chapter 8 deviance

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the term social control refers to
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techniques and strategies for conduct concerning a social norm
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sanctions are defined as
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penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
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which of the following terms refers to going along with one’s peers, with peers defined as individuals of a person’s own status who have no special right to direct that person’s behavior?
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labeling
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social control carried out casually by people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule is
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informal social control
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obedience refers to
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compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
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social control carried out by authorized agents- such as police officers, judges, school administration and employers- is called
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formal social control
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which of the following theories offers a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society
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controlling theory
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Deviance is behavior that
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violates the standards of conduct or expectations or a group or society
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which term is used in the sociological literature to describe a loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
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anomie
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according to robert merton, an innovator is an individual who has
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accepted the goals of society, but pursues them with means regarded as improper
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in robert merton’s terms, people who overzealously and cruelly enforce bureaucratic regulations can be classified as
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rebels
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according to robert merton, a retreatist is an individual who has
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withdrawn from the goals and means of society
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which theory was used by edwin sutherland to emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with others
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cultural transmission
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the societal-reaction approach is also known as
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labeling theory
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crime is a violation of
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criminal law for which formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority
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a professional criminal is
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a person who pursues crime as a daily occupation, developing skill techniques, and enjoying a degree of status among other criminals
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the work of a group that regulates between various criminal enterprises involved in the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other illegal activities is called
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organized crime
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the term “ethnic succession” as used by Daniel Bell, refers to
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the process during which the leadership of organized crime is passed from one ethnic group to another
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what term is used to refer to crimes committed by individuals in the course of their daily business activities
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white collar crimes
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crime that occurs across multiple national borders is
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transnational crime
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which perspective would look to disproportionate economic and lobbying power wielded by groups such as the National Rifle Association in the debate over gun violence in US society
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interactionist
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One of the major themes revealed from Sudhir Venkatesh’s fieldwork for his book Gang Leader for a Day was
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the gang tied tried to create a certain level of neighborhood stability
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Which of the following has a role in maintaining social control
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family, government, peer group
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historically, legal measures aimed at blocking discrimination based on race, religion, gender, age and sexual orientation have been difficult to implement because
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many people tactily encourage such violations
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According to a study by Stanley Milgram, individuals will:
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. obey the commands of people viewed as legitimate authority figures, even if the behavior may harm another individual
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what was the motivation behind stanley milgram’s experimental study of obedience
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to better understand German involvement in the annihilation of Jews in WWII
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what type of informal social control is supported by 59% of pediatricians in spite of the risk of harmful effects to recipients
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spanking
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about how many people are imprisoned in non-governmental run prisons in the US- a significant means of formal social control
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about 118,000
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In 2002, following the passage of the PATRIOT Act, the FBI searched the records of hundreds of dive shops and scuba organizations because of speculation that terrorists might:
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try to approach their targets underwater.
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control theory states that we
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are bonded to our friends, family members, and peers in a way that leads us to follow the moves and folkways of our scoiety
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which of the following statements is true relative to stigma and deviance in the US
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Many people with “normal” appearance have cosmetic surgery each year because of the “beauty myth.” People may be stigmatized for deviant behaviors in which they no longer engage. A person need not be guilty of a crime to be stigmatized.
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the contemporary study of possible genetic roots of criminality is but one aspect of the larger debate over
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sociology
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which of the following connections to criminality is commonly rejected by sociologists
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genetic roots
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in Emile Durkheim’s view
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the punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to social stability.
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The most common adaptation in Robert Merton’s anomie theory of deviance is:
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conformity
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In his anomie theory of deviance, Robert Merton:
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suggested that conformists tend to ignore societal goals.
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Which sociologist used the term “differential association” to describe the process by which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violation of rules?
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Edwin Sutherland
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Which sociologist constructed an experiment utilizing an abandoned car in two different neighborhoods in order to demonstrate the power of communal relationships?
