Chapter 7: Classical Era Variations

Flashcard maker : Mary Moore
How did the history of Meroe and Axum reflect interaction with neighboring civilizations?
They both traded extensively with neighbors…. Axum’s location allowed for the civilization to utilize the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean for commerce with neighboring civilizations.
How does the experience of the Niger Valley challenge conventional notions of \”civilization\”?
Niger Valley civilizations were not part of some larger empire like Egypt, China, Rome or even Axum. Nor were they like city-states of Mesopotamia. They were cities without the larger, central government.
In what ways did the arrival of Bantu-speaking peoples stimulate cross-cultural interactions?
As the Bantu newcomers interacted with already established civilizations, the interaction changed both the Bantu civilization and the civilization being interacted with.
With what Eurasian civilizations might the Maya be compared?
The Mayan civilization resembled the competing city-states of ancient Mesopotamia or classical Greece.
In what ways did Teotihuancan shape the history of Mesoamerica?
The Teotihuacan had a core region of 10,00 square miles. The Teotihuacan had a powerful army in which it was used to take over some Mayan cities.
What kind of influence did Chavin exert in the Andes region?
The Chavin were located high in the Andes and situated on trade routes to both the coastal region to the west and the Amazon rain forest to the east.
What features of Moche life characterize it as a civilization?
The most accessible aspect of Moche life is their art. On ceramic pottery are painted with much detail pictures of noble lords and rulers, some had images of common life of the Moche people, while others had pictures of their gods.
In what ways were the histories of the Ancestral Pueblo and the Mound builders similar to each other, and how did they differ?
The Ancestral Pueblo and the Mound Builders were both able to create great architectures. They were both builders.
Capital of a flourishing kingdom in southern Nubia from the fourth century B.C.E. to the fourth century C.E.. In this period Nubian culture shows more independence from Egypt and the influence of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; defeated kingdom of Kush around 300 B.C.E. and succeeded by Ethiopia. Received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
Niger Valley civilization
a civilization that developed on the western interior of Africa, south of the Saharan desert. Key feature is that during the Classical period its political organization was almost totally devoid of central authority.
Bantu expansion
Named after Bantu language and culture. Migrated from Cameroon through the west coast to the east down to south Africa b4 500A.D. Earliest Africans in mass to move to the area. Used stone and iron implements. Produced more food to support villages and towns. Iron used to form ovens. Greater interaction among Africans with trade and more diversity.
Maya civilization
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.
First major metropolis in Mesoamerica, collapsed around 800 CE. It is most remembered for the gigantic \”pyramid of the sun\”.
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples. (p. 313)
Chaco Phenomenon
Ancestral Puebloan civilization that centered on the Great Houses of Chaco Canyon, ca. 800-1150 B.C.E.
Mound Builders/Cahokia
Members of any culture east of the Mississippi in what is now USA who built mounds of earth.
Cahokia- mound building center near St. Louis Missouri.
The histories of Africa and the Americas
during the classical era largely resemble those of Eurasia.\” Do you agree with this statement? Explain why or why not
Not exactly, each developed its own language sometimes related, sometimes distinct, from each other and had different social structures.
There were similarities but I wouldn’t say \”largely.\”
\”The particular cultures and societies of Africa and of the Americas discussed in this chapter developed largely in isolation
from one another.\” What evidence would
support this statement,and what might
challenge it?
Though isolated, it is clear that Mesoamerican civilization achieved some very impressive mathematical, architectural, engineering and calendar advances.
Africa: the cradle of human civilization, the Ethiopians (aka Cushites), as early as 15,000 BC, also occupying part of Asia.
Mesoamerica: nomads of Siberian origin, mixed with African (Mande) and Chinese settlers. One of the first distinguishable civilizations was that of the Olmec (from around 1200 BC), later gradually absorbed by the Maya.
What generated change in the histories of Africa and the Americas during the classical era?

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