Chapter 8: Female Reproductive System

gynecology (GYN)
is the study of the female reproductive organs, including the breasts.

gynec/o
female

Obstetrics (OB)
A branch of medicine concerned with pregnancy and childbirth

obstetr/o
childbirth

neonatology
concentrates on the care of the neonate or newborn

nat/i
birth

neo
new

ovaries (gonads)
Essential female organ that produces the ovum

ovum
female sex cell/ egg

gametes
ovum and sperm cells are called collectively…

last menstrual period
(LMP)

fertilization
The female reproductive system functions to receive the sperm from a male and to unite the ovum with the sperm in the process of

The ovary (ovari/o, oophor/o)
the gamete-producing organ of the female reproductive system.

graafian follicles
Each ovary weighs about 3 grams and has a puckered, uneven appearance, caused by its contents—thousands of small sacs, called ___________ ______, or ovarian follicles, that contain the ova (sing., ovum).

corpus luteum (“yellow body”)
the anatomic structure on the surface of the ovary, consisting of a yellow glandular mass in the ovary formed by an ovarian follicle that has matured and discharged its ovum. If the ovum has been impregnated, the corpus luteum grwos in siz and persists for severla months; if impregnation has not occurred, the corpus luteum shrinks and degenerates

Uterus
Hollow pear-shaped female internal organ in which the fertilized ovum is implanted and the fetus develops and from which the menses flow

utero-ovarian ligaments
bands of fibrous tissue that connect uterus to ovaries

fallopian tubes (salpingo, -salpinx)
One of a pair of long slender ducts that extend from the upper lateral cornu of the uterus to the ovary legion of the same side. The tube consists of four parts–the infundibulum, fimbriae, isthmus, and ampulla—and serves as the channel through wich an ovum is transported to the uterus and through which spermatozoa travel out toward the ovary.

ovulation
epulsion of a secondary oocyte from the ovary after spontaneous rupture of a follicle due to cyclic ovarian and pituitary endocrine function

fimbriae
fringe-like projections on the outer end of each fallopian tube catch the egg

cilia
small haris in lining of tube which help to move ovum toward the uterus

adnexa uteri
accessory structures of the uterus which include the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and supporting ligaments

body (corpus)
upper portion of uterus

cervix (Cx)
lower narrow section of uterus

fundus
area above where fallopian tubes attach to the uterus

endometrium
inner lining of uterus

myometrium
thick muscular middle layer of uterus

epimetrium(perimetrium) (uterine serosa)
outside serous layer of uterus

menstruation (menses)
periodic discharge through the vaginal canal of blood and tissues from the shedding of hte endometrium from the nonpregnant uterus

Vagina (vagin/o, colp/o)
long hollow tube extending just below utterus and is an expandable muscular canal 3 to 4 inches in length that lies between the urinary bladder and the rectum

hymen
sometimes covers the vaginal opening. A fold of mucous membrane.

gonad
gamete-producing organ in either the male or female reproductive system

vulva
external female genital organs, including the labia majora and minora, mons pubis, bulb of the vestibule, vestibule of the vagina, lesser and greater vestibular glands, and vaginal orifice

vulva
vulv/p episi/o

bartholin glands
one of two small glands that secrete mucus and are situated on the lateral and posterior aspect of the vestibule of the vagina

mons pubis
fleshy round prominence over the symphysis pubis

labia majora
two long lips of skin, one on each side of the vaginal opening outside the labia minora, extending from the anterior labial commissure to the posterior labial commissure and forming the lateral borders of the pudendal cleft

labia minora
two folds of skin between the labia majora that extend backward from the clitoris on both sides of the vaginal opening and end bewteen it and the labia majora

clitoris
small erectile body location at the anterior angle of the rima pudendi; homologous to the corpora cavernosa of the penis. composed of erectile tissue serving as a sensitive receptor of sexual stimulation

symphysis pubis
slightly movable interpubic join of the pelvis, formed by the union of the pubic bones in the median plane by a thick mass of fibrocartilage

perineum(perine/o)
are between the vagina and the anus

breasts (mammary glands)
accessory structures of the female reproductive system that lie on the upper chest between the second and sixth ribs
composed of glandular, fatty, and fibrous tissue

