Chapter 9: The Recovery and Growth of Europe in the High Middle Ages

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During the High Middle Ages, the expansion of arable land was achieved by each of the following EXCEPT A) Use of new fertilizers B) Cutting down trees C) Draining swamps D) Reclaiming land from the sea
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A) Use of new fertilizers
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One consequence of expanding arable land was
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the destruction of the forests
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The “new agriculture” of the High Middle Ages
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was in part brought about by a change from the two-field to the three-field system
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The abbot of Saint Denis who needed much wood for the construction of his new Gothic church near Paris was
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Suger
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The carruca was
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a heavy-wheeled plow
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People in the High Middle Ages learned to harness the power of water and ____ to do work.
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wind
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Activities of most European peasants were largely determined by
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the seasons of the year
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The basic staple of the peasant diet was
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bread
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What brought peasants into contact with the village church?
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religious feasts, holidays, Mass, baptism
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In the High Middle Ages, European society was dominated by the aristocracy, best described as
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“men of war”
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In medieval thought, women were considered
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subservient to men and subject to male authority
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Peasant women on the manor were expected to do each of the following EXCEPT A) bear children B) teach children to read and write C) spin and weave D) tend the vegetable garden
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B) teach children to read and write
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The main part of the medieval castle was called the
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keep
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All of the following are true of the ideal civilized behavior known as chivalry EXCEPT A) knights were to fight to defend the church B) knights were to protect the weak and defenseless C) chivalry was developed without influence of the church D) knights should treat captives as honored guests
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C) chivalry was developed without influence of the church
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A strong-willed woman of the High Middle Ages who inherited the duchy of Aquitaine and was twice married, each time to a king, was
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Eleanor
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Combative tournaments involving knights
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were considered by knights to be excellent and necessary training for warfare
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Marriages among the aristocracy of the High Middle Ages
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were expected to establish political alliances between families and increase their wealth
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The chief lessons for aristocratic boys were
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military
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The area that assumed a leading role in the revival of trade in the Middle Ages was
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France
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The center of the North Sea/Baltic trade route in northern Europe in the 1100s and 1200s, and an important center of woolen cloth production, was
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Flanders
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Cities in ____ assumed a leading role in the revival of trade.
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Italy
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Merchant cities in northern Europe, mainly grew up around
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castles or monastaries
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To protect the interests against nobles, townspeople often formed
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communes
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On the whole, medieval cities tended to be
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relatively undemocratic; the wealthy usually ruled and voted in civic elections
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Medieval cities
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had skylines dominated by the towers of churches, castles, and town halls
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A major cause of pollution in medieval cities was
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the smell and waste of animals and humans
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Guilds were organizations of
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artisans and craftsman who directed almost every aspect of the production process of certain trades
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The first university to be founded in Europe appeared in
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Bologna
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The primary emphasis of scholasticism was
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the reconciliation of Christian faith with reason
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The curriculum of the medieval university
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consisted of the trivium and quadrivium
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The revival pf Classical antiquity in the twelfth century was primarily caused by
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circulation in the west in Latin translation of many ancient philosophical and scientific works previously saved by Muslim scholars
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The philosopher from Classical antiquity who came to be viewed as the “master of those who know” was
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Aristotle
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Medieval university instruction
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used the lecture method
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The church figure who tried to reconcile faith with reason in his Summa Theologica was
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Thomas Aquinas
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Gothic cathedrals seem to soar upward as light and airy constructions due to all of the following innovation EXCEPT A) ribbed vaults B) flying buttresses C) thin walls filled with stained glass windows D) the addition of a transept E) pointed arches
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D) the addition of a transept
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The Gothic style of architecture emerged and was perfected in
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France
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An economic system in which commerce and industry are controlled by private owners is
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capitalism
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Bourgeoisie were
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merchants and artisans
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A book of hours, such as Tres Riches Heures, pertained to
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prayers for different times of days
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A towns emerged and grew, townspeople sometimes got into disputes with others. A “town and gown” quarrel refers to a conflict between townspeople and
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university students

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