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Philip Zimbardo
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In his study of the Saints and the Roughnecks, William Chambliss concluded that a key factor in the varying fortunes of the two groups was their differing:
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social class standing.
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A person convicted of a crime—even when prior arrest record and severity of the crime are taken into account—is more likely to receive a shorter prison sentence if he or she is:
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White and non-Hispanic.
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Feminist sociologists contend that the so-called victimless crime of prostitution, as well as the more disturbing aspects of pornography:
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reinforce the misconception that women can be treated as “toys.”
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An important aspect of a professional criminal’s work is
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developing technical skills.
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Independent analysis has revealed which of the following regarding white-collar crime in the United States
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The number of cases prosecuted was lower in 2008 than 2000.
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Which of the following is true of white-collar crime?
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Conviction generally does not harm the person’s reputation or career aspirations as much as conviction for a street crime would
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Which of the following statements about crime rates in the U.S. is correct?
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Reported crime in the U.S. is high, and the public continues to regard crime as a major social problem. There has been a significant decline in violent crime in the U.S. in recent years. Crimes committed by women have increased.
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Underreporting of crime in the U.S.:
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has been a problem because members of minority groups often refrained from contacting the police AND it is largely the result of White males failing to report crimes because of their insistence on maintaining a macho image.
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Which type of crime is unlikely to be reported in victimization surveys?
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fraud
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In which country are rates of car theft higher than in the U.S.?
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england, italy, new zealand
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Over the past five years, what percentage of all murders committed involved firearms?
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about 66%
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What percentage of all gun purchases are denied as a result of checks instituted by the 1994 Brady Act?
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47%
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Which sociological perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?
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functionalist perspective
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Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the association between the use of surveillance techniques as a means of social control and the power of an authoritarian government?
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conflict perspective
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Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the stigmatizing nature of formal social controls that require convicted sex-offenders to register with police agencies and have their pictures published in newspapers to make their identities publicly known?
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functionalist perspective
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“Deviance defines the limits of proper behavior.” This statement represents the view of which sociological perspective?
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feminist perspective
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Which sociological perspective’s approach to deviance focuses on why rule violation continues to exist in societies despite pressures to conform and obey
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functionalist
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Which theory attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions?
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social disorganization theory
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Which of the following is a criticism of social disorganization theory?
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seems to “blame the victim”
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An important tenet of labeling theory is the recognition that some individuals or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others. This view shares the emphasis on the social significance of power as purported by the:
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conflict
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A bank president is found guilty of tax evasion. In addition to paying the government all the money he owes with substantial interest, he is sentenced to three years’ probation and a $50,000 fine. At the same time, a female teller at the same bank is found guilty of stealing $500. The teller is sentenced to a prison term of no less than four years. This differential treatment would be of particular concern to sociologists using the:
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conflict
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Which of the following examined obedience by conducting an experiment that required subjects to administer “painful” shocks to subjects in an analysis of “learning?”
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Stanley Milgram
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Which sociologist is responsible for creating control theory
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Travis Hirschi
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Which sociologist noted that punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and contribute to societal stability?
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Émile Durkheim
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Which sociologist illustrated the boundary-maintenance function of deviance by examining the Puritans of seventeenth-century New England?
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Kai Erikson
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Which functionalist sociologist developed a theory of deviance that suggests that members of a society may conform or deviate from the culturally prescribed goals and the means of attaining those goals?
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Robert Merton
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Which sociologist examined two groups of high school males—the Saints and the Roughnecks—and concluded that social class standing was important in the labeling process?
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William Chambliss
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Which sociologist created an interactionist/conflict explanation of deviance that emphasizes that the response to an act—not the behavior—determines deviance?
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Howard Becker
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The social constructionist perspective is most closely affiliated with which other sociological explanation of deviance?
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labeling theory
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Which conflict sociologist argues that the criminal justice system serves the interests of the powerful and that lawmaking is often an attempt by the powerful to coerce others into their own morality
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Richard Quinney
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Which sociologist coined the term “ethnic succession?”
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Daniel Bell

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