lactation
production of nutrient-rich milk (lat/o galact/o for the newborn

lobes
each brast has 15-20 ____ tahtre are made up of several lobules that contain milk-secreting cells

parurition
childbirth

lactiferous
conveying or producing milk

lactiferous sinuses
a cavity or channel converging in a spokelike fashion toward the nipple

nipple
mammary papilla is surrounded by a pigmented area known as the areola

suspensory ligaments of Cooper
glandular structures of breast are anchored to skin and pectoral muscle by the ______ which helps support the glandular and connective tissues of the entire breast

alveolar glands (alveoli)
contained in the lobes of the breast that are arranged in clusters and drain int othe ductule

ductule (of the breast)
channel that takes the drainage from the alveolar and pass it into the duct

duct
takes the drainage from the ductule and passes it through the lactiferous duct toward the nipple

oocyte
immature ovum

ova
After a girl reaches puberty and experiences menarche, the number of oocytes reduce to about 400,000. Over the course of a woman’s reprodctuve life,400- 500 of these sex cells will actualy mature into ____

-arche
beginning

menarche
female’s first reproductive cycle

temperature
Maintaining a daily record of a female’s body ________(charting its fluctuations in relation ot he ovulation cycle) can help to plan timing of sexual intercourse to increase likelihood of pregnancy

coitus
sexual connection between two people of opposite sex in which the penis is introduced into the vagina

hormone
ovaries peform the important function of secreting _______

estrogen
cells that surround the ovum within the ovarian follicles—follicular cells–secrete the hormone ______

estrogen
actions include promoting development of reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics and initiating the menstrual cycle

progesterone
secreted by corpus luteum which produces a small amount of estrogen.
Stimulates growth of the endometrial lining of the uterus to support the fertilized ovum should pregnancy occur.

Pituitary gland
______ ____ hormones controll production of estrogen and progesterone

gonadotropin
hypothalamus produces this hormone which causes the release of a hormone called GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) which leads to the release of two more hormones from the pituitary gland

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
induces the development of ovarian follicles and their secretion of estrogen

luteinizing hormone (LH)
causes the mature follicle to rupture and to release its ovum. Also stimulates the maturation of the ovum and the formation of the corpus luteum.

Sustained high
sustained ___ blood levels of estrogen and progesterone, which occurs during pregnancy and with the use of contraceptive birth control pills, suppress the production of the pituitary gland hormones and prevent ovulation.

Cyclic changes
involving the uterus occur simultaneously with the events of the monthly ovarian cycle

1 to 5
Days __ ___ ___: During each month in which an ovum is not fertilized, menstruation occurs, and patches of dead cells, torn tissue, and blood from torn arteries are shed from the endometrium and discharged from the uterus through the vagina.

6 to 12
Days __ __ __: Now the cells of the uterine lining reproduce and the endometrium undergoes a period of repair. At the same time, another ovarian follicle—containing a maturing ovum—is developing, and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) is causing estrogen production to increase toward its peak level.

13 to 14
Days __ ___ __: As the estrogen content in the blood increases, the anterior pituitary gland is stimulated to secrete LH (luteinizing hormone), causing the mature follicle to eject the ovum. Ovulation often occurs on day 14.

15 to 28
Days __ __ __: With the ovum moving through the fallopian tubes for possible fertilization, the uterine lining again begins to prepare for pregnancy. LH triggers the corpus luteum to secrete an increased level of progesterone, and in response, the uterine lining becomes thicker and develops a greater blood supply. When fertilization does not occur, secretions from the corpus luteum diminish, progesterone levels drop, endometrial cells die, and the reproductive cycle repeats with the onset of menstrual bleeding.

menopause
Thirty to 40 years after menarche, a woman’s reproductive life comes to a close during what is known as _______ or the climacteric.
Characterized by decrease in estrogen production
ovulation and menstruation eventually stop

coitus (sexual intercourse)
If _________ has occurred, sperm cells deposited in the vagina will be carried through the uterus and into the fallopian tube.

gestation
in vivparous animals, the period of development of the young, from the time of fertilization of the ovum until birth

zygote
the combined cell produced from the union of a male and a female gamete at the end of a fertilization; the fertilized ovum

wall
10 days after ovulation, the zygote comes to rest on the uterine ___

emrbyo
corpus luteum helps to support the implanted fertlilized ovum which is now called an _____ (2- 6 weeks)

corpus luteum
helps to support implanted fertilized ovum by secreting increasing amounts of progesterone to maintain the endometrium

amniotic cavity
As the embryo develops, it forms an outer layer of cells and an inner cell mass. The inner cell mass becomes a structure with two cavities—the yolk sac and the ____ _____. This _____ ____ becomes a fluid-filled, protective sac of amniotic fluid, in which the embryo floats during development.

yolk sac
produces blood cells for the embryo

amniotic cavity
the inner membranous layer of which is called the amnion (amni/o)

chorion
outermost layer of the membranes surrounding the embryo

chorion
chori/o

placenta
highly vascular organ that serves as a bridge to the maternal circulation for the exchange of nutrients and wastes

fetus
After 6 to 8 weeks of pregnancy which is anchored to the uterine wall by the placenta

fet/o
fetus

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
chemical component secreted by placenta which promotes the continued secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum until about the third month of pregnancy, when the placenta itself completely assumes that function

gravid/o (cyesis,-gravida_
pregnancy

labor
process that results in hte birth of a newborn which begins with the onset of strong uterine contractions causing cervix to dilate allowing fetus to pass from the uterus through the vagina

primi
first

primigravida
pregnant for the first time

multigravida
woman who has had more than one pregnancy

nulligravida
woman who has never been pregnant

nulli
never

G
abbreviation for pregnancy

-para
delivery

primipara
given birth once

multipara
woman has delivered more than one baby

reproductive history
para 1: full term
para 2: preterm
para 3: aborted
para 4: living biological children
example) para 2-0-1-1

hyster/o
uterus

DUB
dysfunctional uterine bleeding (bleeding not associated with menstruation

AUB
abnormal uterine bleeding

menorrhagia
abnormally long or heavy menstrual periods. Also called hypermenorrhea

men/o
menstrual

rrhagia
bursting forth of blood

metrorrhagia
uterine bleeding not caused by menstruation, occurring at frequent but irregular intervals

metr/o
uterine

menometrorrhagia
excessive uterine bleeding that occurs both during and between menstrual periods

dys
painful

men
menstrual

dysmenorrhea
pain associated with menstruation

amenorrhea
an abnormal cessation or absence of menses. Also called amenia

oligomeonrrhea
light, scarce, or scanty menstrual flow

olig/o
scanty

fibroids
an informal term for a fibroma or myoma, especially of the uterus
(development is believed to be stimulated by estrogen)

leiomyomas
A benign smooth-muscle tumor, most commonly of the uterus

leiomy/o
smooth, visceral muscle

-oma
tumor or mass

choriocarcinoma
malignant neoplasm of the uterus that arise from the chorionic membrane, or placenta. tumor invades and destroys the myometrium and then metastasizes through the lympth or blood vessels. Signs include enlarged ovaries, bleeding, and positive pregnancy test

chori/o
chorionic membrane

ectopic pregnancy
An abnormal pregnancy in which the product of conception implants outside the uterus, often in the fallopian tubes

abortion (AB)
premature termination of pregnancy, whether spontaneous and unplanned or planned

miscarriage
unplanned termination of pregnancy

Endometriosis
is a condition in which the endometrial tissue that lines the uterus proliferates and is transferred to sites outside the uterine cavity. A number of causes are believed responsible for this condition, including the backward flow, during menstruation, of fragments of endometrium. These fragments then attach to the fallopian tubes, the ovaries, and to other structures in the pelvic cavity.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
is an inflammation and infection of any number of organs in the pelvic region—including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and cervix. It can include endometritis, as well as endocervicitis,

endometritis
inflammation of the endometrium

endocervicitis
inflammation of the intter lining of the cervix

Endometrial carcinoma
cancerous tumor of the inner lining of the uterus—is the most commonly occurring gynecologic cancer. It is often referred to as a disease of older women because it usually develops after menopause. As with cervical cancer, endometrial carcinoma tends to be preceded by abnormal changes in uterine tissue. Endometrial hyperplasia can be the precursor to malignancy.

