Chapter 8 – Questions of Communication / The Narrative Paradigm

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program
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in the study of mind, an organized cognitive plan for accomplishing a particular end
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schema
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like program, in the study of mind, an organized cognitive plan for accomplishing a particular end
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persuasion
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the communication process in which people influence the opinions, attitudes, beliefs, and actions of others. Communication scholars often, but not inevitably, study persuasion as an intentional process of affecting target audiences
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classical rhetorical theory
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a traditional approach to rhetoric, based largely on the work of Aristotle and other ancient Greek and Roman rhetoricians
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rhetor
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one who uses rhetoric
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Sophists
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itinerant teachers in ancient Greece who taught people the practical everyday applications and skills of rhetoric
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deliberative rhetoric
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in classical rhetorical theory, rhetoric typically exhibited in public policy and legislative situations
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forensic rhetoric
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in classical rhetorical theory, rhetoric exhibited in courtrooms and other places where the facts and interpretations of individual cases are argued
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epideictic rhetoric
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in classical rhetorical theory, rhetoric typically exhibited in ceremonial public forums; such talk usually focuses on praising or blaming individuals for their virtues or vices
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inartistic means of persuasion
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in classical rhetorical theory, this is rhetoric based on methods of proving a case that are, for example, based on such external inducements as force, torture, bribes, or prior promises. Inartistic means, in general, are those that do not depend on creativity or imagination of the rhetor, or communicator
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artistic means of persuasion
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in classical rhetorical theory, persuasion characterized by creative work from a communicator to interpret facts and present proofs relevant to the case at hand
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ethos
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in classical rhetorical theory, a form of artistic proof that depends on the speaker’s character and credibility
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credibility
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a communicator’s expertise, trustworthiness, and, to a lesser extent, dynamism, as perceived by an audience
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expertise
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a factor of credibility that depends on a communicator’s relevant knowledge in a certain area
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trustworthiness
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a factor of credibility based on a communicator’s honesty, accuracy, and lack of bias
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dynamism
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a factor of credibility based on a communicator’s perceived enthusiasm and animation
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intentionality
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a philosophical concept that suggests that some processes must have an object in order for us to understand or talk about them. For example, it is said to be impossible to have \”consciousness\” without specifying its (term): we must have \”consciousness-of-something\”
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logos
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in classical rhetorical theory, a form of artistic proof that relies on logical argumentation and reasoning
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syllogism
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a form of logical reasoning that moves from major premise through minor premise to conclusion
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rhetorical examples
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in classical rhetorical theory, an inductive form of logical proof in which a communicator introduces illustrative instances that support the argument
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enthymemes
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a form of logical proof, similar to a syllogism, in which a key element is omitted on the expectation that audience members will supply it from their own experiences
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the narrative paradigm
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promotes the belief that humans are storytellers and that values, emotions, and aesthetic considerations ground our beliefs and behaviors. (we are more persuaded by a good story than a good argument)
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paradigm
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considered broader than a theory
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paradigm shift
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a significant change in the way people think about the world and its meanings
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rational world paradigm
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the mindset of logic as primary that scholars employ
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mythos
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story
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assumptions of the narrative paradigm
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(1) humans are natural storytellers (2) decisions about a story’s worth are based on \”good reasons (3) Good reasons are determined by history, biography, culture, and character (4) rationality is based on people’s judgements of a story’s consistency and truthfulness (5) we experience the world as filled with stories, and we must choose among them
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assumptions of the rational world paradigm
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(1) humans are rational beings (2) decision-making is based on arguments (3) arguments adhere to a specific criteria for soundness and logic (4) rationality is based in the quality of knowledge and formal reasoning processes (5) the world can be reduced to a series of logical relationships that are uncovered through reasoning
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narration
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an account to which listeners assign meaning
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narrative rationality
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a standard for judging which stories to believe and which to disregard; operates on the basis of two different principles: coherence and fidelity
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coherence
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a principle of narrative rationality judging the internal consistency of a story
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structural coherence
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a type of coherence referring to the flow of the story
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material coherence
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a type of coherence referring to the congruence between one story and other related stories
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characterological coherence
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a type of coherence referring to the believability of the characters in the story
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fidelity
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a principle of narrative rationality judging the credibility of a story
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good reasons
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a set of values for accepting a story as true and worthy of acceptance; provides a method for assessing fidelity
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first set of 5 questions that the listener asks about a narrative
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(1) Are the statements that claim to be factual in the narrative really factual? (2) Have any relevant facts been omitted from the narrative or distorted in its telling? (3) What are the patterns of reasoning that exist in the narrative? (4) How relevant are the arguments in the story to any decision the listener may make? (5) How well does the narrative address the important and significant issues of this case?
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second set of five questions (introduce concept of value into process)
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(1) What are the implicit and explicit values contained in the narrative? (2) Are the values appropriate to the decision that is relevant to the narrative? (3) What would be the effects of adhering to the values embedded in the narrative? (4) Are the values confirmed or validated in living experience? (5) Are the values of the narrative the basis for ideal human conduct?
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theorist of the narrative paradigm
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Walter Fisher
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Homo Narrans
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Humans are story telling animals

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