Chapter 7- LTM: Encoding, Retrieval, and Consolidation

the process of acquiring information and transferring it into LTM

What are the two types of encoding?
maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal

the process of transferring information from LTM to working memory

Maintenance rehearsal
no consideration of meaning or making connections with other information

Elaborative rehearsal
provides an example of being able to remember something by considering the meaning or making connections to other information

Elaborative rehearsal of a word will LEAST likely be accomplished by
repeating it over and over

Levels of processing theory
early idea linking the type of encoding to retrieval

According to the levels of processing theory, memory durability depends on how information is

The elaborative rehearsal task of learning a word by using it in a sentence is generally most effective if the generated sentence is

Depth of processing
distinguishes between shallow processing and deep processing

Shallow processing
involves little attention to meaning

What is an example of shallow processing?
questioning the feature of the word

Deep processing
involves close attention, focusing on the items meaning and relating it to something else

What is an example of deep processing?
asking if the word rhymes with another word

What is an example of the deepest processing?
fill in the blank that is in the sentence

To measure depth and depth what can’t you use?
performance and predicted performance

Paired-associate learning
a list of word pairs is presented

Self-reference effect
memory is better if you are asked to relate the word to yourself

Generation effect
memory for material is better when a person generates the material him- or herself, rather than passively receiving it.

Free recall
participant asked to recall the stimuli with no aid (Memorization)

Retrieval cue
a word or other stimulus that helps a person remember information stored in memory

What are the three factors that aid encoding?
create connections, active creation, and organization

Create connections
imagery and link to self

Active creation
generate information and testing

recall by groups, present in an organized way, meaningful framework

Bransford & Johnson (1972) did an experiment with organization about
one group got the picture first then the passage, another group got the passage first then the picture, the control group just got the passage

In Bransford & Johnson (1972) which group recalled more information?
the group that was given the picture first then the passage (the reason why is the definition to organization)

Practicing retrieval
testing following learning results in better memory than rereading material after learning

Encoding specificity
states that we encode information along with its context

Godden & Baddeley’s (1975) did a study with participants who studied underwater and on land. What did he find?
best recall occurred when encoding and retrieval occurred in the same location

State-dependent learning
learning that is associated with a particular internal state, such as mood or state of awareness

What is an example that demonstrates state-dependent learning
Although Emily doesn’t very often think about her first love, Steve, she can’t help getting caught up in happy memories when “their song” (the first song they danced to) plays on the radio.

Transfer-appropriate processing
better performance when the type of processing matches in encoding and retrieval

the process that transforms new memories from the fragile state, to a more permanent state

According to memory research, studying is most effective if study sessions are
short and across several days

Synaptic consolidation
takes place over minutes or hours, involves structural changes at synapses

Systems consolidation
takes place over months or even years, involves gradual reorganization of neural circuits within the brain

Donald Hebb proposed that memory is represented in the brain by structural changes in all of the following EXCEPT the

Long-term potentiation (LTP)
enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation

Standard model of consolidation
retrieval depends on hippocampus during consolidation; after consolidation hippocampus is no longer needed

Multiple trace hypothesis: Reactivation
process in which the hippocampus replays the neural activity associated with memory

Where does memory occur in the brain?
medial temporal lobe; hippocampus, and perirhinal cortex

What can you do to force consolidation?

Retrograde amnesia
loss of memory before the injury

Anterograde amnesia
loss of memory after the injury

Your book explains that brief episodes of retrograde amnesia; e.g., the traumatic disruption of newly formed memories when a football player takes a hit to the head and can’t recall the last play before the hit; reflect
a failure of memory consolidation

Graded amnesia
amnesia tends to be most server for events that happened just before the injury and to become less severe for earlier events

Multiple trace model of consolidation
the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of episodic memories, even if they originated long ago

process of consolidating the information that is at the fragile state

Treatment of PTSD has benefitted from recent research on
reconsolidation for people who are suffering from this condition

Spacing effect
memory is better when studying at short periods of time verses long periods of time