endometrial hyperplasia
over growth of endometrium caused by sustained estrogen stimulation

cervicitis
an inflammation of the lower necklike portion of the uterus that protrudes into the vaginal cavity

leukorrhea
condition may be either acute or chronic and can sometimes produce a white or yellowish pus-filled discharge from the vagina

vaginitis
inflammation of the vagina

vulvitis
inflammation of the vulva

vulvovaginitis
inflammation of both the vulva and the vagina

cervical dysplasia
alterations in the size, shape, and/or appearance of the cells that form cervical tissue (an early change that often signals the development of a cancerous condition

Carcinoma in situ (CIS)
abnormal cells, though not invading adjacent structures, evidence more of the characteristics associated with cancer (a strong predictor of cervical cancer

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
cervical dysplasia and CIS together referred to as

development
cervical cancer is yet unknown, __________ of the disease is associated with a number of risk factors, including low socioeconomic status, smoking, multiple pregnancies, and chronic gynecologic infections, particularly human papilloma virus (HPV) infections.

human papilloma virus (HPV)
a virus causing causing warts of the feet and hands, as well as lesions of the mucous membranes of the anal, oral, and genital cavities; affects both males and females, can be transmitted by sexual contact, and is a precursor to cancer of the cervix

Ovarian cysts
globular sacs filled with fluid or semisolid material that develop in or on the ovaries

Ovarian carcinoma
a malignant neoplasm of the ovaries, is the most deadly gynecologic cancer among women in the United States; this is because it tends not to be diagnosed until it is far advanced. The cause of the condition is not well understood, but its development is associated with hereditary, environmental, and dietary factors. Early stages of the disease produce few, if any, symptoms. As it progresses, ovarian cancer may cause abdominal swelling, weight loss, abnormal bleeding, and pelvic pain.

cystadenocarcinomas
malignant growths.

cystadenomas
benign growths

Dermoid cysts
ovarian tumors that contain different kinds of tissue, including fatty material, hair, teeth, bits of bone, and cartilage.

PID
most frequently caused by repeated bacterial infections or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Characteristics include fever, a foul-smelling vaginal discharge, pain in the lower abdomen, and abnormal bleeding. When the fallopian tubes are affected—a condition called salpingitis (Fig. B)—purulent material can collect, causing a partial or complete tubal obstruction. PID can also take the form of oophoritis

oophoritis
inflammation of the ovary.

Tubal pregnancy (ectopic pregnancy)
constitutes a surgical emergency, as continued development of the embryo within the fallopian tube can lead to rupture. Other sites of ectopic pregnancy, which also require surgical intervention for removal of the implant, include the ovaries, cervix, and the abdominal cavity,

proteinuria
urine specimen with a high protein content

preeclampsia
an abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, large quantities of protein in the urine (proteinuria), and swelling of the legs and feet (edema). May be mild or severe

Placenta previa
A condition in which the placenta has developed in the lower portion of the uterus in such a way as to partially or completely cover the cervical opening.

Abruptio placentae
potentially life-threatening condition that may occur during pregnancy. Involves separation, or tearing away, of the placenta from the uterine wall. This condition often results in severe hemorrhage.

dystocia
If the labor and delivery is difficult while

-tocia
labor and delivery

oxytocia
rapid labor and delivery.

oxy-
rapid

oxytocin
promotes uterine contractions

erythroblastosis fetalis
the incompatibility of maternal and fetal blood types leads to destruction of red blood cells in the newborn.
Intrauterine transfusion of blood or immediate exchange transfusions after birth may be required.

Down syndrome
a chromosomal abnormality known as trisomy 21.
identifiable by
1.slanted eyes
2.a flattened nose
3.an enlarged tongue
4. short, stubby hands and feet.
5. mental retardation, which may vary from moderate to severe.

episiotomy
a widening of the vaginal opening with a scalpel to make delivery easier without tearing the vaginal orifice

fetal presentation
position of the baby in relation to the birth canal

cephalic version
the head turned toward the cervix during childbirth

Apgar score
developed by anesthesiologist Virginia Apgar, evaluates five factors that may indicate a need for immediate intervention.
1. Infant’s heart rate
2. Respiration
3. Muscle tone
4. Color
5. Response to skin stimulation

meconium aspiration syndrome
the fetus’s lungs can become blocked by meconium, the first stools of a fetus or newborn. At birth, then, the lungs fail to expand, causing respiratory distress.

