Chapter 9: The Urinary system

Renal colic
is an acute pain in the body kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone.

Colic
Means spasmodic pains in the abdomen.

A Wilms tumor
Is a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children. There is a high cure for it when it’s treated properly

A stone
also known as calculus, is an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body plural calculi.

Nephrolithiasis
Describes the presence of stones in the kidney.

Lithiasis
Means the presence of stones

Nephrolith
Also known as renal calculus or a kidney stone, is found in the kidney

Ureterolith
Is a stone located everywhere along the ureter

Cystolith
Is a stone located within the urinary ladder

Hydroureter
Is the distinction of the ureter. With urine that cannot flow through because the ureter is blocked

Ureterectasis
Is the distinction of the ureter

Ectasis
Means enlargement

Urinary tract infection
Usually begins in the bladder; however, these infections can affect all or parts of the urinary system

Urethritis
Is an inflammation of the urethra

Cystitis
Is an inflammation of the bladder

Pyelitis
Is an inflammation of the renal pelvis

Pyelonephritis
Is an inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney

Cystodynia/Cystalgia
Both means pain in the urinary bladder

Cystocele
Also known as a fallen bladder, is a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall

Interstitial
Means relating to space within a tissue or organ

Interstitial cystitis
Is a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder

Trigonitis
Is an inflammation of the urinary bladder that is localized in the region of the trigone

Fistula
Is an abnormal passage between two internal organs

Vesicovaginal fistula
Is an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina

Neurogenic bladder
Is a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination

continence
Means the ability to control the voiding of urine

Neuropathy
Is a peripheral nervous system disorder affecting nerves anywhere except the brain or the spinal cord

Urethrorrhagia
Is bleeding from the urethra

Urethrorrhea
Is an abnormal discharge from the urethra

Urethrostenosis
Is narrowing of the urethra

Epispadias
Is a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. In male, the urethral opening it’s on the upper surface of the penis. In female, the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris.

Hypospadias
Is a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. In male, the urethral opening it’s on the under surface of the penis. In female, the urethral opening is into the vagina.

Paraspadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. In male, the urethral opening it’s on the side of the penis

Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Also known as an benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate or prostatomegaly, is an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50.

Hypertrophy
Is the general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is not due to tumor formation

Prostatism
Is the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hypertrophy

Prostatic cancer
Is one of the common cancers among men. The diseas can grow slowly with no symptoms or it. An grow aggressively and spread throughout the body

Prostatitis
Is an inflammation of the prostate gland

Diuresis
Is the increased output of urine

Dysuria
Is difficult or painful urination

uresis
Means urination

Enuresis
Is the involuntary discharge of urine

Nocturnal enuresis
Is urinary incontinence during sleep. It is also known as bed-wetting.

Nocturia
Is excessive urination during the night

Oliguria
Means scanty urination

Polyuria
Means excessive urination

Urinary hesitancy
Is difficulty in starting a urinary stream.

Bashful bladder syndrome
Is the inability to urinate when another person is present

Urinary retention
Is the inability to empty the bladder

Incontinence
Means the inability to control the secretion of urine and feces

Urinary incontinence
Is the inability to control the voiding of urine

Stress incontinence
Is the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing

Overactive bladder
Also known as urge incontinence, occurs when the detours or muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active.

Urinalysis
Is the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements.

Bladder ultrasound
Is the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination.

Catheterization
Is the insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes.

Cystography
Is a radio graphic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter

Cystoscopy
Is the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope

Cystoscope
Is also for treatment procedures such as the removal of tumors or the reduction of an enlarged prostate gland

Cystogram
Is the resulting film by creating a picture or record

Intravenous pyelogram
Also known as excretory urography, is a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters

Computed tomography
Also known as a CAT scan, is more commonly used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system because it can be rapidly performed and provides additional imaging of the abdomen, which may reveal other potential sources for the patient’s symptoms

KUB (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder)
Is a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contrast medium. This study is also referred to as a flat-plate of the abdomen.

Retrograde urography
Is a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward (backward) through the urinary tract.

nephorosis
is any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation.

Anuri
is the absence of urine formation by the kidneys.

Edema
is excessive fluid in the body

hypoproteinemia
is the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine.