Chapter 8 Memory Psych

Flashcard maker : Sabrina Peterson
After Maya gave her friend the password to a protected website, the friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. In this instance, the password was clearly stored in her ______ memory.
short-term memory
Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf several times each week on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between…
explicit memory and implicit memory
Another term for implicit memory is
non-declarative memory
Mentally rehearsing the glossary definitions of unfamiliar terms in order to remember them for a later test illustrates
effortful processing
Employing the single word HOMES to remember the names of North America’s Five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of
a mnemonic technique
The semantic processing of the words in a short term poem illustrates
deep processing
Which of the following is central to the processing of procedural memories?
basal ganglia
Conscious memories of emotionally stressful events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the
amygdala
Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory?
long-term potentiation
At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the first three and the last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates
the serial position effect
After suffering from a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Arotza cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember events before the accident. Arotza’s memory difficulty most clearly illustrates
anterograde amnesia
The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls positive life experiences. This best illustrates that emotional states can become
retrieval cues
During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studies that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary that she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates
proactive interference
Mrs. McBride can’t consciously recall how frequently she criticizes her children because it would be too anxiety-arousing to do so. Sigmund Freud would have suggested that her poor memory illustrates
repression
After Teresa was verbally threatened by someone passing in a car, she was asked whether she recognized the man who was driving. Several hours later, Teresa mistakenly recalled that the driver was a male rather than a female. This best illustrates
the misinformation effect
Researchers now recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory and refer to it as ________ memory
working
When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impossible not to register the meanings of the words. This best illustrates the importance of
automatic processing
Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?
a mental image of one’s best friend
When you have to make a long-distance call, dialing an unfamiliar area code plus a seven-digit number, you are likely to have trouble retaining the just-looked up number. This best illustrates the limited capacity of_____ memory
short-term memory
Combining individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best illustrates the value of
chunking
Which of the following questions about the word depressed would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you have seen the word on this quiz?
How well does the word describe you?
Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster the second time even though they can’t recall having seen the story before. They have most likely suffered damage to the
hippocampus
Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they first learned of the death of a close friend or family member. This best illustrates ______ memory
flashbulb
A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer form a displayed list of options is known as a measure of
recognition
Activating memories of your childhood by forming vivid mental images of various locations in your childhood home best illustrates
priming
Whenever Valeri experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie’s experience best illustrates
mood-congruent memory
The gradual fading of the physical memory trace contributes to
storage decay
While taking the final exam in American history, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the current president of the United States. Her difficult most clearly illustrates
retrieval failure
Although Ron typically smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, he recalls smoking little more than a pack a day. This poor memory best illustrates
motivated forgetting
Several months after watching a science fiction movie about spaceship travel and alien abductions, Steve began to remember that he had been abducted by aliens and personally subjected to many of the horrors in the movie. His mistaken recall best illustrates
source amnesia
Anterograde Amnesia
an inability to form new memories
Automatic Processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
Chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Deep Processing
encoding semantically, based on the meaning the words; tends to yield the best retention
Deja Vu
that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Echoic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Effortful Processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Encoding
the processing of information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning
Explicit Memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called DECLARATIVE MEMORY)
Flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Implicit Memory
retention independent of conscious recollection (also called non declarative memory) – muscle memory
Long-Term Memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
Long-Term Potentiation
an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
Memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Misinformation Effect
incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event
Mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Mood-Congruent Memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
Proactive Interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
Recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
Relearning
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
Retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage.
Retroactive Interference
the disruptive effect of new learning not he recall of old information
Retrograde Amnesia
an inability to retrieve information from one’s past
Sensory Memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Serial Position Effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Shallow Processing
encoding on a basic level based on structure or appearance of words
Short-Term Memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number, before the information is stored or forgotten
Source Amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experience, heard about, read about, or imagined (also called source misattribution.) Source Amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories
Spacing Effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Storage
the retention of encoded information over time
Testing Effect
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

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