Chapter 7- LTM: Encoding, Retrieval, and Consolidation

Encoding
the process of acquiring information and transferring it into LTM
What are the two types of encoding?
maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal
Retrieval
the process of transferring information from LTM to working memory
Maintenance rehearsal
no consideration of meaning or making connections with other information
Elaborative rehearsal
provides an example of being able to remember something by considering the meaning or making connections to other information
Elaborative rehearsal of a word will LEAST likely be accomplished by
repeating it over and over
Levels of processing theory
early idea linking the type of encoding to retrieval
According to the levels of processing theory, memory durability depends on how information is
encoded
The elaborative rehearsal task of learning a word by using it in a sentence is generally most effective if the generated sentence is
complex
Depth of processing
distinguishes between shallow processing and deep processing
Shallow processing
involves little attention to meaning
What is an example of shallow processing?
questioning the feature of the word
Deep processing
involves close attention, focusing on the items meaning and relating it to something else
What is an example of deep processing?
asking if the word rhymes with another word
What is an example of the deepest processing?
fill in the blank that is in the sentence
To measure depth and depth what can’t you use?
performance and predicted performance
Paired-associate learning
a list of word pairs is presented
Self-reference effect
memory is better if you are asked to relate the word to yourself
Generation effect
memory for material is better when a person generates the material him- or herself, rather than passively receiving it.
Free recall
participant asked to recall the stimuli with no aid (Memorization)
Retrieval cue
a word or other stimulus that helps a person remember information stored in memory
What are the three factors that aid encoding?
create connections, active creation, and organization
Create connections
imagery and link to self
Active creation
generate information and testing
Organization
recall by groups, present in an organized way, meaningful framework
Bransford & Johnson (1972) did an experiment with organization about
one group got the picture first then the passage, another group got the passage first then the picture, the control group just got the passage
In Bransford & Johnson (1972) which group recalled more information?
the group that was given the picture first then the passage (the reason why is the definition to organization)
Practicing retrieval
testing following learning results in better memory than rereading material after learning
Encoding specificity
states that we encode information along with its context
Godden & Baddeley’s (1975) did a study with participants who studied underwater and on land. What did he find?
best recall occurred when encoding and retrieval occurred in the same location
State-dependent learning
learning that is associated with a particular internal state, such as mood or state of awareness
What is an example that demonstrates state-dependent learning
Although Emily doesn’t very often think about her first love, Steve, she can’t help getting caught up in happy memories when “their song” (the first song they danced to) plays on the radio.
Transfer-appropriate processing
better performance when the type of processing matches in encoding and retrieval
Consolidation
the process that transforms new memories from the fragile state, to a more permanent state
According to memory research, studying is most effective if study sessions are
short and across several days
Synaptic consolidation
takes place over minutes or hours, involves structural changes at synapses
Systems consolidation
takes place over months or even years, involves gradual reorganization of neural circuits within the brain
Donald Hebb proposed that memory is represented in the brain by structural changes in all of the following EXCEPT the
neurotransmitters
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation
Standard model of consolidation
retrieval depends on hippocampus during consolidation; after consolidation hippocampus is no longer needed
Multiple trace hypothesis: Reactivation
process in which the hippocampus replays the neural activity associated with memory
Where does memory occur in the brain?
medial temporal lobe; hippocampus, and perirhinal cortex
What can you do to force consolidation?
sleep
Retrograde amnesia
loss of memory before the injury
Anterograde amnesia
loss of memory after the injury
Your book explains that brief episodes of retrograde amnesia; e.g., the traumatic disruption of newly formed memories when a football player takes a hit to the head and can’t recall the last play before the hit; reflect
a failure of memory consolidation
Graded amnesia
amnesia tends to be most server for events that happened just before the injury and to become less severe for earlier events
Multiple trace model of consolidation
the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of episodic memories, even if they originated long ago
Reconsolidation
process of consolidating the information that is at the fragile state
Treatment of PTSD has benefitted from recent research on
reconsolidation for people who are suffering from this condition
Spacing effect
memory is better when studying at short periods of time verses long periods of time