and twenty people
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Agenda
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A document identifying the items to be accomplished during a meeting
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Plan on Assuming Dual Roles
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Assume dual roles: task roles, maintenance roles, anti-group roles
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Task Roles
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Types of roles that directly relate to the accomplishment of the objectives and missions of the group(ex: recording secretary, moderator)
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Maintenance Roles
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In a small group, roles that help facilitate effective group interaction, such as the “harmonizer” and the “gatekeeper”
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Anti-group Roles
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Disruptive roles such as “floor hogger” and “blocker” that detract from a group’s roles and so should be avoided
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Handling Trolls Online
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– Troll: someone who intentionally inserts irrelevant and inflammatory comments into online discussions in order to stir up controversy – Simply, ignore the troll
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Center Disagreements around Issues
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– Productive conflict: group members clarify questions, challenge ideas, present counterexamples, etc – Person-based conflict: members argue with one another instead of about the issues (lose time) – Issues-based conflict: allows members to test and debate ideas and potential solutions
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Groupthink
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The tendency of a group to accept information and ideas without subjecting them to critical analysis
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Resist Groupthink
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– Collective mind: engage in communication that is critical, consistent, and conscientious – tend to reach consensus to avoid conflict; members that don’t agree tend to feel pressured; disagreement is discouraged
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Devil’s Advocacy
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Arguing for the sake of raising issues or concerns about the idea under discussion
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Dialectial Inquiry
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Devil’s advocacy that goes a step further by proposing a counter-solution to an idea
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Participative Model
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– Autocratic: leaders make decisions and announce them to group – Consultative (leaders make decisions after discussion) – Delegative (leaders ask the group to make decisions) – Participative (leaders make decisions with group)
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Adopt an Effective Leadership Style
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– Set goals – Encourage active participation – Use reflective thinking
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How to encourage active participation…
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– Directly ask members to contribute – Set a positive tone – Make use of devil’s advocacy and dialectial inquiry
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John Dewey’s six-step process:
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Identify the problem, conduct research and analysis, establish guidelines and criteria, generate solutions, select the best solution, and evaluate solution
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Team Presentations
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A type of oral presentation prepared and delivered by a a group of three or more people
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Working in Teams
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– Analyze the audience and set goals – Assign roles and tasks (team leaders) – Establish transitions between speakers – Consider the presenters’ strengths – Coordinate the presentation aids – Rehearse the presentation several times
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Be Mindful of Your Nonverbal Behavior
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Give your full attention to the others speakers on the team, and project an attitude of interest toward the audience members.
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Panel Discussion
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A type of oral presentation in which a group of persons (at least 3, no more than 9) discusses a topic in the presence of an audience and under the direction of a moderator
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Moderator
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A person who presides over a discussion or meeting.
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When preparing to serve as a moderator, consider…
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The agenda for the discussion, who is your audience, what are the ground rules, what aspects of topic will other participants address, and how much time is allotted for the question-answer session
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Symposium
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A formal meeting at which several speakers deliver short speeches on the same topic
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Forum
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In ancient Rome, a public space in which people gathered to deliberate about the issues of the day
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Town Hall Meeting
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A type of forum in which citizens deliberate on issues of importance to the community.
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When preparing a presentation for a symposium, consider…
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Aspects of topic other participants will address, what order speakers speak, time constraints, audience, and questions and answers towards speakers or only audience
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When participating in public forums, consider…
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Organizing thoughts as much as possible in advanced, do not duplicate questions, include call to action if necessary

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