Chapter 9 Sec 2-5 Groups

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group
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collection of individuals who interact with each other such that one person’s actions have an impact on the others, most work in organizations is done with groups
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informal work groups
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2 or more individuals who are associated with one another in ways not prescribed or mandated, for example a tennis group
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formal work group
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managers, subordinates, or both with close associations among group members that influence the behavior of individuals in the group
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forming-storming-norming-performing model (plus adjourning)
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5 stage map of group evolution, to successfully facilitate a group, the leader needs to move through various leadership styles over time
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forming stage
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group comes together for the first time. there is a level of formality and some anxiety/degree of guardedness. members tend to be polite, conflict avoidant and observant. At this point, group members are also discovering how the group will work in terms of what needs to be done and who will be responsible for each task. This stage is often characterized by abstract discussions about issues to be addressed by the group; those who like to get moving can become impatient with this part of the process. This phase is usually short in duration, perhaps a meeting or two.
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storming phase
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participant focus less on keeping their guard up, shed social facades, become more authentic and argumentative . members begin to explore their power and influence, stake out territory by differentiating themselves from other group members rather than than seeking common ground. heated discussions and arguments. Little is accomplished but group members are becoming more authentic and expressing deeper thoughts and feelings
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steps to avoid getting stuck in storming phase
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1. normalize conflict 2. be inclusive 3. make sure everyone is heard 4. support all group members 5. remain positive 6. don’t rush the group’s development
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norming stage
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we survived mentality, members often feel elated, more committed to each other and the group’s goal. find it easy to establish \”ground rules\” or NORMS and define op procedure and goals. this is the ideal time to host a social/team building event
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performing stage
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not only getting work done, but paying attention to HOW they are doing it, group leaders move into coaching roles and help members grow in skill and leadership
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adjourning stage
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group endings can be bittersweet, with group members feeling a combination of victory, grief, and insecurity about what is coming next. For those who like routine and bond closely with fellow group members, this transition can be particularly challenging. Group leaders and members alike should be sensitive to handling these endings respectfully and compassionately. An ideal way to close a group is to set aside time to debrief (\”How did it all go? What did we learn?\”), acknowledge each other, and celebrate a job well done.
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punctuated equilibrium
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life of a group is more dynamic and cyclical than the linear 5 stage model. groups can repeatedly cycle through the storming and performing stages, disruptions represent opportunities for innovation and creativity
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cohesion
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degree of camaraderie with the group. the more cohesive a group is the more productive and rewarding experience will be had. -collective identity -moral bond and desire to remain a part of the group -shared sense of purpose -structured pattern of communication
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fundamental factors of group cohesion
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-similarity: education, skills. age, sex, values, beliefs etc -stability: the longer the group stays together the more cohesive it gets -size: smaller groups = higher levels of cohesion -support:more support (coaching, encouraging) = increase in strength of group identity – satisfaction: cohesion is correlated ot how pleased group members are with each other’s performance, behavior and conformity to the group’s norms
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groupthink
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group pressure phenomenon that increases the risk of the group making flawed decisions by allowing reductions in mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgment, most common in highly cohesive groups
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social loafing
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tendency of individuals to put in less effort when working in a group context, rationale that my own effort will have little effect on the outcome, other aren’t pulling their weight why should i? etc
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collective efficacy
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group’s perception of its ability to successfully perform well
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9.2 Key takeaway
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Groups may be either formal or informal. Groups go through developmental stages much like individuals do. The forming-storming-norming-performing-adjourning model is useful in prescribing stages that groups should pay attention to as they develop. The punctuated-equilibrium model of group development argues that groups often move forward during bursts of change after long periods without change. Groups that are similar, stable, small, supportive, and satisfied tend to be more cohesive than groups that are not. Cohesion can help support group performance if the group values task completion. Too much cohesion can also be a concern for groups. Social loafing increases as groups become larger. When collective efficacy is high, groups tend to perform better.

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