Chapter 9 – Public Speaking

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strategic organization
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putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience
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main points
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the major points developed in the body of a speech. most speeches contain from two to five main points
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chronological order
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a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
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spatial order
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a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern
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casual order
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a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship
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problem-solution order
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a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem
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topical order
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a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
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supporting materials
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the materials used to support a speaker’s ideas. the three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony
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connective
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a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicated the relationship between them
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transition
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a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another
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internal preview
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a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
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internal summary
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a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker’s preceding point or points
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signpost
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a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas
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Why is it important that speeches be organized clearly and coherently?
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they should be put together in particular ways to achieve particular results with particular audiences. listeners trusted speakers more if their speech was organized
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How many main points will your speeches usually contain? Why is it important to limit the number of main points in your speech?
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between 2 or 3 main points. if you have too many main points, the audience will have trouble sorting them out
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What are the five basic patterns of organizing main points in a speech? Which are appropriate for informative speeches? Which is used only in persuasive speeches? Which is used most often?
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chronological order, spatial order, casual order, problem-solution order, and topical order. chronological, spatial, casual are used for informative speeches. problem-solution order is used mostly for persuasive speeches. topical order is used most often
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What are three tips for preparing your main points?
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keep main points separate, try to use the same pattern of wording for main points, and balance the amount of time devoted to main points
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What is the most important thing to remember when organizing supporting materials in the body of your speech?
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organize them so they are directly relevant to the main points they are supposed to support
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What are the four kinds of speech connectives? What role does each play in a speech?
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transitions, internal previews, internal summary, and signpost

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