a. The presence of a suitable target
b. The presence of a motivated offender
c. The absence of a defensible space
d. The absence of a capable guardian
a. Human beings are fundamentally rational.
b. Root principles of right and wrong are inherent in the nature of things.
c. Most human behavior results from forces that are beyond the control of the individual.
d. Punishment is sometimes required to deter law violators.
a. It does not identify the importance of culture, social learning, and individual experiences in shaping behavior
b. It fails to integrate biology into the paradigm.
c. It does not properly depict basic human nature
d. There is no rational basis for applying findings from animal studies to humans
a. In general, men commit far more crimes than women
b. When women commit crimes, they are more likely to act as followers rather than leaders
c. The proportion of homicides committed by men versus women has remained fairly constant over time
d. Women are far more likely to murder each other than are men
a. Suggestibility is a key cause of criminal behavior.
b. Individuals in close intimate contact with one another tend to imitate each other’s behavior.
c. Imitation moves from the top down.
d. New acts and behaviors tend to reinforce or replace others.
a. An individual is physically assaulted
b. An individual’s attempts to achieve goal are obstructed
c. An individual is verbally threatened
d. All of these might provoke aggression
a. Allowing a good child to skip some chores
b. Giving a good child an extra piece of cake
c. Spanking a bad child
d. Taking a favorite toy away from a bad child
a. It ignores the role cognition plays in human behavior
b. It lacks comprehensive explanatory power
c. It lacks scientific support
d. The elements of the theory have not been put into a wider context for society as a whole