Chapter 9 – Transformational Leadership Essay

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Transformational Leadership
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part of “new leadership paradigm” which gives attention to the charismatic and affective elements of leadership.
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Transformational Leadership involves
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exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is expected of them
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Burns 3 types of leadership
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transactional, transformational, Pseudotransformational
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Transactional
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focuses on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers eg. Turn in assignments = grades
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Transformational
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process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation and morality in both leader and the follower
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Pseudotransformational
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focuses on the leader’s own interests rather than the interests of their followers Leaders who transform but in a negative way eg. Hitler
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Charisma
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A special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader
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Charismatic Leadership Theory
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Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on their followers
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Personality Characteristics
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Dominant Desire to influence Confident Strong Values
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Behaviors
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Sets strong role model Shows competence Articulates goals Communicates high expectations Expresses confidence Arouses motives
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Effects on followers
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Trust in leader’s ideology Belief similarity between leader and follower Unquestioning acceptance Affection toward leader Obedience Identification with leader Emotional Involvement Heightened goals Increased confidence
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Charismatic Leadership
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Transforms follower’s self-concepts; tries to link identity of followers to collective identity of the organization Forge this link by emphasizing intrinsic rewards & de-emphasizing extrinsic rewards Express high expectations for followers & help followers gain sense of self-confidence and self-efficacy
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Transformational Leadership Model
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More attention to followers’ rather than leader’s needs Suggested Transformational Leadership could apply to outcomes that were not positive Described transactional and transformational leadership as a continuum Giving more attention to emotional elements & origins of charisma Suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for TL
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Transformational Leadership Factors (4 I’s
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Idealized influence charisma Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration
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Transactional Leadership Factors
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Contingent Reward/Constructive Transactions Management-by-exception (active and passive corrective transactions)
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Leaders who exhibit Transformational Leadership
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Have Strong set of internal values & ideals Are effective in motivating followers to support greater good over self-interest
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Idealized Influence
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Acting as strong role models High standards of moral and ethical conduct Making others want to follow the leader’s vision
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Inspirational Motivation
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Communicating high expectations Inspiring followers to commitment and engagement in shared vision Using symbols & emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self-interest
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Intellectual Stimulation
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Stimulating followers to be creative and innovative Challenging their own beliefs and valuing those of leader and organization Supporting followers to try new approaches & develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues
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Individualized Consideration
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Listening carefully to the needs of followers Acting as coaches to assist followers in becoming fully actualized
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Laissez-Faire
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The absence of leadership, hands off, let things ride approach. Refers to leaders who: abdicates responsibility delay decisions gives no feedback makes little effort to help followers satisfy needs
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Four Leader Strategies in Transforming Organizations
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Clear vision of organization’s future state TL’s social architect of organization Create trust by making their position known and standing by it Creatively deploy themselves through positive self-regard
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Kouzes & Pozner’s 5 fundamental practices
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Model the Way Inspire a Shared Vision Challenge the Process Enable Others to Act Encourage the Heart
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Transformational Leadership leaders
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empower and nurture followers stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers commonly create a vision require leaders to become social architects build trust & foster collaboration
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Strengths of Transformational leadership
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broadly reasearched intuitive appeal process-focused expansive leadership view emphasizes follower effectiveness
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Weakness’s of Transformational leadership
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Lack of conceptual clarity measurement questioned treats leadership more as a personality trait or prediposition suffers from heroic leadership bias based on qualitative data potential to be abused
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Application of Transformational Leadership
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general way of thinking about leadership that stresses ideals, inspiration, innovations, and individual concerns Can be taught to individuals at all levels of the organization Able to positively impact a firm’s performance May be used as a tool in recruitment, selection, promotion, and training development Can be used to improve team development, decision-making groups, quality initiatives, and reorganizations The MLQ helps leaders to target areas of leadership improvement

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