Hyaline membrane disease (HMD),
also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn, is an acute lung disorder often associated with prematurity and low birth weight. The condition is caused by a lack of surfactant. Without this substance, small air sacs within the lungs collapse because of increased tension, a problem indicated by the baby’s labored breathing. Treatment includes measures to maintain adequate oxygenation.

surfactant
a substance formed from protein and produced by special cells in the lungs which allows the easy movement of air in and out of the lungs

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
a protective fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord

hydrocephalus
abnormal accumulation and manifestation as a neonatal disorder which results in
1. Enlargement of the infant’s head
2. Disproportionately small face
3. Eyes that appear depressed within the sockets.
Treatment consists of the insertion of a tube, called a shunt, to drain the excessive fluid and relieve pressure on the brain.

Pyloric stenosis
Characterized by a narrowing of the muscular ring—the pyloric sphincter—separating the stomach from the first portion of the small intestine. Surgical correction of the disorder may be required.

Fibrocystic breast disease
The presence of single or multiple palpable cysts and is the most frequently occurring breast disorder. Fibrocystic changes of the breast are often most evident before and during menstruation and subside afterward. Incidence of the condition is greatest among nulliparous women and those who are between the ages of 40 and 50.

nulliparous
women who have never given birth

mastitis
an inflammation of the breast which can affect women who are nursing

galactorrhea
an abnormal discharge of milk from the breasts

invasive ductal carcinoma
The most common malignancy of the breast in women

ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
A precancerous lesion that indicates a higher risk for invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

hysterosalpingography (HSG)
a diagnostic test that involves the imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes following the injection of contrast dye.

pelvic ultrasonography
the process of imaging deep body structures by measuring and recording sound waves to detect leiomyomas. These sound waves are sent and received by means of a device called a transducer that converts them into electrical impulses

Transvaginal ultrasound
which involves placing a transducer in the vaginal canal, offers a sharper image of internal structures than does transabdominal ultrasonography

a maternal alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test
Performed to reveal multiple gestations
as well as conditions such as neural tube defects.

prenatal amniocentesis
In the 16th week of pregnancy, the pregnant woman may undergo a procedure that involves the insertion of a needle through the abdomen for aspiration of amniotic fluid. Fetal cells contained in the fluid are cultured for microscopic analysis, and a karyotype is made to analyze chromosomes. The fluid can also be tested for chemical signs of fetal spinal cord and spinal column defects.

culdocentesis
fluid is removed through a needle inserted through the vagina into the cul-de-sac (culd/o). The presence of blood in the aspirated fluid can help to signal a ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

Fetal monitoring
With the use of procedures such as ultrasonography and electrocardiography, ___ ____ can provide information about
1. fetal heart rate (FHR)
2. development
3. positioning within the uterus

Pelvimetry
measurement of the dimensions of the maternal pelvis, helps to evaluate the mother’s capacity for vaginal delivery

Pap (Papanicolaou) smear
A diagnostic measure used to screen for cervicitis and for a number of other gynecologic problems. The test is performed by collecting cells from the cervix and vagina, during a pelvic exam, and staining and preserving the cells for microscopic study.
Can help to detect cervical cancer

atypical squamous cells of undertermined significance
ASCUS

Protein marker test (CA-125)
tests used to measure tumor-generated proteins present in the blood

Dilation and curettage (D&C)
widening of the uterine cervix and scraping of the endometrium of the uterus which is performed to diagnose endometrial cancer and other conditions.
*This same procedure is also useful in treating some of these cancers as well.

ECC
Endocervical curettage

Endometrial biopsy (EMB)
helpful in pinpointing a specific diagnosis.
Biopsy of endometrium

Colposcopy
An endoscopic procedure used for cervical/vaginal biopsies using an instrument called a colposcope (a special lighted, magnifying instrument)

colp/o
vagina

culdoscopy
Uses a culdoscope for biopsy of a cul-de-sac

culd/o
cul-de-sac

hysteroscopy
uses a hysteroscope to remove either a fibroid or polyp from the uterus

