Chapters 1-4, Criminology

The variety of rational choice theory that builds on an emerging emphasis on victimization is known as
routine activities theory

According to routine activities theory, which of the following is not required for a crime to occur?

a. The presence of a suitable target

b. The presence of a motivated offender

c. The absence of a defensible space

d. The absence of a capable guardian

c. the absence of defensible space

The nothing works doctrine was based on the work of
Robert Martinson

The justice model is based on the belief that prisons do not rehabilitate.
true

The argument that crime is not a result of poverty or social conditions and therefore cannot be affected by social programs was made by
James Q. Wilson

__________ is human activity that violates social norms.
deviant behavior

Jeremy Bentham advocated extreme and cruel punishments.
false

Rational choice theories have been criticized for
Overemphasizing the importance of individual choice with relative disregard for the role of social factors

__________ determinism is the belief that much of human behavior results from forces outside the individual’s control.
hard

Research by __________ found that a small number of chronic recidivists were responsible for a large majority of serious violent crime.
Marvin Wolfgang

Cesare Beccaria was opposed to the use of torture.
true

Which of the following is not one of the basic assumptions or principles of the Classical School?

a. Human beings are fundamentally rational.

b. Root principles of right and wrong are inherent in the nature of things.

c. Most human behavior results from forces that are beyond the control of the individual.

d. Punishment is sometimes required to deter law violators.

c. Most human behavior results from forces that are beyond the control of the individual.

Bentham’s approach is known as
hedonistic calculus

According to Beccaria, punishment should be imposed to
prevent the offender from committing additional crimes

The __________ model is predicated on the belief that criminals deserve punishment because of the choices they make.
justice

Atavism implies the notion that criminals
are born as criminals

__________ developed the theory of phrenology.
Franz Joseph Gall

According to William Sheldon, __________ have the greatest likelihood of becoming criminal offenders.
mesomorphs

Women generally commit more crimes of __________ than men.
shoplifting

Cesare Lombroso’s work was influenced by that of Charles Darwin.
true

Biological theories consider external forces to be the cause of behavior.
false

The link between PMS to violent or criminal behavior may be explained by
a drop in serotonin levels in the female brain just prior to menstruation.

According to Lombroso, __________ were occasional criminals who were pulled into breaking the law by virtue of environmental influences.
criminaloids

Which of the following is not a criticism of sociobiology?

a. It does not identify the importance of culture, social learning, and individual experiences in shaping behavior

b. It fails to integrate biology into the paradigm.

c. It does not properly depict basic human nature

d. There is no rational basis for applying findings from animal studies to humans

b. It fails to integrate biology into the paradigm.

The systematic study of the biological basis of social behavior is known as
sociobiology

According to Gall, the shape of which body part can be used to predict criminality?
skull

Sheldon described endomorphs as cerebrotonic, restrained, and shy.
false

Twin studies are commonly used in the field of
behavioral genetics

Which of the following statements about female criminality is not true?

a. In general, men commit far more crimes than women

b. When women commit crimes, they are more likely to act as followers rather than leaders

c. The proportion of homicides committed by men versus women has remained fairly constant over time

d. Women are far more likely to murder each other than are men

d. Women are far more likely to murder each other than are men

The term “positivism” came from the writings of
Auguste Compte

According to psychoanalysis, criminal behavior is maladaptive.
true

Which of the following is not one of the three laws in Gabriel Tarde’s theory of human behavior?

a. Suggestibility is a key cause of criminal behavior.

b. Individuals in close intimate contact with one another tend to imitate each other’s behavior.

c. Imitation moves from the top down.

d. New acts and behaviors tend to reinforce or replace others.

a. Suggestibility is a key cause of criminal behavior.

Based on Bandura’s theory, which of the following events might provoke aggression?

a. An individual is physically assaulted

b. An individual’s attempts to achieve goal are obstructed

c. An individual is verbally threatened

d. All of these might provoke aggression

d. All of these might provoke aggression

Which of the following is an example of a negative punishment?

a. Allowing a good child to skip some chores

b. Giving a good child an extra piece of cake

c. Spanking a bad child

d. Taking a favorite toy away from a bad child

d. Taking a favorite toy away from a bad child

According to psychological theorists, improper conditioning may be a cause of defective mental processes.
true

Individuals suffering from poor __________ development are likely to seek immediate gratification without considering the long-term consequences of their choices.
superego

The __________ is a largely unconscious region of the mind.
id

Giving a good child a toy is an example of a
positive reward

Which of the following is a criticism of modeling theory?

a. It ignores the role cognition plays in human behavior

b. It lacks comprehensive explanatory power

c. It lacks scientific support

d. The elements of the theory have not been put into a wider context for society as a whole

b. It lacks comprehensive explanatory power

Which type of self-control involves resisting temptations to eat, drink or take drugs?
impulse control

Psychopaths frequently make very poor first impressions on others.
false

A psychopath has no though or feelings for his or her victims.
true

According to Freud, the ego-ideal is an element of the
superego

The term psychoanalysis was coined by
Sigmund Freud

The individual best known for his work on behavior theory is
B. F. Skinner

The pluralistic perspective suggests that behaviors are typically criminalized through
a political process

According to a recent Gallup poll, the majority of respondents believed that crime in the United States is
more prevalent than it was ca year ago

The process of __________ makes some forms of behavior illegal.
criminalization

A(n) __________ theory of crime is one that attempts to explain all or most forms of criminal conduct through a single, overarching approach.
general

The legalistic perspective recognizes that laws are social products.
true

A behavior can be a crime even if there is no law defining that behavior.
false

The concept of __________ refers to the view that social events are interpreted differently according to the viewer.
social relativity

A(n) __________ is made up of clearly state propositions suggesting relationships between events and occurrences being studied.
theory

The __________ perspective is most applicable to homogeneous societies.
consensus

Contemporary criminologists operate primary from a __________ perspective.
sociological

A criminalist studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior.
false

People appear to be particularly fascinated by __________ crime.
violent