Chapter 7 questions Essay

question

____is based on the assumption that offenders who are detained in prison or are executed will be unable to commit additional crimes. a. Incapacitation b. Rehabilitation c. Retribution d. Deterrence
answer

a. Incapacitation
question

A _____is a behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctions. a. crime b. stigma c. cultural strain d. deviant act
answer

a. crime
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A socioeconomically disadvantaged teenager decides that she must resort to crime in order to buy some clother she wants. This illustrates: a. retreatism b. innovation c. rebellion d. ritualism
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b. innovation
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According to sociologist Edwin Sutherland, ____crime comprises illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs. a. corporate b. occupational (white-collar) c. political d. conventional (street)
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b. occupational (white collar)
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A bureaucrat pays so much attention to the rules that he loses sight of what the organization he works for is trying to accomplish. This illustrates: a. innovation b. rebellion c. retreatism d. ritualism
answer

d. ritualism
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__________ crime is a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit. a. Political b. Occupational (white collar) c. Corporate d. Organized
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d. organized
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From the __________, lower-income and minority women typically have fewer opportunities not only for education and good jobs, but also for “high end” criminal endeavors. a. Marxist (socialist) feminist approach b. liberal feminist approach c. conservative feminist approach d. radical feminist approach
answer

b. liberal feminist approach
question

According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, _______ refers to when people challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for achieving them and advocate an alternative set of goals or means. a. ritualism b. innovation c. retreatism d. rebellion
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d. rebellion
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A major strength of the rational choice theory of deviance is that it explains why high-risk youths do not constantly engage in delinquent acts. They have learned to balance risk against the potential for criminal gain in each situation. True False
answer

True
question

__________ imposes a penalty on the offender and is based on the premise that the punishment should fit the crime. The greater the degree of social harm, the more the offender should be punished. a. Incapacitation b. Rehabilitation c. Deterrence d. Retribution
answer

d. retribution
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__________ is any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs. a. Stigma b. Violence c. Crime d. Deviance
answer

d. Deviance
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According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, _______ refers to when people abandon both the approved goals and the approved means of achieving them. a. rebellion b. ritualism c. conformity d. retreatism
answer

d. retreatism
question

All of the following are considered “victimless” crimes EXCEPT: a. manslaughter b. illegal pornography c. illegal gambling d. prostitution
answer

a. manslaughter
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According to the functionalist perspective, deviance is universal because it serves all of the following important functions EXCEPT: a. preventing social chaos b. promoting social change c. clarifying rules d. uniting a group
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a. preventing social chaos
question

Crimes such as rape, homicide, and aggravated assault are examples of: a. differential association b. felonies c. intermediates d. misdemeanors
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b. felonies
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__________ crime refers to illegal acts committed by an organization’s employees on behalf of the organization and with its support. a. Political b. Corporate c. Occupational (white-collar) d. Conventional (street)
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b. Corporate
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A __________ is a minor crime that typically is punished by less than one year in jail. a. felony b. tort c. civil infraction d. misdemeanor
answer

d. misdemeanor
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__________ is any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed. a. Punishment b. Retribution c. Retaliation d. Societal revenge
answer

a. Punishment
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__________ crimes consist of actions of force or the threat of force against others, including murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. These crimes are probably the most anxiety-provoking of all criminal behavior. a. Violent b. Organized c. Morals d. Property
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a. Violent
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According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, _______ refers to when people accept society’s goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them. a. innovation b. conformity c. rebellion d. ritualism
answer

a. innovation
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According to sociologist Robert Merton’s __________ theory, people feel tension when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally-approved means of achieving those goals. The goals may be material possessions and money; the approved means may include an education and/or job. a. opportunity b. strain c. developmental d. conflict
answer

b. strain
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__________ crimes include burglary (breaking into private property to commit a serious crime), motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft (theft of property worth $50 or more), and arson. a. Felony b. Public order c. Status d. Property
answer

d. Property
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A __________ is a serious crime for which punishment typically ranges from more than a year’s imprisonment to death. a. tort b. felony c. civil infraction d. misdemeanor
answer

b. felony
question

According to functionalists, acts of civil disobedience (including lunch counter sit-ins and bus boycotts) exemplify which function of deviance? a. Deviance unites a group. b. Deviance clarifies rules. c. Deviance promotes social change. d. Deviance prevents social chaos.
answer

c. Deviance promotes social change.
question

A young woman graduates from high school with honors and attends a prestigious university, where she completes her degree. She gets a good job, she marries, and starts planning for the future. This woman’s behavior illustrates: a. innovation b. rejection c. conformity d. rebellion
answer

c. conformity

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