Laparoscopy
Uses a laparoscope to remove adbominal lesions or to perform a hysterectomy or biopsy the ovary

laparotomy
an incision into the abdomen performed for exploration and diagnosis of ovarian cancer in particular

conization (cone biopsy)
removal of a cone shaped sample of cervical tissue for further study using a loop electrocautery excision procedure (LEEP), carbon dioxide laser, or surgical knife

breast self-exam (BSE)
The initial signs of breast cancer are usually a small, painless lump (most often located in the upper outer quadrant of the breast); thick or dimpled skin; and/or retraction of the nipple.
** Most of these signs are discovered by the woman herself during a monthly _____ _____ ___

mammogram
radiographic image of the soft tissue of the breast

mammography
x-ray imaging of the breast

biopsy of breast
helps to rule out a diagnosis of breast tumor

full-field digital mammography
mammography that is faster and displays images on a computer screen

staging
carcinoma of the breast is classified in terms of its growth and progression through a process called ______

lymphatic
As cancer develops, the tumor invades the surrounding breast tissue and is carried—either by ________ drainage or systemic circulation— to other sites in the body.

lumpectomy
tumor and immediate surrounding tissue are removed while preserving the remaining breast tissue

sentinel node biopsy (SNB) (SLN biopsy)
determines whether the brest tumor has spread to the lymph nodes. Procedure involves injecting a blue dye or radioisotope into the site and tracking it to identify the sentinel node(s). The sentinel node(s) are removed for microscopic study to see if they are affected. If not, the procedure stops there; if they are affected, more nodes are removed to determine the extent of involvement. The surgery is then followed by radiation to the affected tissues to kill any remaining tumor cells.

aspiration
the use of a needle to withdraw fluid from the cysts

myomectomy
excision of fibroids

in vitro fertilization (IVF)
both ova and sperm are combined in a glass laboratory dish (in vitro). In this procedure, if fertilization is successful, then after two or three days, the fertilized ova are injected into the woman’s uterus through the cervix.

estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)
______ ________ _____—is sometimes recommended to relieve discomforts of menopause

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)—
Therapy to help relieve discomforts of low estrogen. Low estrogen replacement appears to contribute to cardiovascular health and to prevent the loss of bone mass that occurs with aging; however, it increases a woman’s risk for stroke and thromboembolism. Estrogen is also believed to increase the risk of breast and endometrial cancer.

cesarean section (CS; C-section)
If severe hemorrhagign occurs _____ ______ : a surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus—may be necessary to save the mother’s life.

intrauterine device
a contraceptive device that consists of a bent piece of radiopaque plastic and a monofilament tail; inserted during or just after menstruation and situated with the string of the tail left projecting a few centimeters from the cervix

intra-
within

uter/o
uterus

-ine
pertaining to

tubal ligation
cutting, burning, or tying off of the oviducts that results in sterility

sterility
inability to reproduce

Hysterectomy
Treatment of endrometriosis varies from pharmacologic management to surgical removal of the endometrial lesions. The surgical removal of the uterus is

total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH)
uterus and cervix are removed through an abdominal incision

total vaginal hysterectomy (TVH)
uterus is removed through the vagina

laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH)
a variation of this takes place superior to or over the cervix in laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH).

salpingectomy
resection of a fallopian tube as opposed to a total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO)

cervicitis
can be treated by administering antibiotics

Cautery (cauterization)
(use of heat to destroy diseased tissue) used to treat cervical erosion

cryosurgery (cryocauterization)
freezing and excising abnormal cervical tissue with a liquid nitrogen probe

choriocarcinoma
both chemotherapy and dilation and curettage are used to treat cancers such as ___________ of the uterus.

pelvic exenteration
removal of all the pelvic organs when the cancer, though advanced, has not spread beyond the pelvic caviy

cysts
____ often arise in response to hormone stimulation, many resolve spontaneously when hormone levels diminish

cystectomy
surgical removal of a cyst

oophorectomy
excision of one or both ovaries

salpingo
oophorectomy; surgical removal of oviducts and ovaries

mastectomy
surgical removal of one or both breasts

radical mastectomy
removal of the breast, lymph nodes, and adjacent chest wall muscle if the lymph nodes are involved

modified radical mastectomy
pectoral muscles are preserved

adjuvant chemotherapy
treatment with chemical agents or drugs given any time the lymph nodes are involved

mammoplasty
refers to any type of surgical repair of the breast

TRAM flap
transrectus abdominis musculocutaneous tissue is used for the reconstruction of the breast.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
is the aspiration of placental tissue for the purpose of detecting congenital abnormalities